Enhancement Of Good Governance Through Free And Fair Election (A Case Of 2007 Till 2011 Nigeria Democracy)
The work begins by identifying the major problems Nigeria democratic governance from the colonial to civilian military. It highlights some of these problems to include political rigging, voters initiation, political killings incessant assassination of individual(s) lives, appointment of mediocre over government affairs, politics of Godfathers, crude and money politics, lack of education and untimely arrival of electoral boxed and materials to each polling centers and units, poor condition of lives and property.
It agrees that good governance can only be achieved with democratic principles. As a form of recommendation, the work state for the democratic principle to be enshrined and effectively practiced in Nigeria, all stake holders e.g. politicians, voters, the military, electoral commission, tribunals the court non-governmental organizations (N G O’s) civilizing common objective.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of content
- 1.1 background of the study
- 1.2 statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research question
- 1.5 Statement of hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 Limitation of the study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Politics and governance in pre-colonial Hausa and Fulani tribes
- 2.3 Politics and Governance in pre-colonial Yoruba tribes
- 2.4 Politics and governance in pre-colonial 1960 tribes
- 2.5 Nigeria political development during colonial Era.
- 2.6 The British direct system of leadership
- 2.7 Factors that contributed to the failure of direct rule in Nigeria
- 2.8 The British indirect rule system in Nigeria
- 2.9 Post colonial Era in Nigeria first republic administration
- 2.10 Military rule in Nigeria from 1966-1975
- 2.11 Civilian transitional government in the second Republic of Nigeria
- 2.12 Military rule in Nigeria from 1983-1998
- 2.13 Civilian transition in Nigeria from 1999
- 2.14 The challenges facing Nigeria democratic governance from 199, 29th may 2007 till 2011
- 2.15 The needs for enhancing democratic governance in Nigeria
- 2.16 Causes of electoral fraud in 2007 till 2011 Nigeria general election
- 2.17 Agents of electoral fraud in 2007 till 2011 general electoral
- 2.18 Ways of enhancing democratic election in Nigeria
3.0 Research Design and Method
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Sources and method of data collection
- 3.4 Population and sampling size
- 3.5 Sample techniques
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 presentation of data
- 4.3 Analysis of data
- 4.4 Test of hypothesis
- 4.5 Interpretation of result
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
- Appendix 1
- Appendix II
1.1 Background Of The Study
Nigeria is a federated state with multi famous and multiplicity of ethnic groups whose norms and societal values varies in a book titled Authority in government: Nigeria and world politics, Nwankwo (1992) opined that a federated state is that type of government system where authority and power are shared (exclusively, concurrently and residually). Between two (2) levels of government namely, the central (national) government and component states government.
Nigeria as the name implies is the epitome structure of the British colonies starting from 1914 amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorate into one legislative council till 1960 when Nigeria gained its political independence and up till today. Through, the system is not that development oriented on the host country rather, for Europeans economic exploitative purpose.
In other words, the Nigeria effects to ensure development and good governance was masterminded on the constitutional conference held at London on may 10th and ended on 19th, 1960. It was as this confab that Nigeria elites sent a communiqué on issues discussed to the common wealth which on the other hand lead to Nigeria independence on 1st October, 1960
Historically, it was quite clear that since inception of leadership on 1st October 1960 till 2007 and general election, democratic governance of Nigeria has been in a like-up for instance, Nigeria has experienced a lot of pitfalls like insecurity of individual lives, incessant assassination, religious rivalries, bribery and corruptions abuse of power, trust position, politics of Godfathers, appointment of mediocrity in piloting public affairs, Falsification of electoral results by INEC officers, intimidation of voter etc. also, the administration till data, has not ensured a notable achievement in the country due to no emerged government had established effective ways of checkmating the public officers in piloting the public affairs.
It was therefore noted that, Nigeria since 1960 till data has experienced Nine (9) military plotted coups, which ruin the democratic governance of the country. The worse is that, the exercise does not significantly altered the structure of Nigeria national development or provide panacea for the stoppage of electoral malpractices.
However, this research work is aimed at examining fulgamental ways through which democratic governance can be enhanced in Nigeria with the view of free and fair election.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
It has always be argued that there has never been any free and fair election in the history of Nigeria elections of which that of 2007 and 2011 was inclusive for example, four (4) successful elections-federal election crisis 1964, Western Nigeria election 1965 General election riggings 1983, and unsuccessful implementation of the transition programme June 12, 1993 presidential election.
