The Effects Of Two Teaching Methods On Academic Performance Of Senior Sencondary School Students In Home Economics (A Case Study Of Onitsha South Local Government Area)

Project and Seminar Material for Home Economics

The Effects Of Two Teaching Methods On Academic Performance Of Senior Sencondary School Students In Home Economics (A Case Study Of Onitsha South Local Government Area)


Abstract


This study was carried to examine the effects of two teaching methods on academic performance of senior secondary school in home economics with a particular reference to selected secondary schools in Onitsha South Local Government Area of Anmbra State. To achieve this objective, four research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. The survey research design was adopted for the study. The data collected were analyzed using T-test statistical method to test the research hypotheses. A well-structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection from the respondents in senior secondary school students in selected secondary schools in Onitsha South Local Government Area of Anmbra State. After the careful analysis of the data, the following findings were revealed that there is a significant relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics; there is a significant relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics; there is a significant relationship between the use of questioning method and students’ academic performance in home economics. The study was concluded with recommendations that education should be entertaining and fun to students not boredom or just a duty. The researcher recommended that the teaching would be highly effective if the teacher starts to use innovative teaching methods like the discussion and demonstration method. Hence, bias in selection of teaching methods by teachers in areas in which they possess exclusive monopoly knowledge should be avoided to improve students’ academic performance and teachers should create an atmosphere conducive to learning in order to enhance the development of students’ learning experiences.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Teaching method is the main factor necessary for impacting knowledge to the students or pupils. A number of methods have been tested and agreed upon by educators as good. None of the methods is however, perfect and effective for all situations but each of the methods or a combination of them can be used at any particular time to impact our subject matter (Onwuba, 1983). In the past, few methods are used in impacting knowledge into the pupils which sometimes make them boring.

Callahur et al (1977) noted that the method by which the teacher presents his/her materials to the learners and engages them in the task at hand is very important. Methodology is very vital in every teaching and learning situation. This is because, for effective teaching and learning to take place, the skillful teacher needs to use the many different methods and techniques at his command. Even though there is a great diversity in teaching methods and techniques, there is no one of them that can be regarded as the best for every teaching situation (Onwuka 1982).

A carefully designed teaching method can work wonders in making learning more effective. The success in the use of the method depends on intelligent analysis of the educational purposes, the pupils in the class, the curriculum, and content of the moment or the type of subject matter being taught (Brown 1990).

There is an increase in social concern over the performance of students in school examinations. People tend to agree that student’s performance has been a threat to the students and the entire society. This is exemplified by the poor cognitive performance of students particularly in home economics has been very poor (Igbokwe, 1995).
Home Economics is one of the compulsory prevocational subjects taught at the Junior Secondary Education level in Nigeria educational system. According to Anyakoha (2007), Home Economics is a skill oriented field of study that is expected to equip learners with survival skills that make for self-reliance, employment and paid employment. Occupational skills are best understood as competency on resourceful skills capable of steering an individual to be self-reliant, independent and productive in meeting lives challenges. Creese, (1976) said occupational skills are life survival skills which an individual needs to function effectively and face the challenges of life. Occupational skills in Home Economics include food and nutrition skills, home management skills and clothing and textile skills. By teaching occupational skills Home Economics Education Program enables an individual to learn, explore and prepare for a job or trade. Thus Home Economics could play a significant role in achieving the goals of the National Economic and Development Strategy (NEEDS). These goals include wealth creation, employment generation, reduction of poverty, elimination of corruption and the general reorientation of values.

Academic performance connotes performance in a school subject as symbolized by a score or marks on the achievement test (Epunnam, 1999); while retention of learning according to Momoh-Olle (1999) is the repeated performance by a learner of the behaviour earlier acquired, elicited after an interval of time. It is affected by the degree of original learning, the methods of learning and learners’ memory capacity among others (Demmert 2001). Performance of students in home economics is defined as the learning outcomes of the students which include knowledge, skills and ideas acquired and retained through his/her course of studies within and outside the classroom situation (Epunnam, 1999; Adepoju, 2011). It is quantified by a measure of student’s academic standing in relation to those of other students of the same age (Adelola, 2004). The academic performance of students in home economics is a function of several factors which are inter-related. These factors are either internal or external. That is, it is either within the control of the individual or outside his/her control.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Evidence abound that the implementation of the secondary school home economics programme in the country over the years has left much to be desired. Students’ performances over the years appear not to be impressive probably due to so many factors influencing academic performance in home economics. Njoku (1992) once observed the massive failure rate in examination and the author attributed this failure rate to several factors.

Observation has also shown that many students that had written home economics examinations appeared not to perform too impressively. Furthermore, the alarming failure rate that is widely speculated has engaged the minds of so many stakeholders as to what could possibly be responsible for the poor performances in home economics examination. Literatures have it that there are several factors that could account for students’ academic performance and some of the notable factors reported include: teachers’ qualification, teaching experience, location of schools, school type, instructional materials and teaching strategies.

