Efficacy Of Flipchart In The Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies In Some Selected Secondary Schools
The study examined the effect of flip chart instruction on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School Students who were taught social studies without relevant instructional materials in Ogun State. Two hypotheses were formulated: There is no significant difference between academic performance of students who were taught social studies using flip chart instruction and those who were taught using conventional method in Junior Secondary School in Ogun State. And there is no significant difference in the effect of flip chart instruction between male and female social studies students in Junior Secondary School in Ogun State. Quasi experimental involving pre-test post-test research design was adopted. The research instrument is social studies performance test. The hypotheses were formulated to verify academic performance in two selected schools: Government Junior Secondary Schools Abeokuta north, Ogun and Government Junior Secondary School Abeokuta Ogun. Social studies performance test was used as instrument for data collection. The instrument was validated by the supervisor and other experts.
They were pilot tested at Government Junior Secondary School Abeokuta metropolis, Ogun. The reliability obtains using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC). Similarly post-test were conducted to verify the hypotheses. The data obtained were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. The result indicated significant difference between the academic performance of control and experimental groups, in favour of experimental group. This shows the effect of flip chart instruction in instructional delivery of social studies. It paved way for significant improvement in favour of experimental group. Hence, the general hypotheses were rejected.
1.1 Background of the Study
The major problem of learning within the conventional school setting is the undue emphasis on verbalism as the sole mode of communication between the teacher and the learners (Bolick 2003) Maduabum, (2000) have proved that words above simply make learning abstract and inactive as it address only one of the major sense of human understanding and communication.
In some cases such as the hearing impaired (Ema, 2001) opined that verbalism has on place in their programmes. Instructional materials are highly important in teaching especially for in experienced teachers.
Instructional materials according to Faurant (1975) are materials used by a teacher and which enable students understand the teacher or that enable student assimilate what is being put across to them.
Teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching they need materials for background information on the subject they are teaching young teachers usually have not built up their experience when ever they enter to the field.
Teacher often use instructional materials for lesson planning these materials are also needed by teachers to assess the knowledge of their students (Sotayo 2010).
People learn in different ways. Some people are extra ordinary good at retraining information fed to them orally (i.e. via a lecture) and other absorbs and retrain a great deal of information that they have read others need visual stimulants or cues to facilitate learning.
Repetition works for a lot of people as well. Most people however required a combination of the above method which can encompass audio visual materials books and even practical application are an excellent aid for assuring that students have the best possible opportunity to retain the information being given to them.
With the advancement in knowledge and proliferation of a wide variety of flip chart there have been improvement imports on our scope of knowledge attitude and ways of perception the impact according to (Emma, 2001) is evident in the manner the school and scientists respond to local and international issue communication to them through the various media.
It therefore becomes necessary for educationist especially teachers to realized these potentials and explore them. However, from observation the use of flip chart in most secondary schools especially in teaching and learning of integrated science most especially sense organ in fast becoming a thing of the past. The use of this flip chart in some of those schools are only noticeable when teachers trainees go for the teaching practice (TP) the student often look forward with eagerness’ to having trainees on teaching practice around because they often used flip chart most especially in teaching science and mathematics.
This study aim to look at the ways the flip chart imparts the academic achievement of students? In essence how effective is the flip chart in teaching of the topic sense organ.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The world as a whole and developing countries in particular are continuously faced with immense educational problems which the conventional classroom setting and learning methods cannot be cope with. Hence problem of this study is to determine the need to explore how flip chart can enhance teaching and learning of integrated science most especially sense organs.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to investigate the efficacy of flip chart in teaching and learning of social studies in some selected Secondary School in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State. This would be done by examining the importance of flip chart in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics.
1.4 Research Questions
This study is aimed at providing answers to the following questions:
i. To what extent do teachers use flip chart?
- Do the varieties in use of flip chart have any impact on the academic performance of student in teaching and learning of sense organs?
- What are the factors that determine the types of flip chart?
- Why do teacher need to use flip charts?