More so, there was an opinion that the election was engulfed with political turmoil, incessant assassination of lives and properties, Godfather politics, insecurity of ballot boxes to be filled with ballot papers by party faithfully, falsification of electoral results by the INEC officers, lateness in arrival of ballot elections materials to different poling centers and voters, intimidations during voting process. the political killings of Nigerians for instance, the killing of Chief Anthony Olufunso Williams, PDP state governorship aspirants in Lagos State, Dr Ayodji Daramola PDP state governorship aspirant in Ekiti State, and among others.
Although the tribunal is set –up under electoral Act to adjudicate over vote rigging and other electional malpractice in the country but the fact is that, sentiments and personal prejudices often occur in their verdicts beyond the tribunal verdicts the court (Appllate court) may quash the judgment passed by the tribunal in favour of a particular party. Thus when such verdicts are passed, it may lead to state of anarchy and mistrust on the government by the masses.
In addition, any administration whose election is not free and fair, as experience had shown, the democratic governance of regime will generally lead to:
- No sentiment of popular consent and participation in public affairs. The people feel that they have not been consulted, and have not indicated their wishes in the board field of national policy and are therefore, not willing to accept the legitimacy of the power exercise by the electoral system.
- It will also be impossible for one government to succeed another in an orderly manner if it occurs, it must be with violence or bloodshed.
- It leads to irresponsibility of the government to the people politicians dare become too out of touch with public opinion.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The bedrock of establishing every transitional civilization is to enhance good governance. Therefore, it became pertinent to note that no democratic dispensation stays long without a rooted free and fair election. It was based on this assertion or hindsight that this research work intends to achieve.
1.4 Research Question
In the effort to accomplish this research work perfectly, the researcher presents the following question.
- Was 2007 and 2011 general election free and fair?
- What are the causes of election malpractice?
- What are the resultant effects of election malpractices?
- What are the importance when election is free and fair?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
- Hi: Free and fair election is necessary for achieving democracy in Nigeria
Ho: Free and fair election is not necessary for achieving democracy in Nigeria
- Hi: The level of attainment of good governance in any democratic dispensation depends on the type of government institutionalized
Ho: The level of attainment of good governance in any democratic dispensation does not depend on the type of government institutionalized.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The significance of the study is principal to the effect that, it will add to the body of existing literature on government and politics of Nigeria
Secondly, the findings or investigation will go a long way in restricting the pattern of Nigeria politics and ensure national inauguration and development.
Thirdly, it will also provide useful information and data for students researchers and practitioners of political science, public administration and other social sciences.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The straly primarily focuses on ways of enhancing democratic governance in Nigeria through a free and fair election.
The study covers all the areas that may foster solution on how to ensure good governance and bring panacea to oval malpractices and other impediments that affects transitional governance in Nigeria.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
The researcher would have carried out a more intensive elaborate and exhaustive study on the subject matter, but due to some factors like finance, time poor attitude of the respondents etc. the study was limited.
The researcher was faced with financial challenges as she has no tangible source of income as a student. By this can conclude that without money it is impossible to achieve anything.
The researcher was limited by time factor. There was no enough time allocated for the submission of the project work in chapters for approval.
Poor attitude of the respondents:
Some of the respondents which were the suppliers of data required for the project work were reluctant in providing the answers to the questionnaires issued to them.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
1. Democratic Government:
A government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly via a system of representation usually involving periodically held free and fair election
2. Free and fair election:
This is a type of election where a voter is free to cast vote according to his/her wish without any intimidation, harassment, coercion or inducement.
3. Political Turmoil:
A state of political instability or condition of extreme confusion agitation or commotion in the state.
To murder by sudden or secret attack usually for impersonal reason.
The quality or state of being mediocre by elected officer especially in piloting the public affairs.
Law or statement of action it also referred as a highly diverse set of activities or decisions.
Politics derived its name from the Greek word ‘Polis’ which means ‘city’ it is the authoritative allocation of values within a political system, Easton (1971) in other word, it refers to the authoritative determination of who get what how and when.
A state of disorder due to lack of government or control. It was originated from the Greek word ‘an-arkhos’ which means without ruler.
