Enhancement Of Good Governance Through Free And Fair Election (A Case Of 2007 Till 2011 Nigeria Democracy)


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Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Dedication


To my senior mentor, the HOLY SPIRIT, my source and suppliers of all my dreams for allowing this golden seed in me.

To my beloved Rev. Mrs. Edward Nwanosike and my brother Mr. Chimezie Nwoke.


Acknowledgement


My greatest thanks go to the God Almighty king of kings, and lord of lords who made this research work to be executed without any hook up.

It is impossible to accomplish an academic task of this nature without incurring some intellectual debts, in recognition of this fact therefore, I acknowledge mi indebtedness to all those authors whose works provided some materials for such author are listed in the reference.

I am grateful to my supervisor Mrs. Amadi C. J. that took time to go through my work.

I also thank my lecturers in the department of Public Administration for their academic and expect guidance both in class and personal discussion with them.

Am grateful to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Nwoke for their contributed towards my academic years.
I also thank my brothers Mr Chimezie Nwoke, Chinedu Nwoke, Rev/Mrs Edward Nwanosike my inlaw, Chibuike Nwoke, Chidiebere Nwoke, Nnamdi Nwoke. For their contribution towards my school.

I want to also thank my uncle and wife Mr. and Mrs Eleazer Nnabuihe, and Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell Nnabuihe for their help.

I am grateful to my course mates, Bro. Michael Nemba for jointly articulating the subject matters of ways of enhancing democratic governance in Nigeria on which the research study is based. My thanks also go to my friends Mr. Samuel and Miss Endurance Nwogu for their help towards my project work.

My thanks goes to my grandfather Mr. Jonathan Nnabuihe for his prayer towards my academic years.
I will never forget my grandmother Late Florence Nnabuihe for her prayers & help when she was alive, may her soul rest in peace Amen.

My indebtedness goes to my beloved sister, sister Leticia Adindu and all, who in one way or the other contributed to the success of this work. My prayer is that God will reward each of you abundantly.


Abstract


The work begins by identifying the major problems Nigeria democratic governance from the colonial to civilian military. It highlights some of these problems to include political rigging, voters initiation, political killings incessant assassination of individual(s) lives, appointment of mediocre over government affairs, politics of Godfathers, crude and money politics, lack of education and untimely arrival of electoral boxed and materials to each polling centers and units, poor condition of lives and property.

It agrees that good governance can only be achieved with democratic principles. As a form of recommendation, the work state for the democratic principle to be enshrined and effectively practiced in Nigeria, all stake holders e.g. politicians, voters, the military, electoral commission, tribunals the court non-governmental organizations (N G O’s) civilizing common objective.


Table Of Contents


  • Title page
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 introduction 1
  • 1.1 background of the study 1
  • 1.2 statement of the problem 3
  • 1.3 Objective of the study 5
  • 1.4 Research question 5
  • 1.5 Statement of hypothesis 5
  • 1.6 Significance of the study 6
  • 1.7 Scope of the study 6
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study 7
  • 1.9 Definition of terms 8

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review 10
  • 2.1 Introduction 10
  • 2.2 Politics and governance in pre-colonial Hausa and Fulani tribes 10
  • 2.3 Politics and Governance in pre-colonial Yoruba tribes 11
  • 2.4 Politics and governance in pre-colonial 1960 tribes 12
  • 2.5 Nigeria political development during colonial Era. 13
  • 2.6 The British direct system of leadership 14
  • 2.7 Factors that contributed to the failure of direct rule in Nigeria 14
  • 2.8 The British indirect rule system in Nigeria 15
  • 2.9 Post colonial Era in Nigeria first republic administration 17
  • 2.10 Military rule in Nigeria from 1966-1975 19
  • 2.11 Civilian transitional government in the second Republic of Nigeria 21
  • 2.12 Military rule in Nigeria from 1983-1998 22
  • 2.13 Civilian transition in Nigeria from 1999 23
  • 2.14 The challenges facing Nigeria democratic governance from 199, 29th may 2007 till 2011 25
  • 2.15 The needs for enhancing democratic governance in Nigeria 28
  • 2.16 Causes of electoral fraud in 2007 till 2011 Nigeria general election 30
  • 2.17 Agents of electoral fraud in 2007 till 2011 general electoral 31
  • 2.18 Ways of enhancing democratic election in Nigeria 33
  • Reference 43

