The Effects Of Two Teaching Methods On Secondary School Students Performance In Biology

Biology Education Project Material

The Effects Of Two Teaching Methods On Secondary School Students Performance In Biology


“The Effect Of Two Teaching Methods On Secondary School Students Performance In Biology In Enugu Educational Zone” is a very vital factor in school decision since it influences their returns, affect their values in educational sector. The research was carried out to ascertain and test the application and relevance of two teaching method, of some School in Enugu State, factor affecting the two teaching method, the effect of the application and relevance of two teaching method, and its impact on the selected organization. The study came out the following.

  1. The teachers are not using the appropriate method in teaching biology.
  2. The facilities are not available in teaching process. The researchers therefore concluded that two teaching method are not preplanned from the research study and should be enhanced upon to make a good head way and clear future.

Chapter One


1.1. Background of the Study:

There has been a consistent poor achievement in Biology as shown by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) annual reports of (1990-1995). Many scholars have therefore tried to find the ways and means of improving students achievements in Biology. They have, therefore, looked at many factors and carried out some emperical studies on the effect of these factors on performance of students.

The factor considered in the present study is the effects of two teaching methods on secondary school students performances in Biology. The methods being considered are the discussion and the demonstration methods. These two methods encourages co-operative learning between the teacher and the learners. Johnson and Johnson (1997) were of the opinion that co-operative learning experiences promoted higher achievement among the students. Although most studies have stressed on students’ participation and interaction as being very important factors of achievement, there may, however, be other alternative contributing factors and teacher’s method of teaching is definitely one of them.

Jonassen DH(2006) states that pedagogy is a different way by which a teacher can teach. Teaching method therefore, is the act or science of being a teacher, generally referring to strategies of instruction or style of instruction. Science is an activity oriented subject. The way it is thought is important in helping the students acquire basic scientific knowledge, skills and attitude to solving different problem in life. Biology being a science subject, therefore involve the teacher using methods that will give the students opportunity to be actively involved.

It is a well-known fact that no skilled teacher ever uses just one method of teaching Shield (2002) pointed out that good teachers follow no one method, instead he/she uses whatever methods and materials that seems to be best for the particular combination of individual situations.

This research work is focused mainly on discussion and demonstration methods of teaching. Discussion method involves the discussion of a biology topic, issue or concept by groups of students or the entire classroom.

Trusted (1997) asserts that the discussion method could be teacher centered, task centered or student centered. The teacher opens the discussion by asking one of the prepared questions and the students go on to discuss while he moderates.

Walker (2003) says that in discussion method, students are given chance to react while the teacher who has the answer in mind allows the students to think about the question.

According to Wirschner (2006), discussion method is a teaching method that includes questioning which is similar to testing. A teacher may ask a series of question to collect information of what students have learned and what needs to be taught. Testing is another application of questioning. A teacher tests the student on what was previously taught in order to identify if a student has learned in order to identify if a student has learned in the material.

According to Mayer (2004), demonstration are done to provide an opportunity to learn new exploration and visual learning tasks from a different perspective. A teacher may use experimentation to demonstrate ideas in a science class. Demonstration may be used in the circumstance of proving conclusively a fact, as by reasoning or showing evidence.

Over the past years, these have been an unsteady progress rate in biology for secondary school students as regards internal and external examinations. Measuring academic performance can occur at multiple levels and serves multiple purposes.

For instance, the classroom teachers after conduct formative and summative tests, to evaluate students mastering of course content and provide grades for students and parents. This relative achievement of secondary school students is an example that has internal and external impact depending on the method adopted by the teacher. It is in the light of the above that the need to examine the effect of two teaching methods on secondary school student performance in biology in Enugu Education Zone can not be over emphasized.

1.2 Statement of the Problem.

The popular opinion in Nigeria today is that the standard of Education has fallen short of what it should be. This fall in the standard of education is perceived by many as the inability of the teachers to impact knowledge to the learners, the way they will understand and write well in examinations. Reports by examination councils in Nigeria have disclosed the recurrent and endemic failure of students in both internal and external examinations especially in Biology (WAEC) annual reports; (1990-1995). Agbo (2010) says that teachers no more show commitment as they see themselves as most “measure up”. Also Layi (2004) found out that teacher’s lateness to work, absenteeism and poor attitude to work encourage indolence and contribute to poor performance among students. The problem of this study is therefore to investigate the effect of two teaching methods- Discussion and demonstration, on secondary school students performance in Biology.

1.2. Purpose of the Study:

The main purpose of this study is to investigate into the effects of two teaching methods on secondary school students performance in Biology in Enugu Education Zone.

Specifically, the study will examine:-

  1. Whether teachers posses the skills of using the two methods in teaching.
  2. If there is any significance difference in students performance in using the two teaching methods in biology.
  3. Whether the facilities are available for the two teaching methods.

1.3. Significance of the Study

The finding of this study will be of benefit to the teachers, students and curriculum planners. The study critically discusses extensively the effect of two teaching methods on secondary school students in biology, the consideration of academic performance of students in biology.

