Effects Of Utilizing Appropriate Instructional Materials On Teaching And Learning Of Business Studies In Anambra State Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Business Education Students

Effects Of Utilizing Appropriate Instructional Materials On Teaching And Learning Of Business Studies In Anambra State Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effects of utilizing appropriate instructional materials on teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra State secondary schools. The study was carried out to determine whether there is an adequate availability of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state, determine the extent teachers utilizes appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state, determine whether the use of appropriate instructional materials improves the effective teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state, and determine the use of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies enhances students academic performance in Anambra state. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of business studies teachers in some selected junior secondary schools in Awka North local government area of Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 63 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that there is no adequate availability of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state. The study also revealed that the use of appropriate instructional materials improves the effective teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state. Therefore, it is recommended that teaching aids are part of teachers’ instructional design and strategy. So, teachers should always make effort to integrate instructional materials in their teaching. If not available, teachers should improvise the teaching materials. When this is properly done, it will boost students’ retention ability and increase their performance on both internal and external examinations. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Business studies is the type of education that prepares youths to acquire first-hand business information, skills and competencies that will enable them become functional in the society. All topics taught in this subject area should be accorded with the requisite instructional materials that will enable students experience the real life teachings. For instance, a teacher should utilize the typewriter, computer, model office, filling accessories, cash book, balance sheet, stall file cabinet and other office gadgets while teaching topics related to office practices and management for students’ to experience the reality of teaching or the lesson presented in the classroom. Therefore, teaching and learning activities in the school must be made interactive, participatory, constructive, practical-based and experiential (rather than placing much emphasis on theory) by appropriate utilization of instructional materials, which will aid students to develop critical thinking, innovative skills and knowledge construction (Onajite & Ama, 2014).

Instructional materials as defined by Nzewi and Nwosu (2009) are teaching materials which includes printed and non-printed materials such as textbooks, journals, computers, chalkboard, among others, that support teachers’ instructional delivery in school. Similarly, Ahmed (2007) opined that instructional materials are also referred to as teaching materials or teaching aids. However, the value or importance of teaching materials/ resources cannot be over emphasized. Examples of some of these instructional materials include typing machines, computers, chalkboard, whiteboard, models, pencils, rulers and art supplies. Instructional materials are broadly defined to include a variety of flexible and non- flexible materials, digital materials, on-line resources, open-resources, media, manipulative and supplies. In teaching business studies at the junior secondary school, such instructional materials like the computer with internet facilities, workbook, manual and electric typewriters, filling accessories, model office, filling trays, shorthand laboratory, business studies textbooks, stall file cabinet, talkshop, duplicating machines, whiteboard, among others can be utilized to support the teacher’s instructions (Ahmed, 2007). Nzeneri (2010) citing examples of instructional materials also classified them as printed and non-printed materials. Nzeneri further described printed materials as those materials on print which provides educational information as an excellent tool for instructions. It stores information where, when and as desired by learners and users. Effective teaching of any subject will not only stimulate student’s interest in the subject but also enhance their achievement in the examination. To achieve effective teaching and learning process, there is the need for use of instructional materials. In view of the above, this study seek to examine effects of utilizing appropriate instructional materials on teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of Problems

Business as a vocational subject at junior secondary school level of education plays significant roles in equipping the recipients with the content with the skills that prepares them for entry into Businesses and Business courses at the tertiary level of education. Despite the role of business studies as a vocational subject in secondary schools it is also important to note that the instruction method and the instructional materials used in teaching it matters a lot so as to achieve the objective of the subject. How well the instructional materials are prepared and used for instructional delivery will either have a positive or negative impact on the students, thereby resulting to either higher academic performance or lower academic performance in the subject.

