The Use Of English Language In Junior Secondary Schools In Osun State.

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The Use Of English Language In Junior Secondary Schools In Osun State.


Abstract


The study investigated the use of English language in junior secondary schools in Osun State The study examined the factors influencing the implementation of English Language curriculum among school types in selected Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Four objectives, four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study comprised 660 teachers. A sample size of 403 teachers was used for the study which represents 61 percent of the population. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire designed by the researchers. The instrument was validated by three experts and test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient of 0.85 was calculated as the reliability. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 5% level of significance. Findings of the study shows that, schools in the urban and rural areas stick to the implementation of English Language curriculum, private schools do not engage qualified teachers, public secondary schools ensure the implementation of English Language and Boarding schools do well in implementation of English Language curriculum than Day schools. The researchers recommended that Urban and Rural schools should strive hard to improve their practice in implementing English Language Curriculum, Private and Public schools should ensure implementation of English Language curriculum, Day and Boarding Schools should implement English Language Curriculum and Mixed and Single Schools should as well implement English Language Curriculum.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Schools are established primarily for teaching and learning. School is an educational institution where people of different ages acquire education. Examples of some institutions are pre-primary schools, primary schools, secondary schools (Mkpa, 2013) [11]. They provide a large variety of learning environments and learning spaces. School types range from public to private schools. Secondary schools in Nigeria irrespective of their types are expected to function in accordance with the attainment of the national education curriculum. As such, students are expected to pass their final examination as a proof of academic performance. In actualizing educational achievement of students, the Federal Ministry of Education in the National Policy on Education (2013) articulated what the curriculum of the various levels of education should be in Nigeria. This includes the English Language curriculum for senior secondary schools.

Onwuka (2014) [18] posited that curriculum is a total experience with which the school deals with, in educating the young people. Also, Mkpa (2013) [11] sees curriculum as a vehicle through which the school strives towards the achievement of educational goals; be it those of the national, local government or even the community schools. The content of the English Language for example, at all levels of education consists of the four language skills which include reading, writing, speaking and listening. These skills consist of vocabulary and comprehension, summary, grammar, oral English, lexis and structure, essay and letter writing. It is based on this content that different schemes and topics for different classes are developed. Baldeh (2014) and Otagburuagu (2012) [20] stated that language is a vehicle ofcommunication. Curriculum is one of the concepts that are mostly used when issues concerning the school are discussed. This is as a result of the importance of curriculum in the school system and the society at large (Jeremiah and Alamina, 2017) [9] . Curriculum implementation entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study. The putting of the curriculum into practice requires an implementation agent. The teacher is identified as one of the agents in the curriculum implementation process. Implementation takes place as the learner acquires the planned or intended experiences, skills, knowledge, ideas, values and attitude that are aimed at enabling the same learner to function effectively in the society. The teacher, the learner, teaching and learning materials, the teaching environment, as well as the school management all constitute major players at the implementation stage. This is why curriculum implementation is seen as the daily activities of school management and classroom teacher in the pursuit of the achievement of the objectives of the school curriculum.

Obeta (2014) [14] explained that curriculum involves all the process taken to ensure that as individual leaner is passing through the school, the school is also passing through the leaner. Professionally speaking, Tanner and Tanner (1975) [22], as cited by Okoro (2015) [17] saw curriculum as planned and guided learning experience and intended learning outcome, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experience under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence. Curriculum also involves all the experiences a student garners in school under the tutelage of a teacher. It is the total learning activities oreducative experiences which an educational institution offers, through its education programmes designed to meet specific objectives.

Amuzo (2017) [4] in his study on the relationship between availability of expert teachers and implementation of secondary school curriculum in Nigeria found that quality and quantity of teachers significantly affect the implementation of curriculum in Nigeria schools; especially, at the secondary school level. Nwiyi and Uriah (2017) [12] in their study also discovered that teachers in secondary schools are inadequate and unqualified in most cases and as such, implementation of the curriculum becomes difficult as some did not go through teachers’ training institutions. They observed that most teachers came into the teaching profession as the last resort due to lack of job, and cannot render or offer quality services; hence implementation of the curriculum is hampered. Offorma (2015) [15] opined that the vocational and technical subjects are not effectively implemented as most of the subjects are not offered due to lack of teachers and workshops for practical work, and further noted that where there are teachers, the delivery is usually theorized because of lack of competence on the part of the teachers.