The development of teaching methods is as old and closely associated with evolution of mankind. Since methodology is essential to academic achievement, it could be noted that two teaching methods have more effects on junior secondary school students than one method. This study therefore, intends to find out the effects of two teaching method on academic performance of senior secondary school students in Home Economics.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of two teaching methods on academic performance of senior secondary school in home economics. The specific objectives include the following:

  1. To assess the relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics.
  2. To examine the relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics.
  3. To determine the relationship between the use of questioning method and students’ academic performance in home economics.
  4. To ascertain the relationship between the use of assignment method and students’ academic performance in home economics.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were stated to guide this study:

  1. What is the relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics?
  2. What is the relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics?
  3. What is the relationship between the use of questioning method and students’ academic performance in home economics?
  4. What is the relationship between the use of assignment method and students’ academic performance in home economics?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide this study:

Hypothesis 1
  • H0: There is no significant relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics.
  • H1: There is a significant relationship between the use of discussion method of teaching and students’ academic performance in home economics.
Hypothesis 2
  • H0: There is no relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics.
  • H1: There is a relationship between the use of demonstration method and students’ academic performance in home economics.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is expected that the findings of this study will be of immense benefit not only to the researcher but also to numerous people in the society and in the educational sector. The findings will be of great importance to students, in that; they will be well informed about various teaching methods, and the effects will be on their academic performance.

Findings will be of great importance to educationist both private and public stakeholders, teachers. It will help increase awareness and understanding the use of the most of the teaching methods and provide feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching methods as a basis for improvement in instructional practice to enhance performance.

Curriculum designers, educational planner’s policy makers as well as government need empirical data on the overall teaching method and activity of teaching competence of government teachers in senior secondary schools to facilitate proper curriculum policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.

Findings of his study will be of great benefit to school counsellors for proper guidance on effective teaching methods to be adopted according to the needs of the students that could positively influence teaching and learning.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this research is on the effects of two teaching methods on academic performance of senior secondary school students in home economics with a particular reference to selected secondary schools in Onitsha South Local Government Area of Anmbra State.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations for further studies.


5.2 Summary

This study was carried to examine the effects of two teaching methods on academic performance of senior secondary school students in home economics with a particular reference to selected secondary schools in Onitsha South Local Government Area, Anambra State. Three hundred and fifty respondents were randomly selected from the senior secondary school 11 class students for the study. Achievement tests, four research questions, questionnaire with two hypotheses formulated to guide the researcher were used, with 25 items on a 4-point rating scoring. Spearman Brown was used to test for reliability and T-test statistical method at 0.05 significant level was employed to analyze the data collected for the study.

The study was backed up with theoretical frame work such as Behaviourist learning theories-believes that the success of using any teaching method depends on each students stimulus and response and associations made by each learners. Cognitive theory- place greater importance on teaching that help students to actively assimilate and accommodate new material. Cognitive-constructivist learning theories-states that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction when information is passively received. Also, were conceptual reviews on discussion method and students’ learning effectiveness- discussion engages students and promote their desire to learn the subject. Demonstration method and students’ learning effectiveness-is a method of teaching concepts, principles, or real life things by combining explanation with handling or manipulation of real things/materials. Questioning method and students learning effectiveness-as a teaching method it helps to assess students’ knowledge, promote comprehension, and build critical-thinking skills, heightens students’ internet and promote understanding. Assignment method and students’ learning effectiveness-using; this method of teaching aim to develop students reasoning, problem solving and decision makes skills. Empirical reviews were on all the research variables used in guiding the study.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable students learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn. In today’s school the trend is that it encourages a lot of creativity. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning. This reasoning and original thought enhances creativity.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. Education should be entertaining and fun to students not boredom or just a duty. The researcher recommended that the teaching would be highly effective if the teacher starts to use innovative teaching methods like the discussion and demonstration method. Hence, bias in selection of teaching methods by teachers in areas in which they possess exclusive monopoly knowledge should be avoided to improve students’ academic performance.
  2. Teachers should create an atmosphere conducive to learning in order to enhance the development of students’ learning experiences.
  3. Opportunities should be given to teachers for professional training on knowledge of their subject discipline and teaching methods so as to increase their knowledge of various teaching methods in order to keep students engaged and motivated throughout the learning process.
  4. Government should emphasize on the usage of teaching methods by the teachers.
  5. Student-centered methods of teaching should be widely stressed to be used by the teachers of Biology like the discussion, demonstration, questioning and assignment teaching methods this produce higher level learning outcomes more efficiently.
  6. Governments from time to time should organized workshops, seminars and on-the-job training for teachers so as to update their knowledge and skills on the usage of various teaching methods.
  7. Government should also remunerate teachers well and as at when due in order for them to be motivated while performing their duties.

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