Need For Efficient Inventory Control System In Service Oriented Organization

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Need For Efficient Inventory Control System In Service Oriented Organization


Abstract


The main aim of embarking on this project is to know the need for efficient inventory control system in service oriented organization at the associated Bus Company Head Office at Umuoba Uratta in Imo State.

This study attempts finding out whether the company practice or applies the system of inventory control effectively. It also sees to the functions and systems applied in carrying out the inventory control work so as to maintain continuity of material inflow and outflow in the storehouse.

As generally known, inventory is an American language while stock is a British word but all mean the same.
From the review of related literature inventory control is the means by which materials of the correct quantity and quality is made available as and when required with due regard to economy in storage and ordering cost, purchase price and working capital.

The researcher review the related literature which centers on inventory control, the role of material management in business organization, types of inventory control system the stores managers responsibility in relation to materials storage, the stock record system, reasons for keeping stock record, method of stock record, material deterioration, stock discrepancy, obsolescence of material, inventory control techniques etc. information in the accomplishment of the research work are all expressed.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Overall Of The Study

Inventory control system is a very vital issue as long as business management is concerned, and must not be let down in any business venture. Any organization that does not apply the sense of inventory control in their business transaction will definitely face cost reduction that will affect the corporate aim of that organization.

With this, inventory control system in service oriented companies like ABC Transport requires proper attention so as to prevent running out of service. This is because shortage in inventory (stock will interrupt production and leads to customers disappointment and thereby reduce the organization prestige and dignity in labor market.

According to Uzor (2005:34) Inventory control is the clerical control of the movement of materials in and out of the stores. He further defined it by quoting Morrison (1982:34) as the means by which materials of the correct quantity and quality is made available as when required with due regard to economy in storage and ordering cost, purchase price and working capital.

Purchasing journal (2005:21) further explains that inventory simply means or refers to as the control of items used in the operations of the business.

This means that inventory control involve some processes.

  1. Assessing the items to be held in stock
  2. Deciding the extend of stock holding of items individually
  3. Regulating the input of stock into the store house.
  4. Regulating the issues of stock from the store house

This means that through the above processes, it is possible to adjust continuously the quantity and value of stock held to conform to the circumstances at all times.


1.2 Statement Of Problems

The problems which inventory control management in ABC encountered is as follows

1. Logistics Problem:

There is inadequate of mobility to transport materials to sub-units with this problem it affect the flow of materials.

2. Inadequate Space:

Since the stores face the problem of space in store it will lead to deterioration of materials and also cause insufficient of materials in stores.

3. Inadequate Lighting and Ventilation:

The stores face the problem of lighting and ventilation, depending on the type of materials stored, but in the case of ABC inadequate lighting and ventilation highly affect their stores.

4. Administration (manpower problem):

Unskilled manpower affect the stores in ABC transports, since people employed has little or no idea of inventory management it affect the stores.

5. Insufficiency of Storage of Materials:

There should be adequate means of storage in stores like shelve, trays, pallet, racks etc should be provided to enhance flow in inventory management.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

Some of the objectives of inventory control management in ABC is

  1. To enhance good administrative of man power training. To provide means of training those that has little or no idea of the job.
  2. To provide adequate means of transporting materials to sub-units and to places found necessary.
  3. To ensure sound and appropriate space to store materials since 70% of materials are spare parts.
  4. To provide sufficient storage of materials in stores so as to avoid damage in inventory control management.
  5. To create room for adequate lighting and good ventilation in stores, thereby enhancing maximum flow of materials.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

This study will be very important or useful to the following people.

1. The researcher:

It will help the researcher to secure her award for the Higher National Diploma

2. Other student:

It will serve as data bank i.e. it will serve as reference materials to students.

3. Firms:

It will help the firm to know currently if what they do can improve profitability or not.

4. Society:

This study will help societies or industries who are not perfect in inventory control to sit-up and amend their errors


1.5 Research Questions

Here, the researcher came up with the following question.

  1. Does the company provide room for manpower training?
  2. Do they provide means of delivery to the sub-unit stores?
  3. Did they create sound space in their stores?
  4. Is there adequate lighting and ventilation?
  5. Is there any sufficient storage of materials?