- What types of instructional materials are used in teaching the topic sense organ?
- What is the effect of flip chart on student learning?
- There is no significant difference between academic performance of students who were taught social studies using flip chart instruction and those who were taught using conventional method in junior secondary schools.
- There is no significant difference in the effect of flip chart instruction between male and female social studies students in junior secondary schools.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The information generated in the study could assist Educational planners, Policy makers, Government, Teachers and curriculum Designers to plan a more effective curriculum to enhance a better teaching and learning situation for better performance of the students in social studies. To Educational planners, the study could encourage them to pay more attention in curriculum design so as to enhance teaching and learning processes of social studies.
The study could help in providing information needed for policy makers in the designing of educational technology classroom/studies by providing needed materials and how they could be produced locally to reduce cost of procurement. The study could also encourage government to be more committed to alleviating the backwardness
being experienced in the educational sector. By making fund available for the provision of instruction materials.
The study could assist teachers in using flip chart instruction as method of teaching. The study could provide some answers to some questions about the establishment of centre for educational technology in all schools of the federation to enhance better teaching and learning situation. The study could provide some answers to some questions about various instructional materials to be used in teaching and learning situation.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study delimits itself in finding the effect of flip chart instruction on students‟ academic performance in social studies in junior Secondary schools in Ogun State. It examined the difference between academic performance of students who were taught social studies using flip chart instruction and those who were taught using conventional method in junior secondary schools in Ogun State, determine the effect of flip chart instruction on the performance of male and female social studies students in Junior Secondary Schools in Ogun State.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this chapter, the researcher presents summary of the study major findings, contributions of the study to knowledge, conclusion, recommendations and possible suggestion for further research.
5.2 Summary of the Study
- Chapter one presented background to the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, Question s, research hypothesis, basic assumptions, significance of the study, scope of the study and operational definition of the terms.
- Chapter two presented the detailed review of related literature including conceptual framework, concept of social studies, objective of social studies for JSS, social studies instructional materials, use of flip chart instruction, Gender Issue on academic performance and empirical studies.
- Chapter three presented the research methodology which included research design, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity of instrument, pilot study, reliability, procedure for data collection, and procedure for data analysis.
- Chapter four presented the detailed data analysis which includes data presentation, analysis and discussion of the findings.
- Chapter five summarized, concluded and offered suitable recommendations for the study.
5.3 Summary of the Findings
Students learn better and faster when abstract concepts/ideas are concretized for visualization. This has long lasting effect. Consequently, students learning capacity is increased. This leads to improvement on student’s performance. Knowledge is made practical and real with flip chart presentation as instructional delivery.
The result of this study established the fact that, there was tremendous improvement in the performance of experimental group that were exposed to flip chart as class instruction. The above stated hypothesis (Ho1) is rejected. Similarly the rest hypothesis (Ho2) was also rejected on the same basis. The following conclusions were drawn from the findings of the study.
- All the null hypotheses in the study were rejected as the t- test. Comparison resulted into significant difference between the experimental and control groups performance in the areas of study.
- The use of flip chart as an instructional media improved performance of students in social studies.
- There was no significant difference between the male and female students in their academic performance when exposed to the use of flip chart instructional materials.
In the light of the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made.
- Social studies teachers should be supported with instructional materials, ‘learning centre, libraries and social studies workshops to enhance their productivity and make learning more meaningful.
- Social studies teachers should be encouraged to utilize child centered methods in the teaching learning process.
- Teachers should complement the teaching of social studies with the use of flipchart in their day to day instructional delivery.
- Having examined some identified problems in the teaching of social studies and realizing that improvement in these learning areas lead to improvement on student’s performance. Other aspects of learning such as recall, retention, And repetition and knowledge application could be studied.
5.7 Suggestion for Further Studies
- Further studies should be carried out on similar instructional materials so as to have a holistic view about the usefulness of instructional materials.
- Further studies should be carry out on flip charts in areas not covered by this research and in other subjects taught in our junior secondary schools.
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