The Efficacy Of Using The Traditional Institution In Managing Communal Crisis In Nigeria (A Study Of Ikare Community)

Project and Seminar Material Under Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution

The Efficacy Of Using The Traditional Institution In Managing Communal Crisis In Nigeria (A Study Of Ikare Community)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the efficacy of using the traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Nigeria with focus on Ikare Community,Ondo state. The study was specifically carried out to find out the prevalence of communal crisis in Ikare Community, find out the factors associated with communal crisis in Ikare Community, find out the traditional institution actors which play a significant role in communal crisis resolution in Ikare community, and find out the effectiveness of traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Ikare Community. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of residents of Ikare Community,Ondo state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of communal crisis in Ikare Community is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the factors associated with communal crisis in Ikare Community includes: inheritance, religious affairs, land Disputes, cultural activities, and resources/power control. Therefore, it is recommended that he government should give the traditional rulers constitutional recognition and backing for their actions. The powers and authorities of traditional rulers should be made to emanate from the constitution. This will enable the decisions reached in arbitration by traditional rulers implemented by parties in conflicts without hesitations. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Africa‟s instability, crisis, precarious situations and quagmires among others are still on. These problems, though complex and disturbing, had followed a particular trend in term of intervention and solutions to the numerous conflicts and crises to which agents of crises management had also failed (Juncos, and Joseph, 2020). Thus, African and her people are made to face with terrible situation of crises here and there that has gone beyond any possible amelioration. This several complex problems mostly created from crisis of power struggle, corruption, election rigging and one party state entrenchment syndrome, economic quagmire and resource control paradox among others, are however occasioned by the craze and desires for the euphoria of the enjoyment of the spoils of the state to maintain the status quo (Zhou, 2018).

In Nigeria, most of the crisis that thrive among neighboring communities are politically induced, the sincerity of the management of these crises can promote cordial relations and development among them due to the functionality of crisis. But if mismanaged, it may result in anarchy, social destabilization cum underdevelopment. According to Soares, (2019) who posited that prominent among the factors that predisposes communities into crises include people laying claim to land as original settlers or aboriginal and therefore, on this basis, fight off those regarded as intruders. The former may voluntarily or involuntarily allow strangers to settle as tenants with or without some periodic symbolic payments as recognition and re-enactment of tenancy as in the case of communities in Ondo state or claims of annexation of their land by neighboring community as in the case of Ikare. The second factor according to Adebayo, (2021) is the disputed jurisdiction of certain traditional rulers and chiefs or the grading of a neighboring King as a first class while the King of the nearby or contesting community left in the lower status. This is mostly influenced by the fact that the Governor being an indigene of the first class graded King as in the case of Tsare-Tsaragi, hence conflict. Creation of local government councils and the sitting of their headquarters is another factor generating crisis. Individual and ethnic competition over access and control of the scarce political and economic resources is another major factor perpetrator of communal crises.

It is widely acknowledged that traditional institution plays a significant role in the maintenance of order and resolution of crisis in Nigeria specifically. This is also the case in the socially diverse societies of sub-Saharan Africa. For example; In Malawi between 80 and 90% of all disputes are processed through traditional justice forums (Afigbo, 2022), In Sierra Leone approximately 85% of the population falls under the jurisdiction of customary law, defined under the Constitution as the rules of law, which, by custom, are applicable to particular communities in Sierra Leone (Akpomera, 2020). The traditional institution actors including community leaders, religious leaders and organisations, government officials, a range of community-based organisations etc. are also perceived to play a significant role in communal crisis management in Nigeria. Hence, this study seek to examine the efficacy of using the traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Nigeria with focus on Ikare Community.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Crisis are indeed inevitable and part and partial of human nature. Crisis resolution refers to the management of crises by which parties of a conflict come together to solve their conflict or differences. Traditional institution actors have long been involved in mediation by creating a balance in the process of mediation and tribal disputes and in some cases led in restoring peace and reconciliation ventures. In the traditional setting, crises were solved by traditional elders whereas today, traditional leaders have been given prominence in mediation of disputes especially in Africa (Nwolise, 2016). Traditional institution actors are seen as the peace makers and custodian of law in the society. They are more respected by the people because of their influence, personality and belief. They are closer to the people they lead or represent, as a result people tend to obey and respect their instructions through mediation (Dalhatu, 2002).