1.6 Hypothesis

Based on research questions, the researcher formed the following hypothesis which will be tested in chapter four.

  1. Hi: They maintain adequate delivery of materials to sub-units
    Ho: They do not maintain adequate delivery of materials to sub-units.
  2. Hi: There is adequate lighting and ventilation in stores.
    Ho: There is no adequate lighting and ventilation in stores.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

This study is for all bus services, but due to time (i.e.) time to reach the destination of all this bus services which the researcher will found as difficult task to undertake, and how large the bus service is, so the researcher decided to write on ABC Transport as case study.


1.8 Limitation Of The Study

  1. The researcher experience some limitations when gathering information of this study.
  2. The researcher face the problem of finance in gathering data.
  3. The researcher face the problem of time factor, since time give to run up this project is limited.
  4. The researcher also experience poor response needed form respondent.

1.9 Definition Of Terms

1. Inventory Control:

A financial activity the objectives of which is to minimize that total cost of maintaining inventories and of acquiring them in order to render a stipulated level of service.

2. Inventory Management:

A branch of materials management concerned with the formation and implementation of policies which should be met by an inventory control system.

3. Stock List:

This is a list comprising all items held in the storehouse or stockyard. It contains a detailed description of dimensions, locations, unit of issue, prices per unit and column for periodic stock balances.

4. Inventory Policy:

A definite statement of policy stating when to purchase and how much to purchaser usually to ensure that the sum of the cost associated with inventory.

5. Stock:

This consists of raw materials, parts components or finished goods kept for immediate use or sale.

6. Stocktaking:

This involves counting, weighing or measuring stock items to ascertain that the stock or items are physically present in the store house.

7. Stores:

Place in which materials are kept. It includes warehouse, stock rooms bounded stores an open access stores.

8. Economic Order Quantity:

The quantity of materials to be ordered at a time calculated so as to minimize the total cost incurred in purchasing and stock taking item.

9. Central Stores:

This is generally recognized as one which acts as a “wholesale” supplier to other units, departmental or sub stores operating on a retail basis issuing goods directly to the users.

10. Safety Stock:

This is stock set aside to cooler errors in forecasting the lead time or demand/usage during the lead time. It is normally referred to as buffer stock.

11. Obsolete Stock:

These are materials whose demand does not exist any longer.

12. Stock Level:

Fixing level for each item held in storehouse. This is the means of controlling stock by quantity.

13. Minimum Stock Level:

This is the lowest level expressed in quantity to which the stock of any item held must not be allowed to fall below.

14. Re-Order Level:

This is that stock level at which a replenishments order is considered.

15. Fifo: First-in-out:

This is the system use in stores and inventory accounting.

16. Finished Goods Inventory:

This is the inventory of the final product which is ready for shipment and awaiting delivery to the customer either in the basis of orders already received or anticipated.

17. Coding System:

This means the classification of items held in stock with a unique name or code for easy identification.

18. Dispatch of Materials:

This involves the selection of materials or goods in their correct quantities, making the necessary documentation arranging for delivery van loading and eventually making delivery of materials or goods to their final destination.

19. Buffer Stock:

This means an additional inventory kept as a protection against the possibility of stock out or delay in supply.

20. Stock Recording:

This is the process of identifying and taking accurate records of materials or items in stores. It is the key to any successful control system.

21. Deterioration of Stock:

This occurs when an item or materials can not serve it purpose or it is when materials has loose its quality of satisfying need, it is said to be deteriorate.

22. Redundancy of Stock:

This occurs mostly when the quantity of an item held in stock is more than the required quantity that is necessary to provide an adequate service to the production or operational activities, the excess over is said to be redundant.

23. Discrepancy:

It is a non-agreement between the stock balance as indicated in the stock record and the quantity physically found and counted during stocktaking.

24. Obsolescency:

An item is said to be obsolescent when it is going out of use but is not ye completely unusable.

25. Stock Replenishment:

It is a set of procedures, decisions, rules and records intended to ensure continuous physical availability of all items comprising an inventory in the face of uncertain demand.


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