Effluent Impact On Water Quality (A Case Study Of Aba River In Aba North L.G.A. Of Abia State)

Project and Seminar Material for Building Technology BT

Effluent Impact On Water Quality (A Case Study Of Aba River In Aba North L.G.A. Of Abia State)


This project work was aimed at determining the effect of effluent on Aba River. This became pertinent owing to the fact that companies discharge their effluent into the river without treatment. Four different samples were collected from four locations and analyzed, which include Upstream Sample (A), Unilever Effluent (B), Nigeria Breweries Effluent (C), and Down Stream Sample (D).

The results obtained indicated that there is industrial input of metals like Iron, Copper, Zinc, Calcium and non metals like Sulphate, Phosphate, Chloride, and Carbonate. This parameters were higher when compared with WHO’s standard.

The microbiological analysis showed that the river is highly polluted.

Finally conclusions were drawn and recommendations made.

Table of Contents

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.2 Aims and Objective
  • 1.3 Area of Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Historical need and Development of Drinking
  • Water Quality
  • 2.2 Water Characteristic
  • 2.3 Waste Water Characteristics
  • 2.4 Water Pollution
  • 2.4.1 Water-Borne-Diseases
  • 2.4.2 Water-Washed-Diseases
  • 2.4.3 Water-Based-Diseases
  • 2.4.4 Water-Related Diseases
  • 2.5 Drinking Water Quality Standards and Goals
  • 2.5.1 Primary Drinking Water Standard
  • 2.5.2 Secondary Drinking Water Standard
  • 2.5.3 How Standards are Set

Chapter Three

Sampling Procedure

  • 3.1 Data Collection
  • 3.2 Parameters Analysed
  • 3.2.1 Apparatus / Reagents
  • 3.3 Methods used in The Experiment
  • 3.4 Practical Results
  • 3.4.1 Temperature
  • 3.4.2 Colour
  • 3.4.3 pH
  • 3.4.4 Odour
  • 3.4.5 Calculating for Hardness in the Samples
  • 3.4.6 Calculating Alkalinity
  • 3.4.7 Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)
  • 3.4.8 Dissolved Oxygen
  • 3.4.9 Metals (Cations)
  • 3.5 Non Metals (Anions)
  • 3.5.1 Comparing The parameters with WHO’s Standard
  • 3.5.2 Dissolved Oxygen Curve

Chapter Four

Data Presentation

  • 4.1 Parameters
  • 4.2 Analysis of Physical Parameters
  • 4.3 Analysis of Chemical Parameters
  • 4.1 Analysis of Microbiological Parameters

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Effluent impact on water quality is a point of great concern. This is because, it has been observed that the quality of water people use has a great effect on their health. If proper care is not taken to ascertain the characteristics or composition of the discharged effluent, then environment is exposed to numerous hazards.

One may ask what an effluent really is. An effluent is defined as an industrial liquid waste. It is characterized by the components used in such industries. This implies that the composition or characteristics of effluent varies from industry to industry.

Impact at the other hand is defined as an effect felt as a result of an action taken or a process carried out. It becomes pertinent to carryout Environmental Impact Assessment of possible action to be taken or projects to be carried out. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined as a management tool used to assess and evaluate any potential change in the environment (including air, water, land, natural resources, fauna flora, humans and their interaction) whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partial, that results from an organisations activities, products or services (Ofunne, 2002).

We are really concerned with the effect the discharge of liquid industrial waste (effluent), from Unilever plc and Nigeria Breweries Limited; have on the quality of water obtainable at the river where they are discharged. This impact that is our point of concern is dependent of the various compositions of the effluent and its degree.
Wastewater ought to be collected or a sewer system and transported to plant for treatment prior to disposal (Mark and Mark, 2008). Dilution into a surface water course and purification by nature yield additional quality improvement. The feat of this effluent discharge is that of collecting the water before complete rejuvenation for municipal.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The hazardous effect of the effluent flows from Unilever Plc and Nigeria Breweries Limited to Aba River is our point of concern. This becomes a problem because the waste ought to be channelled to a sewer treatment plant before being discharged finally into the river. This is to help reduce the intensity of the wastewater.