It has been observed that some Business Studies teachers do not use instructional matters in teaching the concepts and contents of Business Studies. Some who attempt to use instructional materials sometimes do not use the appropriate instructional material that will enable the learners to have an indepth of the concepts being taught by the teacher. This in turn affects the academic performance of the students in this subject. This to a greater extent hampers the goals of Business studies which is to equip students with the necessary skill that will enable them to be self-reliant on graduation, prepare them for Business related courses in tertiary institution.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to examine the effects of utilizing appropriate instructional materials on teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state secondary schools. Specifically, the study will be guided by the following;

  1. Determine whether there is an adequate availability of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state.
  2. Determine the extent teachers utilizes appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state.
  3. Determine whether the use of appropriate instructional materials improves the effective teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state.
  4. Determine the use of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies enhances students academic performance in Anambra state.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were answered in the course of the study.

  1. Is there an adequate availability of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state?
  2. What is the extent teachers utilizes appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state?
  3. Does the use of appropriate instructional materials improves the effective teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state?
  4. Does the use of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies enhance students academic performance in Anambra state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The use of appropriate instructional materials does not improve the effective teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state.
  • Ha: The use of appropriate instructional materials improves the effective teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be useful to teachers of Business Studies. It will help them bring enthusiasm and varied teaching pedagogies into the classroom to address the different needs of students; thus, ensure sound and productive learning opportunities for every student. The study shall reveal appropriate teaching instructional materials that could improve the teachers’ effectiveness as well as ways the proper usage of these teaching aids improve the students’ academic performance in Business Studies.

The findings of the study shall help curriculum planners and developers to obtain the necessary information, which will help to improve the Business Studies syllabus. The result of the study will assist the curriculum planners and developers to review and update the Business Studies curriculum especially in respect to areas of difficulties and using proper teaching aids to address them.

The current study shall be beneficial to the school administrators in the area of providing and improvising teaching materials/aids to teachers of Business Studies in order to curb students’ poor performance and retention in Business Studies. Business Studies book authors, publishers and the State Education Commission shall find this study relevant in areas of providing relevant instructional materials and up to date textbooks to schools. This study shall also be beneficial to other future researchers working in similar field, and it will add to existing knowledge and theory.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is aimed at explaining the effects of utilizing instructional materials on teaching and learning of business studies. Geographically, this study will be delimited to some selected junior secondary schools in Awka North local government area of Anambra State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teaching:

Teaching often involves inquiring, listening, providing information, explaining a phenomena, showing a skill or process, testing understanding and ability, and enabling learning activities

Business Education:

Involves teaching students the fundamentals, theories, and processes of business

Instructional Materials:

Refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of utilizing appropriate instructional materials on teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra State secondary schools. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effects of utilizing appropriate instructional materials on teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra State secondary schools. The study was specifically carried out to determine whether there is an adequate availability of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state, determine the extent teachers utilizes appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state, determine whether the use of appropriate instructional materials improves the effective teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state, and determine the use of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies enhances students academic performance in Anambra state.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were business studies teachers in some selected junior secondary schools in Awka North local government area of Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is no adequate availability of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state.
  2. The extent teachers utilizes appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state is low.
  3. The use of appropriate instructional materials improves the effective teaching and learning of business studies in Anambra state.
  4. The use of appropriate instructional materials for teaching and learning of business studies enhance students academic performance in Anambra state.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Teaching aids are part of teachers’ instructional design and strategy. So, teachers should always make effort to integrate instructional materials in their teaching. If not available, teachers should improvise the teaching materials. When this is properly done, it will boost students’ retention ability and increase their performance on both internal and external examinations.
  2. The government should strive and set aside a reasonable amount of education budget which will be directed to improve and construct libraries and provide instructional materials in schools.
  3. More seminars/workshops on the use of diverse instructional materials available should be organized at least bi-annually to acquaint teachers on how to use them in teaching a secondary school subject.
  4. The heads of schools should rise their voice to be heard by parents as well as the government on the importance of improving and promoting good instructional materials in schools since the success or failure of a student will not only depend on the qualification of the teacher.

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