This findings will help the students who have lost hope in doing well in biology that all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their teachers.

The teachers will benefit since the study will help them to understand the appropriate methods of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties. The curriculum planners will get used information that will enable them improve in their planning of curriculum.

The overall significance is that when all the stake holders in this study benefit from the findings, the learning of biology will be very enjoyable and the students will perform better in both internal and external examinations.

1.4 Scope of the Study:

The study will concern itself with the effect of two teaching methods on secondary school students performance in biology which will be carried out in Enugu Education zone of Enugu state. Biology teachers in the public secondary schools in the zone will be used for the study. A multiplicity of variables come under the topic, but the researchers have decided to focus on the following variables:- These includes, the use of demonstration and discussion methods in teaching biology. The skills involved in the use of the two teaching methods, the facilities available for the two teaching methods.

1.5 Research questions:

The following research questions have been formulated to guide this study:-

  1. What are the skills involved in the use of discussion and demonstration methods in teaching biology?
  2. Is there any significance difference in students performance in using the two teaching methods in biology?
  3. Are the facilities available for the two teaching methods?

Chapter Five

Discussion, Findings, Implications, Recommendations and Summary

5.1 Discussion of the Finding:

The skills involved in the use of Discussion and Demonstration methods in teaching Biology.

This study found out that Biology teachers use varieties of skills in teaching biology with discussion and demonstration methods of teaching. The teachers were observed to be using pacing, elaboration, expression, asking questions and responding to questions and responding to questions. The teachers allowed the students to participate in their lessons. The teachers did their evaluation and closure. The teachers were creative, they used materials and managed learning tasks very well. They equally provided learning experiences for the students.

This finding is in line with Esenebe and Une-chukwu (1995) in Bourner (1996) that students should learn through their own active involvement with concept and principles. Also they should have experience and conduct experiments that permit them to discover principles themselves. The skills observed to be used in their two teaching methods buttresses Onyeneto (2000) who maintains that “every type of learning should involve the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains since their active involvement makes the child’s learning meaningful for problem solving. Discussion and Demonstration method’s eliminates rote learning.

Whether or Not there is any significant difference in student’s performance in using the two teaching methods in Biology.

The fifty students used for this study were pre-tested before the two teachers who used the two teaching methods were observed. The scores of the pre-test were collected and the mean found. After observing the teachers teach biology with the two teaching methods the students were given the same test called post-test. Their scores were collected and the mean taken.

The difference in the two means were found out and it was observed that though there mere improvements in the students performance, the difference was not quite significant.

This findings may be as a result of the fact that the students are not used to these methods before. For according to Odubumni (1980), and Oguniyi (1981) biology teachers normally use more of lecture approach for their lesson.

Though the two methods adopted were interaction pattern, the interaction pattern was competitive which does not encourage fully the shamming skills or ideas or help each other during lesson, this might have accounted for the students performance not being quite significant.

Available facilities for two Teaching methods.

There are inadequate facilities for the teaching of biology. The necessity of instructional materials is seriously emphasized by educational technologists, advising teachers to arouse all sense in the learning process. (Okeke in Okwo and Ike 1995). Accordingly, she says that about 75% of human knowledge comes through the sense. By implication one sees that for students to be fully involved in the learning process without distractions, good management and enjoyment of instructional materials are necessary. The findings supports inadequacy of teaching facilities as indicated by Ezugwu (2002). For him, the absence of and non availability of instructional materials for instruction purpose has laid the foundation for theoretical as against creative and reflective knowledge.

Summary of major findings on the basis of data analyzed the following major findings were made: –

  1. Discussion and Demonstration methods of teaching skills.
  2. There was no significance difference in the performance of students in Biology when the two methods were used in teaching.
  3. Teaching of Biology is handicapped by inadequate facilities.

5.2 Educational Implication of the Study:

The findings of this study have the following educational implication for the government, educational administrations, teachings and students.

The findings of this study will encourage government to vote sufficient fund for education in order to enable school administrators provide necessary teaching materials and facilities for their schools. The government as well as school authorities have additional responsibility to sponsor teaches for in service training programmes.

For teachers and students, the findings of the study will enable them appreciate the importance of biology as a school subject and also understand that co-operative learning and teaching facilities enhance learning in schools.

5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study:

  1. Government and school administrators should ensure adequate supply of facilities in schools to ensure good teaching.
  2. The biology teacher should employ appropriate methods and skills in relation to the topic they wish to deliver in biology lessons.
  3. Biology teachers should realize that cooperative learning is more productive than competitive learning through interactive in nature.

5.4 Limitations of the Study:

This research work has its’ weaknesses, which attended to it. One of these weaknesses is that the investigation was limited to only Senior Secondary Schools Class II in Enugu Educational Zone of Enugu State, and cannot be generalized. The data collected cannot be exactly perfect especially when it involved tests and observations.

Suggestions for further Studies: the following suggestions are made for further studies:-

  1. Biology teaching in secondary schools, problems and prospects.
  2. Promoting interest in Biology lessons in Enugu Educational Zone.
  3. School location as a factor that influences students’ performance in Biology.

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