Enhancing The Utilization Of ICT Among Business Education Students In Universities For Sustainable Entrepreneurship In South – East Of Nigeria

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Enhancing The Utilization Of ICT Among Business Education Students In Universities For Sustainable Entrepreneurship In South – East Of Nigeria


Abstract


This study, focused on enhancing the utilization of ict among business education students in universities for sustainable entrepreneurship in south – east of Nigeria, Ebonyi State university as case study. The study is was specifically focused on evaluating the government related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria; examining the institution Administration strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria; investigating the lecturers related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria and determining the students related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff, administration and students of Ebonyi state University. the study found that Information and communication technology is an indispensable tool that could enhance effective teaching and learning in Business Education programme. Therefore, it is important that all lecturers and students should be acquainted with relevant skills and competencies that ICT provides to the recipient. Adequate funding to purchase ICT facilities should be embarked upon by school authorities.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • 5.5 Suggestion for Further Study
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Teaching and learning are transformational activities which involve two major variables – teacher and student. In the teaching-learning process emphasis is on students and on increasing their potentials to contribute to educational excellence. In addition to their conventional roles as recipients, students are the raw materials for education.

The grandiloquent role of students as recipients and raw materials for education becomes a paradox when teachers are not grounded with the knowledge, skills, techniques and other wherewithal needed to transform these students who are raw materials into useful outputs. Therefore, teachers are seen as catalysts. As catalysts teachers are expected to cause a change in the behaviour of these students. A teacher who can act as an ideal catalyst is an authority on the subject he/she teaches, flexible in attitude, exemplary in conduct, easily approachable, controls and directs when necessary and goes out of the way to allow leadership acts to emerge from learners.

Teaching itself is a two way communication but learning is more important than teaching because if teaching does not result in learning, it is futile. This implies that any teaching which does not result in a change in the bahaviour of learners is not teaching at all. Thus, prima facie terms like “need-based” teaching are used to describe the type of teaching that can put learners on achievement track. Any teaching plan should therefore be a symbiosis of theoretical vigour with “hand on” practical application.

Business Education is education for and about business or training in business skills (Esene, 2012). Business Education according to Okoli (2010) is that aspect of the total educational programme that provides the knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes needed to perform effectively in the business world as a producer and/or consumer of goods and services that business offers. Business Education is an important part of general education which emphasises skill acquisition for office use. Business Education is a programme of instruction that consists of two parts, namely office education – a programme of vocation for office careers, and general Business Education – a programme which provides the recipients with competencies and skills needed in managing personal business affairs and using the services of the business world (Ezenwafor, 2012). An individual who receives training in Business Education can easily develop potentials for entrepreneurship pursuits especially in this era of economic melt down and unemployment (Ibeneme & Ikegwuani, 2010). Business Education which is offered at the universities and colleges of education is concerned mainly with the development of relevant and saleable skills and knowledge that would enable an individual to function effectively in the world of work (Onojetah, 2012). Business Education programme, according to the American Vocational Association (AVA, 1980), is a broad and comprehensive discipline whose instructional programme encompasses knowledge, skills, vocation and aptitude needed by all citizens in order to effectively manage their personal businesses and also function in the economic system.

This makes the utilisation of ICT by both lecturers and students in teaching and learning of Business Education in tertiary institution a serious episode. Federal republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) views tertiary education as the type of education given after secondary education in universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, monotechnics including those institutions offering correspondence courses. The goals of tertiary education is further highlighted by FRN to include contribution to national development through high level relevant manpower training; develop and inculcate proper values for the survival of the individual and society; acquisition of both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful members of the society, among others.

Unfortunately, graduates of Business Education in Tertiary Institutions having undergone reasonable period of teaching and learning processes come out of school without employable skills, thus, widening the unemployment that already at its chronic states in Nigeria.

The teaching and learning of Business Education requires the utilization of information and Communication Technology (ICT) for the inculcation of these skills especially to match pace with changes already experienced globally in the way both office work and business activities are carried out. The moment, the skill gap experienced among Business Education graduates in Nigerian tertiary institutions points to low utilisation of ICT.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Research findings by Nwaiwu (2009) reveals that Business Education students perform poorly in ICT courses and most Business Education graduates are not competent in ICT skills. This can negatively affect entrepreneurial ventures since they lack ICT skills to run businesses successfully. Onojetah (2012) reveals debilitating factors such as inadequate funding of ICT by government and school authorities, poor maintenance culture of ICT facilities, use of obsolete computers and prior method of content delivery. The teaching of ICT is theoretical rather than practical in most universities in Nigeria. Egboka (2012) also reveals that lecturers are not provided with ICT trainers to guide them in supervised practice until they are comfortable with using ICT on their own, lecturers are not provided with ICT educational resources that are directly related to the curriculum and assessment methods used to evaluate education outcomes and that the universities have not made their lecturers aware of the rationale for teaching ICT. The poor condition of teaching ICT in Nigeria universities cannot help the graduates to possess the requisite skills that will enable perform effectively in their entrepreneurial ambitions.