English Language has been one of the core subjects in Nigeria secondary school curriculum. Kedcity (2010) [110] unraveled that the aim of English Language curriculum is to (i) broaden and deepen the language competences of students through basic education, (ii) develop the students’ interest and confidence in the studying of English Language and also gain mastery of the subject matter; (iii) expand the students’ knowledge on the understanding of various cultures in which English Language is anchored; (iv) developing and preparing students for advance studies, others skills for combating the changing knowledge based on technology, entrepreneurship, etc. Similarly, there are some rationales for learning the English Language; one of which is English Language being a Language of global communication. English Language has become a veritable tool for information and knowledge assessment worldwide. It also helps individuals in developing right values and attitudes, establishes and maintains relationships with people, increases their understanding of different cultures, as well as widens their world views.

Akogwu (2018) [3] further opined that English Language is a Language of international business, trade and professional communication. It plays an important role in fostering learners abilities needed for life-long learning, creativity, problem-solving, innovation, as well as adjusting to the frequent /unpredictable changes and demands a society gives. In addition, English Language creates a world for leisure and entertainment for learners. The mastery of English Language thus becomes very important to learners in Nigeria particularly Osun State as it brings about new possibilities in intellectual development, social development, cultural understanding, educational attainment, advancement in career; and individual personal fulfillment.

Secondary school prepares students for higher education (Oputa and Obiekwe, 2015) [19]. It brings connection between primary and higher education levels; designed for a period of six years (i.e. Junior Secondary 1 to Senior Secondary School 3) and attempts moulding students into great young men and women. Secondary school type could be urban or rural, public or private, boarding or day, as well as mixed or single. Urban secondary schools are located mainly in cities and towns while the rural secondary schools are located mainly in villages near the student parents. Public schools in Nigeria have the Federal, State, and Local Governments as their proprietors while the private schools have individuals, organizations or associations as their owners and sponsors. Boarding school typifies a school where students are provided with accommodation to live in school hostel within the school environment during school term. Boarding schools could be full-boarding or the mixture of both boarders and day students that attend the institution by day and return to their different homes after school hours (Ahmed, Oliver and Danmole, 2017) [2]. Day school is that school where students attend studies and return to their homes after school hours without any form of hostel accommodation. Both boarding and day schools may be owned either privately or publicly. Single schools are prepared for a particular sex; that is, male only or female only, while mixed schools are designed for both sexes. It is expected however, that they comply with the recommended English language curriculum for uniformity and academic excellence of students. The study thus attempts to investigate the implementation of English Language curriculum among these school types in Osun State: The types are urban, rural, public, private, boys only, girls only and mixed.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the huge amount of money invested in education, implementation and achievement of the educational curriculum is still a major challenge, as lack of qualified and non-specialist teachers in English Language contribute to poor achievement of educational outcomes and goals in schools in Osun State. Curriculum is a veritable vehicle through which education is attained. The secondary school curriculum as presently implemented is far from achieving the goals of secondary education. Teacher quality has to do with the professional qualification of teachers. The teacher must possess the teaching qualifications to enhance his instructional delivery process. A major setback in effective curriculum implementation is the problem of unqualified teachers, especially specialist teachers in English Language subjects. Sofalaham (2012) [21] noted that junior secondary school level, due to shortage of teacher, the requirement of two Nigerian languages is no longer strictly observed. Again Ajibola (2008) observed that most of the teachers in the secondary schools are not qualified to teach English Language introduced in the curriculum.

Learning environment has been identified as one of the major problems in curriculum implementation in senior secondary schools in Nigeria. Nigeria secondary schools have poor learning environment as such performance is very poor. Hence, a conducive learning environment must be created for the realization of the objectives of education in secondary schools. Good learning environment promotes quality education. Such environment goes beyond good classrooms, libraries, laboratories, hostels, and teachers’ attendance to workshops and conferences. It includes adequate social environment policies and practices, which prohibit students and teachers’ harassment, examination malpractice, cultism and its associated violence. According to Ogbodo (2016)[16] it connotes good academic culture.

Education in Nigeria is associated with inadequate funding from the Federal, State and Local governments (Nwiyi,2012) [13]. The state of the secondary schools lack of workshop, conference etc prove the fact that the secondary schools in terms of facilities, classrooms, and equipment are inadequately funded far below the UNESCO estimation of 26% budgetary allocation to education which affects the curriculum implementation in Nigeria secondary schools. Teachers are identified as agents in the curriculum implementation process. Again, lack of adequate instructional materials and ineffective teaching method are factors responsible for poor implementation of English Language in some junio secondary schools in Osun State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the use of English language in junior secondary schools in Osun State.