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research design and method 47
  • 3.1 Introduction 47
  • 3.2 Research design 47
  • 3.3 Sources and method of data collection 47
  • 3.4 Population and sampling size 48
  • 3.5 Sample techniques 48
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 49
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis 49

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 presentation and analysis of data 51
  • 4.1 Introduction 51
  • 4.2 presentation of data 51
  • 4.3 Analysis of data 52
  • 4.4 Test of hypothesis 61
  • 4.5 Interpretation of result 63

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 65
  • 5.1 Introduction 65
  • 5.2 Summary of findings 65
  • 5.3 Conclusion 66
  • 5.4 Recommendation 67
  • References 70
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix II
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Nigeria is a federated state with multi famous and multiplicity of ethnic groups whose norms and societal values varies in a book titled Authority in government:Nigeria and world politics, Nwankwo (1992) opined that a federated state is that type of government system where authority and power are shared (exclusively, concurrently and residually). Between two (2) levels of government namely, the central (national) government and component states government.

Nigeria as the name implies is the epitome structure of the British colonies starting from 1914 amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorate into one legislative council till 1960 when Nigeria gained its political independence and up till today. Through, the system is not that development oriented on the host country rather, for Europeans economic exploitative purpose.

In other words, the Nigeria effects to ensure development and good governance was masterminded on the constitutional conference held at London on may 10th and ended on 19th, 1960. It was as this confab that Nigeria elites sent a communiqué on issues discussed to the common wealth which on the other hand lead to Nigeria independence on 1st October, 1960

Historically, it was quite clear that since inception of leadership on 1st October 1960 till 2007 and general election, democratic governance of Nigeria has been in a like-up for instance, Nigeria has experienced a lot of pitfalls like insecurity of individual lives, incessant assassination, religious rivalries, bribery and corruptions abuse of power, trust position, politics of Godfathers, appointment of mediocrity in piloting public affairs, Falsification of electoral results by INEC officers, intimidation of voter etc. also, the administration till data, has not ensured a notable achievement in the country due to no emerged government had established effective ways of checkmating the public officers in piloting the public affairs.

It was therefore noted that, Nigeria since 1960 till data has experienced Nine (9) military plotted coups, which ruin the democratic governance of the country. The worse is that, the exercise does not significantly altered the structure of Nigeria national development or provide panacea for the stoppage of electoral malpractices.

However, this research work is aimed at examining fulgamental ways through which democratic governance can be enhanced in Nigeria with the view of free and fair election.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

It has always be argued that there has never been any free and fair election in the history of Nigeria elections of which that of 2007 and 2011 was inclusive for example, four (4) successful elections-federal election crisis 1964, Western Nigeria election 1965 General election riggings 1983, and unsuccessful implementation of the transition programme June 12, 1993 presidential election.

More so, there was an opinion that the election was engulfed with political turmoil, incessant assassination of lives and properties, Godfather politics, insecurity of ballot boxes to be filled with ballot papers by party faithfully, falsification of electoral results by the INEC officers, lateness in arrival of ballot elections materials to different poling centers and voters, intimidations during voting process. the political killings of Nigerians for instance, the killing of Chief Anthony Olufunso Williams, PDP state governorship aspirants in Lagos State, Dr Ayodji Daramola PDP state governorship aspirant in Ekiti State, and among others.

Although the tribunal is set –up under electoral Act to adjudicate over vote rigging and other electional malpractice in the country but the fact is that, sentiments and personal prejudices often occur in their verdicts beyond the tribunal verdicts the court (Appllate court) may quash the judgment passed by the tribunal in favour of a particular party. Thus when such verdicts are passed, it may lead to state of anarchy and mistrust on the government by the masses.

