Self Efficacy And Self Esteem As Predictors Of Exercise Identity Among Male And Female Exercisers

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Self Efficacy And Self Esteem As Predictors Of Exercise Identity Among Male And Female Exercisers


Abstract


This study examined the prediction of self-efficacy and self-esteem on exercise identity of male and female exerciser. The population comprised all male and female exerciser in Yaba LGA. A standardized questionnaire of self efficacy and a modified standardized questionnaire of self esteem were used to generate data. Descriptive statistic of frequency counts , percentages, mean, standard deviation were used to analyzed demographics data while inferential statistics of Pearson Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression were used to test the formulated hypotheses at a =0.05 alpha level. Three research hypotheses were raised to guide the study, the result indicated that the attitude and exercise behavior of the male and female exerciser determines their exercise identity, but poor self-efficacy and self esteem contributed to the low status of exercise identity of many post-graduate students of university of Ibadan. The findings revealed that self-efficacy has a positive prediction on exercise identity of male and female exerciser(r=0.511, p< 0.05), self-esteem has effective impact on achievement of exercise identity of male and female exerciser (r=0.318, p<0.05). It is therefore recommended that; workshop and seminars on Physical fitness, self-efficacy and self-esteem should be organized , physical fitness programmes should be developed as a general unit course and sporting facilities and equipment should be made available for all male and female exerciser.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Exercise Identity is an individual personal exercise features that distinct one from other persons. Someone with a strong exercise identity rejuvenates and augment his/her unique identity by exercising, and the augmentation of the exercise identity increases the likelihood that the individual will continue to cleave to exercise programmes in the future. Exercise identity means achieved or gained physical fitness of an individual through physical exercise. Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, joint mobility, promoting physiological well being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. Fitness has health-related components and skill components which include; aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition, Olaitan, O. L. (2005).
Every individual do not have equal benefits from engaging in exercise. There is tremendous difference in individual response to training, where many people may see a moderate progress in endurance from aerobic exercises, some individuals may as much double their oxygen uptake, while others may never augment endurance. The exercise Identity status of an individual may be based on the level of an individual self efficacy and self esteem.

Self-efficacy is a person’s judgment about being able to perform a certain activity. A strong sense of self-efficacy facilitates human achievement and personal well-being in numerous ways. People with high assurance in their capabilities attempt difficult tasks or activities as challenges to be confronted rather than as threats to avoid, this efficacious outlook enhances intrinsic interest and deep engrossment in different activities. An individual will strong self efficacy set challenging goals and maintain strong commitment to them. They strengthen their efforts in the face of difficulties and failure. They quickly reactivate their sense of efficacy after failures. They view failure as an insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills which are attainable. They face difficult situations with believes that they can exercise control over them. Such an efficacious outlook produces personal accomplishments, reduces stress and lowers vulnerability to depression, Bandura, A (2014).

In contrast, people who doubt their capabilities shy away from difficult tasks which they view as personal threats. They have weak aspirations and low commitment to the goals they choose to attain. When faced with challenging goals, they dwell on their personal deficiencies, on the obstacles they want to encounter, and all kinds of adverse result rather than focusing on how to perform tremendously and succeed. They relent on their abilities and give up quickly in the face of challenges. They fall easy victim to stress and depression, Bandura, A (2014).

Self esteem is used to describe overall sense of self-worth, self respect or personal value of a person. Self esteem is seen as a personality trait that tends to be stable and enduring. It involves a variation of beliefs about the one self, such as the evaluation of one’s own physical perception, emotions and behaviors. Self- esteem are classified into two “High Self-Esteem And Low Self-Esteem”. High Self-esteem is the feelings of accomplishment and prestige that shows the need for self respect, self value and personal worth, while Low Self-Esteem is the process by which an individual has a negative evaluation about his or her self. These feelings in turn give rise to either basic discouragement or else compensatory trends. An appreciation of the necessity of basic self-confidence and an understanding of how helpless people are without self esteem, Maslow (2013).

Self efficacy and self esteem are important variables to be considered in achieving any goal, either difficult tasks or easy tasks. Because persons who have high self-efficacy, believe strongly in their own capabilities and also tend to have a high feeling of self- worth, to believe they are capable. Likewise, people who naturally feel they have a higher self-worth tend to also believe themselves to be capable of either doing the necessary tasks or learning how to do them. Together, the self esteem and self efficacy can make an individual achieves a high status of exercise identity.

But poor self esteem and low self efficacy may hinder the achievement of high status of exercise identity, because many think it is too rigorous and not easy to attain, while some have no self value, worth and respect that could motivate them to achieve the highest level of exercise Identity. It is on this ground the researcher wants to ascertain if self efficacy and self esteem are predictors of exercise identity among male and female exercisers.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Exercise has been the most effective method of acquiring physical fitness, but conformity with exercise standards depends on one self evaluation of exercise identity which may be influenced by self esteem and self efficacy.

Bandura (1986) posited that self-efficacy can be a useful explanation and may predict concept of an individual player or exercise participant. Omoluabi (1990) asserted that an individual’s psychomotor component in the performance of sports skills depends on his physical self- efficacy. O’Leary (1988) has shown that there is evidence in research which shows that a high degree of self-efficacy has been shown to be related to behaviour change health-wise. However, evident abound in literature that involvement in programmed physical exercise has innumerable number of benefits to the individual. Various studies have pointed to the importance of exercises as a medium of enhancing the quality of life of persons through improved self esteem and physical self-perceptions (Fox, 2000).

