The Effects Of Teaching Techniques In Teaching Economics In Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Economics Education

The Effects Of Teaching Techniques In Teaching Economics In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study is on the effects of teaching techniques in teaching economics in secondary schools. Purpose was to determine the relationship between the selected variables and to develop a model for guiding successful use of selected teaching and learning technique in secondary. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Uyo local government of Akwa Ibom State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals,vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers are to apply appropriate teaching technique that best suit specific objectives and level of outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impact knowledge to the learners compared to student-centered technique. Research on teaching and learning constantly endeavours to examine the extent to which different teaching technique enhance growth in student learning (Hightower, 2011). Quite remarkably, rampant poor academic performance by the majority of students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching technique by teachers to impact knowledge to learner (Adunola, 2011). Effectiveness of teaching technique indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected on the achievement of learners. According to Ayeni, (2011); teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners to achieve specific outcomes. Adunola (2011), maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching methods that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered, if teaching is to be effective. It is likely true that successful learning depends on various factors other than that of the teacher. The technique that a teacher uses continues to play an important role in students’ learning and in their academic achievement. The challenges that educators face in the 21st century are so diverse that using better teaching methods is more crucial now than ever before. Demonstration method of teaching is one of the many teaching learning style under the investigation or activity based. Demonstration method involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making clear by use of examples or experiments, it means “to clearly show”. It is a method which is capable of improving learning through its diversity effect activity. Demonstration technique often occurs when students have a hard time connecting theories to actual practice or when students are unable to understand application of theories. This method enables concepts and processes to be observed directly, which in turn makes learning easier. When teaching Economics in secondary School, teachers are often facing various problems related on how they can make their students understand basic economic phenomena, relevant terms and their application in everyday life. In order to overcome such problems, teachers must discover and apply new teaching techniques which are compatible with the needs, the interests and the abilities of their students. Our proposing method is a combination of teaching through art, cooperative and experiential learning and project method. The proposed technique is based on a research that was carried out in a senior high school and has remarkable results regarding the didactic methodology. The purpose of this paper is to present this innovative technique, to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of students during this teaching process and to examine the extent to which this technique can contribute to the improvement of teaching and learning.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers have the greatest potential to influence the students’ education, while a student achievement is related to teachers’ competence in using different techniques of teaching. Thus, students achieve more when teachers employ systematic teaching procedures that make teaching and learning processes easier. Excellent academic performance by the students is not only attainable but could also be sustained through teacher’s technique of teaching. The incidence of ineffective teaching of Economics in senior secondary school has resulted to poor achievement in both internal and external examinations. Most teacher while teaching do not involve the learners, learners merely absorb what is given to them, this makes them passive and less receptive, it does not encourage investigation and verification of facts, students’ knowledge is limited to what their teacher teach them. Teachers must stimulate, encourage and maintain active participation of students through the selection of appropriate teaching technique. Students’ negative attitudes towards learning may be related to techniques of teaching used. Varying factors ranging from socio-economic background, intelligence, attitudes of students to teaching methods employed by teachers have been attributed to poor achievement. Every teachers’ desire is to make sure that teaching-learning process take place positively in the classroom, this depend on his/her approach towards learning situations. The teacher does not teach the most relevant, meaningful and useful materials for specific students, he must recognize and adopt a good and well-researched technique of teaching that guarantees better understanding and also stimulates and motivate the students.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the relation between teaching technique and student academic performance
  2. To ascertain the relationship between the use of assignment technique and students’ learning effectiveness in economics.
  3. To determine the relationship between the use of questioning technique and the students’ learning effectiveness in learning economics
  4. To ascertain whether teachers’ teaching technique affect student academic performance

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: teachers’ teaching technique does not affect student academic performance
    H1: teachers’ teaching technique affects student academic performance
  2. H02: there is no relationship between the use of questioning technique and the students’ learning effectiveness in learning economics
    H2: there is relationship between the use of questioning technique and the students’ learning effectiveness in learning economics

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is expected that the findings of this study will be of immense benefit not only to the researcher but also to numerous people in the society and in the educational sector. The findings will be of great importance to students, in that; they will be well informed about various teaching techniques, and the effects will be on their academic performance. Findings will be of great importance to educationist both private and public stakeholders, teachers. It will help increase awareness and understanding the use of the most of the teaching technique and provide feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching methods as a basis for improvement in instructional practice to enhance performance. Curriculum designers, educational planner’s policy makers as well as government need empirical data on the overall teaching method and activity teaching competence of government teachers in senior secondary schools to facilitate proper curriculum policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning. Findings of his study will be of great benefit to school counsellors for proper guidance on effective teaching method to be adopted according to the needs of the students that could positively influence teaching and learning.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers the effects of teaching techniques in teaching economics in secondary schools. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Teaching:

Definition of teaching for English Language Learners. : the job or profession of a teacher. : Something that is taught: the ideas and beliefs that are taught by a person, religion, etc

Teacher:

A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone

Technique:

A way of carrying out a particular task, especially the execution or performance of an artistic work or a scientific procedure.

Economic:

Economics is “a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services”. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of teaching techniques in teaching economics in secondary schools

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the effects of teaching techniques in teaching economics in secondary schools


5.2 Summary

This study was on the effects of teaching techniques in teaching economics in secondary schools. Four objectives were raised which included: To ascertain the relation between teaching technique and student academic performance, to ascertain the relationship between the use of assignment technique and students’ learning effectiveness in economics, to determine the relationship between the use of questioning technique and the students’ learning effectiveness in learning economics, to ascertain whether teachers’ teaching technique affect student academic performance. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Uyo local government of Akwa Ibom State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals,vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

From the above experiential research, we can come up with some useful results concerning the teaching methodology of Economics. The involvement of the Economic theory with other sciences and particularly with music opens new horizons in the approach of economics phenomena because music offers the chance to students to study in an innovative way the social, political and economic environment. In this way, didactic methodology of Economic theory may get out of the strict structured framework of the course provided by the analytical program and economics and the economic concepts can be subjects for dynamic discussions and reflections between teachers and students. Moreover, teacher should apply all the conditions for the quality teaching, which are interpersonal relationships and expectations, pedagogical classroom climate and organization of classroom. In particular, the quality teachings focuses on the engagement of students in active learning, creation of intellectually ambitious tasks, usage of variety of teaching strategies, assessment of student learning continuously and adaptation teaching to student needs, creation of effective scaffolds and support, provision of clear standards, constant feedback, and opportunities for revising work and development and effective management of a collaborative classroom in which all students are equal partners


5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were made based on the findings and conclusions of the study.

  1. Teacher education should be based on use of a variety of teaching methods/tools, therefore, the student teaching process should focused on using more variety in selection of methods/tools.
  2. The paradigm of teaching and learning has been changed from traditional transfer of knowledge by the teacher to constructing knowledge through experiences using technology (by student), therefore teaching strategies for the future of agricultural education should be based on student-oriented approaches and experiences. The teacher’s role should be changed to be a guide or helper for student learning, because student learning is not a passive process, it is active process.
  3. The principles of teaching and learning and related theories should be addressed in the teacher education and teacher in-service programs because the amount of education in this area has an impact on use and effectiveness of selected teaching methods/tools.

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