In addition, any administration whose election is not free and fair, as experience had shown, the democratic governance of regime will generally lead to:

  1. No sentiment of popular consent and participation in public affairs. The people feel that they have not been consulted, and have not indicated their wishes in the board field of national policy and are therefore, not willing to accept the legitimacy of the power exercise by the electoral system.
  2. It will also be impossible for one government to succeed another in an orderly manner if it occurs, it must be with violence or bloodshed.
  3. It leads to irresponsibility of the government to the people politicians dare become too out of touch with public opinion.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The bedrock of establishing every transitional civilization is to enhance good governance. Therefore, it became pertinent to note that no democratic dispensation stays long without a rooted free and fair election. It was based on this assertion or hindsight that this research work intends to achieve.


1.4 Research Question

In the effort to accomplish this research work perfectly, the researcher presents the following question.

  1. Was 2007 and 2011 general election free and fair?
  2. What are the causes of election malpractice?
  3. What are the resultant effects of election malpractices?
  4. What are the importance when election is free and fair?

1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis

  1. Hi: Free and fair election is necessary for achieving democracy in Nigeria
    Ho: Free and fair election is not necessary for achieving democracy in Nigeria
  2. Hi: The level of attainment of good governance in any democratic dispensation depends on the type of government institutionalized
    Ho: The level of attainment of good governance in any democratic dispensation does not depend on the type of government institutionalized.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The significance of the study is principal to the effect that, it will add to the body of existing literature on government and politics of Nigeria

Secondly, the findings or investigation will go a long way in restricting the pattern of Nigeria politics and ensure national inauguration and development.

Thirdly, it will also provide useful information and data for students researchers and practitioners of political science, public administration and other social sciences.


1.7 Scope Of The Study

The straly primarily focuses on ways of enhancing democratic governance in Nigeria through a free and fair election.

The study covers all the areas that may foster solution on how to ensure good governance and bring panacea to oval malpractices and other impediments that affects transitional governance in Nigeria.


1.8 Limitation Of The Study

The researcher would have carried out a more intensive elaborate and exhaustive study on the subject matter, but due to some factors like finance, time poor attitude of the respondents etc. the study was limited.

Finance:

The researcher was faced with financial challenges as she has no tangible source of income as a student. By this can conclude that without money it is impossible to achieve anything.

Time:

The researcher was limited by time factor. There was no enough time allocated for the submission of the project work in chapters for approval.

Poor attitude of the respondents:

Some of the respondents which were the suppliers of data required for the project work were reluctant in providing the answers to the questionnaires issued to them.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

1. Democratic Government:

A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly via a system of representation usually involving periodically held free and fair election

2. Free and fair election:

This is a type of election where a voter is free to cast vote according to his/her wish without any intimidation, harassment, coercion or inducement.

3. Political Turmoil:

A state of political instability or condition of extreme confusion agitation or commotion in the state.

4. Assassination:

To murder by sudden or secret attack usually for impersonal reason.

5. Mediocrity:

The quality or state of being mediocre by elected officer especially in piloting the public affairs.

6. Policy:

Law or statement of action it also referred as a highly diverse set of activities or decisions.

7. Politics:

Politics derived its name from the Greek word ‘Polis’ which means ‘city’ it is the authoritative allocation of values within a political system, Easton (1971) in other word, it refers to the authoritative determination of who get what how and when.

8. Anarchy:

A state of disorder due to lack of government or control. It was originated from the Greek word ‘an-arkhos’ which means without ruler.

9. Rigging:

To manipulate or control an election usually by deceptive or dish ones means.

10. INEC:

it is an acronym, which refers to independent
national electoral commission

11. Violence:

it means actions or behaviour involving
Physical force intended to hurt, damage or kill. It can be also refers as element feeling or expression which are often destructive and furious.

12. Verdict:

A formal design made by a tribunal or jury in a court of law as to whether a person is innocent or guilty. It can be also refers as an opinion or judgment made after testing or trying validity of truthfulness of a person by an authorized adjucator over a case.

13. Communique:

It is referred as positive papers that was summarized on the main power and are resolution reached at the end of any conference, seminar or symposium by selected key members of panels.

14 Politicking:

It referred as political activity that takes place in the country.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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