Teaching and learning process in Business Education in Nigeria tertiary institutions is still at it crudest form. Both lecturers and students are still relying on textbooks information and lecturers class verbalisation due to the general poor attitude towards innovation. Both lecturers and students believe that government has neglected education. Consequently, it is observed that many Business Education lecturers and students are yet to fully utilise ICT for teaching and learning. Thus, calling for researches in this direction.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to critically evaluate the strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among business education students in universities for sustainable entrepreneurship in south-east of Nigeria. Specifically, the study aims to;

  1. Evaluate the government related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria.
  2. Examine the institution Administration strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria
  3. Investigate the lecturers related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria
  4. Determine the students related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are raised to guide the study.

  1. What are the government related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria.
  2. What are the institution Administration strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria
  3. What are the lecturers related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria
  4. What are the students related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria

1.5 Significance of the Study

The significance of a study is to announce and indicate those who are to benefit from the research findings. Therefore, it‘s hoped that this study will be of great benefit to federal and state government, National Commission for Colleges of Education, business education lecturers, students and other researchers.

The result of the study will be beneficial to the federal and states government as an employer of labour in that it will tackle the problem of obsolete and outdated office equipment, poor working condition, poor infrastructure, and inadequate network.

It will assist the government to evaluate the implementation of ICT in teaching and learning in universities in South-eastern Nigeria and make necessary recommendations to the Federal Ministry of Education. The outcome of the study will provoke business education lecturers in Colleges of Education to acquired Information and Communication Technology skills relevant in teaching business education courses and the need for the lecturers to attend conference, seminar and workshops to update their knowledge. Also, the outcomes of the study will be beneficial to students of Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) as the study will unravel Information and Communication Technology skills needed by business education graduates from Colleges of Education. The result will provide guide and direct the students to acquired saleable skills that will give them competitive advantage in the world of work.

In addition, intending researcher will find the work useful for further studies in this area. Also, Management of different Colleges of Education can used the result of this research to provide adequate Information and Communication Technology facilities for teaching and learning business education in their various institutions.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study was delimited to all the universities both Federal and State in south-east geo- political zone, Nigeria. Within these universities, the study was equally restricted to all business education lecturers and students requiring ICT skills such as internet browsing, Microsoft word, power point and Microsoft Excel. This was because they are direct beneficiaries involved in using Information and Communication Technology in teaching business education courses. This is in line with National Universities Commission minimum standards. Also, the two beneficiaries was delimited to the use of questionnaire which was administered by the researcher as instrument for collecting data.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

i. Information Communication Technologies:

In this study, this refers to the computer and internet connections used to handle and communicate information for learning purpose.

ii. E-learning:

This is a learning program that makes use of an information network, such as the internet, an intranet (LAN) or extranet (WAN) whether wholly or in part, for course delivery, interaction and/or facilitation. Web-based learning is a subset of e-learning and refers to learning using an internet browser such as the moodle, blackboard or internet explorer(Tinio,2002)

iii. Blended Learning:

Refers to learning models that combines the face-to-face classroom practice with e-learning solutions. For example, a teacher may facilitate student learning in class contact and uses the module (modular object oriented dynamic learning environment ) to facilitate out of class learning.

iv. Constructivism:

This is a paradigm of learning that assumes learning as a process . Individuals “construct” meaning or new knowledge based on their prior knowledge and experience (Johanssen, 2004). Educators also call it the emerging pedagogy in contrast to the long existing behaviourism view of learning.

v. Learner-centred Learning Environment:

This is a learning environment that pays attention to skills, attitudes and beliefs that learners bring with them to the learning process where its impetus is derived from a paradigm of learning called constructivism. In the context of this article, it means student’s personal engagement to the learning task using the computer and or the internet connection.


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on enhancing the utilization of ict among business education students in universities for sustainable entrepreneurship in south – east of nigeria, Ebonyi State university as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on enhancing the utilization of ict among business education students in universities for sustainable entrepreneurship in south – east of Nigeria, Ebonyi State university as case study. The study is was specifically focused on evaluating the government related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria; examining the institution Administration strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria; investigating the lecturers related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria and determining the students related strategies for enhancing the utilization of ICT among Business Education students in universities for sustainable Entrepreneurship in South East of Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff, administration and students of Ebonyi state University.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
Information and communication technology is an indispensable tool that could enhance effective teaching and learning in Business Education programme. Therefore, it is important that all lecturers and students should be acquainted with relevant skills and competencies that ICT provides to the recipient. Adequate funding to purchase ICT facilities should be embarked upon by school authorities.


5.4 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made by the study.

  1. Business Education lecturers should undergo training and retraining in ICT programme to have more skills and competencies.
  2. Adequate ICT facilities should be provided by university authorities to enable lecturers carry out their teaching of ICT effectively.
  3. Constant electricity supply by university authorities to help generate power for computer equipment and gadgets.
  4. Adequate qualified ICT staff should be employed by university authorities for enhancing the teaching of ICT in Business Education department.
  5. University authorities should purchase modern ICT equipment for enhancing effective teaching of ICT.
  6. ICT facilities should be maintained regularly by university authorities.

5.5 Suggestion for Further Study

A study of this nature cannot cover every area hence; there is the need for further studies.
It is on this basis that the researcher suggested that further research can be conducted as:

  1. Extension of similar studies to others zones of the country.
  2. Determine the influence of ICT in teaching and learning business education in the Nigeria universities.

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