To manipulate or control an election usually by deceptive or dish ones means.
it is an acronym, which refers to independent
national electoral commission
it means actions or behaviour involving
Physical force intended to hurt, damage or kill. It can be also refers as element feeling or expression which are often destructive and furious.
A formal design made by a tribunal or jury in a court of law as to whether a person is innocent or guilty. It can be also refers as an opinion or judgment made after testing or trying validity of truthfulness of a person by an authorized adjucator over a case.
It is referred as positive papers that was summarized on the main power and are resolution reached at the end of any conference, seminar or symposium by selected key members of panels.
It referred as political activity that takes place in the country.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
This chapter summarizes draws conclusion 2007 to 2011 general election through free and fair election and makes recommendation enhancing good governance in Nigeria of finding a mere statement meaning. It is therefore necessary to enhancing good governance.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
In summary, it can be deduced from the study that, Nigeria since independence 1960 till 2007 and 2011 general election, democratic governance had not been free and fair.
Based on the analysis of data collected the following were discovered to be the main problems.
– Political instabilities and election rigging crude and money politics, intimidation of voters, political killings and assassinations, appointment of mediocre, politics of Godfathers lack of education and information dissemination to the masses, untimely arrival of electoral boxes and materials to each polling centers and units, ineptitudes, bribery and corruption of the citizens and the government apparatus or arrival of electoral boxes and material, no proper monitoring of electoral process by INEC and external observers in Nigeria democracy. Officers, abuse of power, trust and position and illegal fillings of ballot boxes with ballot papers.
Although, the democratic governance in Nigeria had faced the above challenged, the opinions from the respondents entails that the situation can be revamp if care are taken to solve the above-identified problems.
From the research exposition so far, it has been observed that Nigeria democratic governance had been is shamble due to the problems that engulfed its administration, which was caused by some factor such as political, economic and social.
For the sustenance of democracy, the citizens must learn and carry certain habits, traditions attitudes based on norms and culture which should includes obedience to and respect for the constitution, avoidance demagogues and kleptomanias politics and integrating the spirit of patriotism.
In addition, it is quite essential to state that administration without ground norm of effective and efficient leadership can not enshrined good democratic governance into the system.
Based on this, Nigeria democracy should embraces the following principles periodic, free and fair election, political competition and participatory mode universal adult suffrage, separation of powers with checks and balances, truly representative government, constitutionalism and independence of the judicature so as to project the national image and territorial integrity of the country both domestic and international scene.
Based on the research findings, it is pertinent to make certain recommendations towards enhancing Nigeria present democratic governance. The recommendation serves as a foot print to be followed by the INEC officers, courts tribunals, citizens and politicians. The following recommendations include:
- The electoral bodies (INEC tribunals and court) should be truly independent and exercise their duties and responsibilities without fear of favour.
- Judicial adjudication support should be given to INEC to secure the integrity of the electoral process and thereby ensuring INEC important.
- The INEC should be in favour with the general public and the media houses so as to enlighten and educate the masses on the importance of country’s election to be free and fair in doing this, INEC should organize seminars, conference, symposium and local visitation in different local government areas.
- All local state and federal elections must be screened from any or all parts criminal activities or conduct. Candidates with such records must be disqualified and bared or prohibited for electoral office for a minimum of 25 years.
- The appointment of INEC chairman should be appointed by the chief of justice so as to ameliorate bribery, corruption, favoritism prejudice and godfathers.
INEC funding should come directly from the consolidated revenue.
- There should be a clear assurance of independent by INEC officials before during and after elections in the country.
- INEC should make sure that the ballots boxes and materials for election arrived at each polling unit before the election time.
- The government should provide proper and adequate training for security and law enforcement agents assigned by elections duties, thereby ensuring impartial, adequate and visible security throughout the entire process. Such training should include examples and specific consequences under the law when they break the law by their actions before, during and) or after the period of their assignment.
- At election time, INEC should speedily and efficiently release the result of all election at various levels, possibly polling stations by verified for accuracy and uncover any signs of possible doctoring at the source.
- Local and international observers should be portended and allowed to freely observe and from opinion where discrepancies occur and their reports should be looked into by special election tribunals and INEC the result of the election should be posted immediately on the ‘web’ the same manner and for the same recessions.
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