Causes And Effects Of Truancy On Primary School Pupils Academic Performance In Mathematics

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

Causes And Effects Of Truancy On Primary School Pupils Academic Performance In Mathematics


This project work is essentially concerned with the investigation of the study of truancy among primary school pupils in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A proper research was carried out on those causes that lead to truancy in primary schools. In carrying out the research, research questions are been set in order to direct the researcher in administration of questionnaires. There is also review of relevant literature on truancy among primary schools and how to curb the situation. The main research instrument used for data collection was the questionnaires, which was administered to teachers, students and the school administrators of the selected schools. And also there is presentation of data, collection and its analysis. Finally, at the beginning a brief survey of truancy among primary school pupils in Ogun State was made. The rate of this un-wanting behaviour had reached an alarming proportion in primary schools that attention of government and parents have been drawn to it in order to check the ugly trend.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Mathematics is the science of number and space, it is the language of the new millennium (Harbor-Peter, 2000). It is the queen of science and technology, also a tool for scientific and technological development (Agwagah and Ezeugo, 2000). No National can develop scientifically and technological without proper foundation in school mathematics (Okafor, 2005 in Kurumeh and Imoko, 2006). In recent years, for instance, there had been criticisms in public places, and in news papers over the low standard of performance in mathematics in our schools’ prominent among the critics are the teachers and parents. The critics are particularly concerned with the teaching of basic mathematics in our schools. They claim that most students who have successfully completed secondary school education often failed mathematics. However, from the view point of national interest a far more serious consequences of the inability of the students to excel in mathematics successfully is in regard to scientific and technological advancement that we very much desire in the attainment of Millennium Development Goal.

We need many qualified doctors, engineers, agricultural scientists, economists, computer programmers and mathematics teachers. All these professionals require basic courses in mathematics up to advanced level before they can specialize in these professions.

According to Oxford advanced learning dictionary; truancy is an act or condition being absent without permission.

Merriam (2012) says truancy as an act or instance of playing truant: the state of being truancy (the California legislature view truancy in very precise language). In summary it states that a student missing more than 30 minutes of instruction without an excuse three times during the school year must be classified as a truancy.

Sherilyn (2011) view that three are various reason of truancy and this has been on of the major problems in Nigeria and it is negatively affecting the future of the pupils. Absence rates have reached as high as 30 percent in some schools and it is harder for the teachers to do something about this. And this affects not only the pupils but their families as well. Consequences are various as well if they miss to many classes they will not be able to congratulate on time and they will fall behind their classmates and this will affect not only their self-esteem but various other things. All this can improve if teachers together with parents make good plan to interest pupils who is skipping classes to get back to school.

This can be done by talking and learning about pupils interests regarding the school.

In town like Ago Ika, Lafenwa, Ita Oshin pupils are run away from school which bring researcher closer to the topic, to find out the effect of truancy.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The high rate of truancy in town calls for attention. It could generate to pupils not performing very well academically. It could also lead to various forms of criminal, damage, robbery with violence and abusive conduct etc.

This study would therefore investigate

  1. What truancy means.
  2. The causes of truancy.
  3. The effects of truancy on primary school pupils academic performance in mathematics.
  4. The possible solution to the problem.

1.3 Research Questions

  1. What is truancy?
  2. What are the causes of truancy?
  3. What are the effects of truancy on primary school pupils academic performance in mathematics.
  4. How we can reduce truancy in primary school pupils?

1.4 Purpose of the Study

The study superficially find out

  1. To examine of truancy.
  2. To explain causes of truancy.
  3. To explain effects of truancy.
  4. To suggest possible solution to the problem of this study.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study would enable the various benefactor to have better understanding of what used to prompt our primary school pupils on truancy on school academic.

The study will be of benefit to the government by given information on the high level of truancy in the schools and it consequence effect. Government in a bid to curb truancy will therefore be able to apply measures capable eradicating such acts. One of the measures could be disciplinary measure approved by the government e.g. Government backing schools in given out some punishment to student such acts. Government could also pass some law banding on school pupils and teachers to reduce truancy. Dedicated and intelligent in schools could be motivated through various incentives e.g. money, gift to make student who are truant change their attitude.

The study would assist parent to pay more attention to the activities of the children in and outside schools for parent who pampered their children and do not give room for correction they would have a change of act to see the need for discipline on the children.

The study will help the teacher to assist the pupils as much as possible to develop interesting and the activity based on teaching method it will also make her lesson in class interesting to the pupils. And also make the use of availability of the instructional materials for the pupils to enhance an effective teaching and learning process.

The study will help the pupils to be more serious about his or her study. It will also use his free period to read more at home. It will also identify the brilliant pupils in his class and make friend with them so that they can teach him more or explain more of the unknown topic to him. The study will make the pupils pay more attention to education and work towards a great future.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study is to cover primary school in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun state.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

This study was carried out in the Ebenezer Primary School, Olumo Primary School, Army Children School I, Holy Prophet School I and II in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun state. The reason for using such a small sample is due to financial constraint and time.

1.8 Definition of Terms

(i) Truancy:

This is absent from school without a valid excuse.

(ii) Academic:

Acquired by formal education especially at a primary or secondary school.

(iii) Performance:

The act of performing the carrying into excusive or action, achievement, accomplishment, representation by action.

(iv) Mathematics:

The science of numbers and shapes.

(v) Consequence:

A result of something that has happened.

(vi) Damage:

Physical harm caused to something which makes it attractive.

(vii) Criminal:

Connected or involving to breaking the law.

(viii) Violence:

This is a behaviour that is intended to hurt or kill.

(ix) Robbery:

The crime of stealing money or goods from bank, stop or person.

(x) Abusive:

Involving to hurt or kill.

(xi) Legislature:

A group of people who have the power to make and change laws.

(xii) Conduct:

To organised something or particular activity.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine a study of truancy among primary school pupils using schools in Abeokuta North local Government Area as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at truancy in primary school pupils.

The study also determine the causes of truancy. More so the study further explained the effects of truancy. Additionally ,the study also suggested possible solutions to the problem of truancy. A total of 77 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers of the selected schools

5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. Pupils are always or occasionally absent from school
  2. Most cases of truancy starts from home.
  3. Because of the truancy character in some student it is discovered that much pupils cheat during class work..
  4. The extent to which the effects of truancy affect primary school pupils.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Pupils should be selective in types of friends they accompany in school. This will help them not to be truants among their peers.
  2. Parents should avoid quarrelling before their children and also show them care . This will help to reduce truancy influence by family background.
  3. School management should ensure that the school administration, rules and regulation are flexible. This is because rigid policy of school influence truancy among pupils.
  4. Student should be given adequate time in order for them to complete their assignment since incomplete homework, poor health and poor preparation for daily or weekly tests among others influence truancy.
  5. Parents should put in their best to make sure that children are completely provided for with their educational needs and also trained them morally. The increasing student registration at all level of education should be matched with corresponding qualified teachers and counselors.

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