Exercises have different effects on individuals and take time than expected to give the expected result. Today people who have not been engaging in regular physical exercise, could be as a result of lack of adequate knowledge of self-esteem and self-efficacy. It is on this ground this research investigated whether self efficacy and self esteem are predictors of exercise identity among male and female exercisers.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective is to determine whether self efficacy and self esteem are predictors of exercise identity among male and female exerciser.

However, the specific objectives are as follow:

  1. To investigate whether self efficacy contributes to the achievement and attainment of exercise identity among male and female exerciser.
  2. To investigate whether the sedentary life style of male and female exerciser is simply because of their low self-efficacy.
  3. To determine the contribution of self-esteem on exercise identity of male and female exerciser.
  4. To determine whether self-efficacy and self-esteem could be the necessary intervention for the improvement of exercise identity of male and female exerciser.

1.4 Research Question

The following question will be answered by the study;

  1. Do self efficacy contributes to the achievement and attainment of exercise identity among male and female exerciser?
  2. Is the sedentary life style of male and female exerciser simply because of their low self-efficacy?
  3. What is the contribution of self-esteem on exercise identity of male and female exerciser?
  4. Does self-efficacy and self-esteem could be the necessary intervention for the improvement of exercise identity of male and female exerciser?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypotheses were tested for the study;

  • HO1: Self efficacy will not be a significant predictor of exercise identity of male and female exerciser.
  • HO2: Self esteem will not be a significant predictor of exercise identity of male and female exerciser.
  • HO3: Self efficacy and self esteem will not significantly predict exercise identity of male and female exerciser.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The empirical results of this study might provide a basis for establishment and confirmation of self efficacy and self-esteem as predictors of exercise identity of male and female exerciser. Also the data generated in this study might provide empirical bases for evaluating the attitude of male and female exerciser towards exercise identity. The data may be useful to all researchers who may wish to study issues relating to physical exercise and physical fitness. The study may also open other techniques for promotion of self efficacy and self esteem among male and female exerciser.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will analyze the self efficacy and self esteem are predictors of exercise identity among male and female exerciser in Yaba, LGA, Lagos State. The study is limited to some selected youths in the area. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among residents in the study area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Exercise Identity:

Individual’s fitness status.

Physical Exercise:

Physical activities carried out to improve health and fitness.

Physical Fitness:

A mental and physical state of balance which allows an individual to function to his or her best ability in all aspects of life

Self-Efficacy:

Self confidence of achieving goals.

Self-Esteem:

A person’s self overall emotional evaluation.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the self efficacy and self esteem are predictors of exercise identity among male and female exerciser using residents in Yaba LGA of Lagos State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the self- efficacy and self-esteem as predictors of exercise identity of male and female exerciser. It was set out to look into the contribution of self-efficacy and self-esteem to the achievement of exercise identity. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated around those variables. An extensive review of related literature was carried out in the pertinent areas such as; an over view of exercise identity, exercise behavior, physical exercise, physical fitness, self-efficacy and self-esteem.

A standardized questionnaire of self efficacy and a modified standardized questionnaire self esteem were employed to generate data. Reliability test of the instrument was conducted using twenty undergraduate student. Data from the reliability coefficient of 0.815 was obtained. The reliability test enabled the researcher to get familiarized with the instruments, testing needed to carry out the study.

The data collected were analyzed with the inferential statistic of Pearson product Moment Correlation Coefficient and regression analysis was used to predict the level of significant relationship between the independent variables and exercise identity of male and female exerciser. The probability level of the acceptance or rejection of each hypothesis was set at 0.05. Notable findings were discussed extensively, view of scholars on the related study of literature and all the three null hypotheses formulated were significant to the maintenance and promotion of self-efficacy, self-esteem and exercise identity.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the result of the study the following conclusions were made; self -efficacy and self-esteem played a vital role in achieving high status of exercise identity of male and female exerciser. The attitude and exercise behavior of an individual determines the physical fitness status of individuals. Many male and female exerciser believed that self-efficacy and self-esteem played an important role in achieving exercise identity but could not even attempt any form of exercise. Poor self-esteem and self-efficacy contributed negatively to the physical life style of many post- graduate students and this could increase the mortality rate of so many male and female exerciser, because a sedentary life style is exposed to many health problems.


5.4 Recommendations

Sequel to the conclusion of this study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Self-efficacy and self esteem workshop should be organized for male and female exerciser, as this may enable them to know the importance and usefulness of these variables (self-efficacy and self-esteem) to achieve exercise identity and physical fitness.
  2. Physical fitness programmes should be developed as a general unit course for male and female exerciser.
  3. Sporting facilities and equipments should be provided in all post-graduate halls, departments and faculties. This should strictly be for the male and female exerciser alone, as this may inculcate the interest and practice of physical exercise in them.
  4. Seminars and workshop should be organized for the male and female exerciser on the needs and benefits of exercise towards the improvement of their health status.

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