Presently, particularly in some communities in the South West, the status of traditional institutions has been significantly replaced with government agencies and appointees at different levels of community governance (Olusola & Aisha, 2017). The newly emerged class sometimes see the traditional institutions as a threat to their grip on power and therefore, constantly clamp on the powers of the traditional institutions. However, the recent neglect of traditional institutions and the minimal and insignificant roles played by traditional institutions in the present day governance as compared to their roles in managing and resolving crises in the past constitute one major reason for the increasing rate of community crises in many of the communities, towns and cities. Even where they were recognized and allowed to carry out responsibilities including management of crises in their domains, the results have in most cases considered abysmal. In view of the above, this study seek to examine the efficacy of using the traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Nigeria with focus on Ikare Community.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to examine the efficacy of using the traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Nigeria with focus on Ikare Community. The specific objective is as follows:

  1. Find out the prevalence of communal crisis in Ikare Community.
  2. Find out the factors associated with communal crisis in Ikare Community.
  3. Find out the traditional institution actors which play a significant role in communal crisis resolution in Ikare community.
  4. Find out the effectiveness of traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Ikare Community.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the prevalence of communal crisis in Ikare Community?
  2. What are the factors associated with communal crisis in Ikare Community?
  3. What are the traditional institution actors which play a significant role in communal crisis resolution in Ikare community?
  4. What is the effectiveness of traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Ikare Community?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The traditional institution actors does not play a significant role in communal crisis resolution in Ikare community.
  • Ha: The traditional institution actors play a significant role in communal crisis resolution in Ikare community.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will to a great extent enlighten traditional rulers and community residents on the nature, causes and possible ways to manage crises. This study will help to discourage conflicts in rural communities. Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the influence of conflict resolution on a traditional society.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is restricted to the efficacy of using the traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Nigeria. Hence, the study will be carried out in Ikare Community in Ondo state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Crisis/Conflict:

A situation in which people, groups or countries are involved in a serious disagreement or argument leading to violence. Crisis will be used interchangeably with Conflict in this study.

Crisis Management:

Refers to a way of solving any disagreement between people, organization and community for peace to reign.

Traditional Institutions:

Refer to all those people-based and local approaches that communities innovate and utilize in resolving localized disputes, to attain safety and access to justice by all

Communal Crisis:

A conflict between non-state groups that are organized along a shared communal identity.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the efficacy of using the traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Nigeria with focus on Ikare Community, Ondo state. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the efficacy of using the traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Nigeria with focus on Ikare Community, Ondo state. The study specifically was aimed to find out the prevalence of communal crisis in Ikare Community, find out the factors associated with communal crisis in Ikare Community, find out the traditional institution actors which play a significant role in communal crisis resolution in Ikare community, and find out the effectiveness of traditional institution in managing communal crisis in Ikare Community.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of residents of Ikare Community, Ondo state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of communal crisis in Ikare Community is high.
  2. The factors associated with communal crisis in Ikare Community includes: inheritance, religious affairs, land Disputes, cultural activities, and resources/power control.
  3. The traditional institution actors which play a significant role in communal crisis resolution in Ikare community includes: community leaders, religious leaders, religious organisations, customary courts, and community-based organisations.
  4. The traditional institution is somewhat effective in managing communal crisis in Ikare Community.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The government should give the traditional rulers constitutional recognition and backing for their actions. The powers and authorities of traditional rulers should be made to emanate from the constitution. This will enable the decisions reached in arbitration by traditional rulers implemented by parties in conflicts without hesitations.
  2. There should not be unhealthy state intervention in appointment, selection and installation of traditional rulers. Communities should be free to select who will rule them according to criteria set aside by their custom and tradition. The state can send a representative on the day of installation as an eye witness to the installation of someone as a ruler of his people.’
  3. The states and local governments should urgently and effectively strengthen traditional institutions in the various communities, both urban and rural through workshops and seminars. Members of traditional institutions should be trained and retrained in the area of conflict management strategies.

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