  1. The teacher factors influencing the implementation of the English Language curriculum (ELC) among the Urban and Rural school types in selected Senior Secondary schools (SSS) in Osun State.
  2. The learner influencing factors on the implementation of ELC among the public and private school types in selected JSS in Osun State.
  3. The resource materials/facilities factors influencing the implementation of ELC among the Boarding and Day school types in selected JSS in Osun State.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent do teacher factors influence the implementation of ELC among the urban and rural school types in selected JSS in Osun State?
  2. To what extent do learner factors influence the implementation of ELC among the public and private school types in selected JSS in Osun State?
  3. To what extent do resource materials/ facilities factors influence the implementation of ELC among the Boarding and Day school types in selected JSS in Osun State

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant difference in the teacher factors influencing the implementation of ELC among the urban and rural school types in selected JSS in Osun State.
  2. There is no significant difference in the learner factors influencing the implementation of ELC among the public and private school types in selected JSS in Osun State.
  3. There is no significant difference in the resource material/facilities factors influencing the implementation of ELC among the Boarding and Day school types in selected JSS in Osun State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant to students and scholars in the faculty of education as well as Nigerian students in general. The reviewed literature in this study will add significantly to the previous knowledge of students and scholars. On the part of stakeholders in the education sector and the Nigeria government, the findings of this study will add significantly to their guidelines in policy formulation with respect to education.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focussed on English language in junior secondary schools in Osun State. The study also covers the teacher factors influencing the implementation of ELC among the urban and rural school types in selected JSS in Osun State, the learner factors influencing the implementation of ELC among the public and private school types in selected JSS in Osun State as well as the resource material/facilities factors influencing the implementation of ELC among the Boarding and Day school types in selected JSS in Osun State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was constrained by some factors. Firstly, the time frame allocated for the completion of this study was not enough for the researcher to extensively carry out research based on the theme of this research work. On the other hand, the research participants were not willing to participate in responding to the administered questionnaire of this study. Also, the required materials like journals and articles needed for the proper completion of this study were not readily available online and offline. All these constraint put together, ultimately determined the extent to which the researcher was able to go in this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

English:

A West Germanic language in the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the island of Great Britain.

Language:

A structured system of communication that consists of grammar and vocabulary. It is the primary means by which humans convey meaning, both in spoken and written forms, and may also be conveyed through sign languages.

Student:

A person enrolled in a school or other educational institution.

Secondary School:

An institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary education (ages 14 to 18), i.e., both levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale, but these can also be provided in separate schools.

School:

An educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is sometimes


1.10 Organisations of the Study

This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
  2. Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

The factors under investigation include: The extent teacher factors in urban and rural school types influence the implementation of ELC, the extent learner factors in public and private school types influence the implementation of ELC and how resource materials/facilities factors in mixed and single school influence the implementation of ELC and finally how assessment/evaluation factors in Boarding and Day School types influence the implementation of ELC in selected JSS in Osun State. In order to achieve the study, four (4) objectives of the study, research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the conduct of the study. The study population comprises the teachers from selected JSS with a population size of 660 teachers while the sample size is 403 teachers using purposive sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection is a structured questionnaire while the data were analysed using mean and standard deviation and null hypotheses were tested using Z-test at 0.05 level of significant.


5.2 Conclusion

This study examined factors influencing the implementation of ELC among School Types in selected SSS in Rivers State. Evidence from the study indicates that teacher’s factors in Urban and rural school types influenced the implementation of ELC. The study also concludes that learner factors in Public and Private school types influence the implementation of ELC. It was still observed from the study that resource material/facility factors in boarding and day school type influence the implementation of ELC and also concludes that assessment/evaluation factors in Mixed and Single school types influenced the implementation of English Language curriculum in SSS in Osun State.


5.3 Recommendation

Recommendations Based on the above findings the following recommendations were made;

  1. Urban Junior Secondary school types that were very high in the implementation of ELC should improve and sustain on their good work, the Rural schools should work harder to overcome their implementation challenges.
  2. Public and Private schools with very high extent of implementation of the ELC should continue to improve on what they are doing.
  3. Boarding secondary schools should implement curriculum more. While the day school with very high extent of implementation performance should continue to improve.
  4. Mixed and Single Schools should both sustain their very high extent performance in the implementation of English Language curriculum.

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