It is therefore pertinent to ascertain the composition of these effluents and relating it with the effect the have on the river quality. This is so because if it not ascertained the environment is exposed to a lot of risk.

1.2 Aims and Objective

  1. To ascertain the level of pollution of the river due to the discharged effluents.
  2. To compare the physical, and chemical parameters in the river with the World Health Organizations acceptable standard for drinking water.
  3. To suggest or recommend the best ways of discharging effluent in the river.
  4. To suggest ways of enforcing the methods of effluent discharge.

1.3 Area of Study

The project is based on the analysis of the different water samples collected from Aba River in Aba North Local Government Council of Abia State, (where Unilever Plc and Nigeria Breweries Plc discharge their effluent).

1.4 Significance of the Study

  1. To help bring to the notice of the companies the effect their waste is having in the environment.
  2. To proffer solution on the best ways of discharging effluent into rivers.
  3. To serve as a reference to all who will handle similar projects in future.

1.5 Definition of Terms


General classes of wastewater constituents (wastewater) such as physical, chemical, and biological and biochemical.


The makeup of wastewater, including physical, chemical and biological constituents.


Individual components, elements or biological entities such as suspended solids or ammonia nitrogen.


Constituents added to water through use that pollutes the water.


Reduction of disease-causing micro-organisms by physical or chemical means.


Industrial liquid waste or liquid discharged from a processing step.


Constituents added to water through use.


An element that is essential for the growth of plants and animals. Nutrients in wastewater, usually Nitrogen and phosphorus, may cause unwanted algal and plant growth in rivers and lakes.


Measurable factor such as temperature.


Same as contaminants.


Treatment of wastewater for subsequent reuse application or the act of reusing treated water.


The reuse of treated wastewater and bio-solids for beneficial purposes.


Treatment of wastewater to a level suitable for a variety of applications including indirect or direct portable reuse.


Beneficial use of reclaimed are re-purified wastewater or stabilized bio-solids.


Solids removed from wastewater during treatment. Solids that are treated further are called (fermed) biosolids.


Materials removed from wastewater by gravity separation (by clarifiers, thickeners and lagoons) and is the solid residue from dewatering operations.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Here conclusion is drawn based on the physical, chemical and Microbiological analysed parameters.

A. Physical

Water in its pure state should be colourless, odourless and tasteless. Going by the findings, some portions of the river fall below this established fact. Generally on the water temperature, apart from the discharge point of Nigeria Breweries Plc, the temperature of the water is okay for microbial organisms.

Generally from the physical view of the water, the river water is not portable and requires treatment for one to consume the water.

B. Chemical

For a river water to be acceptable there are percentage limit of chemical parameters that should be present. Based on the fore going the World Health Organization stipulated a standard that a drinking water should attend before it will be fit for use. The samples fall less of the standard according to WHO’s guideline.

C. Microbiological

From the microbiological analysis, the river under consideration (Aba River in Aba North L.G.A), the river is grossly polluted. The level of pollution in the river is so high. Based on this, the water is not okay for use unless properly and adequately treated.

5.2 Recommendation

Based on the adverse effect of river pollution which among other things include, spread of diseases, disruption of the eco-system, low agricultural yield etc, river pollution as much as possible should be avoided.

Government should make laws prohibiting industries from discharging their effluent into rivers, seas etc without first of all treating the waste to reduce its effect on the receiving water body. Proper sanctions should be given to any industry or company that fails to obey this law.

People should be mindful of the quality of water the use. There is this misconception that water doesn’t kill. When people become mindful of the quality of water they use, they will be able to know when there is a change in the quality of the water they are using and then will be able to trace what is causing the change.

Entrepreneurs intending to open companies should be made to give proper analysis of the quality of effluent that such companies will be generating. With this in mind, they will then be able to tell government how they intend to manage such waste. When the above is not the case, government should not give approval for the establishment of such companies.

Finally, a comprehensive Environment Impact Assessment (E.I.A) should be carried out before companies or industries should be sited. This will go a long way in ensuring that the environment is not affected by the citing of industries.

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