The Effects Of Two Teaching Methods On Academic Achievement Of Junior Secondary School Students In Home Economics

Project and Seminar Material for Home Economics

The Effects Of Two Teaching Methods On Academic Achievement Of Junior Secondary School Students In Home Economics


Abstract


The study focused on the impact of teaching methods of home economics on academic achievement of junior secondary school students using Enugu Education Zone as case study. The research adopted a descriptive survey design was employed to assess the opinions of the respondents. A total of 150 participant were selected from 5 (five) sampled junior secondary school in Enugu education zone. Well structured questionnaire was issued to the 150 respondent of which total of 141 responses were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed in frequencies using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation. Findings from the study revealed that Class Size, Availability of teaching aids, available laboratory equipment, level of qualification and teachers subject mastery and Management policies are determinant factor that enhances teacher to choosing a particular method.

Finding also revealed that when teachers choose tow method such as traditional/modern method that can facilitate student academic achievement in home economics. the study therefore recommends that Government should equip tertiary institutions with physical facilities, modern equipment and laboratories in the different areas of home economics. More so Teachers in the system should be trained, and retrained to be updated with new skills, new methodology and technology in the Home Economics teaching and learning.


Table of Content


  • TITLE PAGE
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Review of Empirical studies

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size determination
  • 3.5 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.7 Method of data collection
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis
  • 3.9 Validity of the study
  • 3.10 Reliability of the study
  • 3.11 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011).
Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.
There has been a consistent poor achievement in Home Economics and many scholars have therefore tried to find the ways and means of improving students’ achievements in Home Economics. They have, therefore, looked at many factors and carried out some empirical studies on the effect of these factors on performance of students.
The factor considered in the present study is the effects of two teaching methods on secondary school students’ performances in Home Economics. The methods being considered are the discussion and the demonstration methods. These two methods encourage co-operative learning between the teacher and the learners of Home Economics. Johnson and Johnson (2017) were of the opinion that co-operative learning experience promotes higher achievement among the students. Although most studies have stressed on students’ participation and interaction as being very important factors of achievement, there may, however, be other alternative contributing factors and teacher’s method of teaching is definitely one of them.

Jonassen (2016) states that pedagogy is a different way by which a teacher can teach. Teaching method therefore, is the act of being a teacher, generally referring to strategies of instruction or style of instruction. Home economics, or family and consumer sciences, is today a subject concerning cooking, nutrition, housekeeping, personal finance, personal wellness, and consumer issues. In the past, it was mainly just about cooking and housework. Home economics courses are offered around the world and across multiple educational levels. Historically, the purpose of these courses was to professionalize housework, to provide intellectual fulfillment for women, and to emphasize the value of “women’s work” in society and to prepare them for traditional gender roles.

Home Economics is one of the subjects in the Technology Education Key Learning Area at school levels. It comprises major areas of study on food, clothing, home and family which intertwine with the six knowledge contexts proposed in the Technology Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 – Secondary 3). The six knowledge contexts are: Information and Communication Technology, Materials and Structures, Operations and Manufacturing, Strategies and Management, Systems and Control and Technology and Living.

Walker (2013) says that in discussion method, students are given chance to react while the teacher who has the answer in mind allows the students to think about the question. According to Wirschner (2016), discussion method is a teaching method that includes questioning which is similar to testing. A teacher may ask a series of question to collect information of what students have learned and what needs to be taught. Testing is another application of questioning. A teacher tests the student on what was previously taught in order to identify if a student has learned in the material.

According to Mayer (2014), demonstrations are done to provide an opportunity to learn new exploration and visual learning tasks from a different perspective. A teacher may use experimentation to demonstrate ideas in a science class. Demonstration may be used in the circumstance of proving conclusively a fact, as by reasoning or showing evidence. Over the past years, these have been an unsteady progress rate in home economics for secondary school students as regards internal examinations. Measuring academic performance can occur at multiple levels and serves multiple purposes.

For instance, the classroom teachers conduct formative and summative tests, to evaluate students mastering of course content and provide grades for students and parents. This relative achievement of secondary school students is an example that has internal and external impact depending on the method adopted by the teacher. It is in the light of the above that the need to examine the impact of teaching methods of home economics on academic achievement of junior secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teacher has the greatest potential to influence the student’s education, while a home economics student achievement is related to their teacher’s competence in using different methods of teaching. Thus, home economics students achieve more when teachers employ systematic teaching procedures that make teaching and learning processes easier. In other words, excellent academic performance by home economics students is not only attainable but could also be sustained through teachers’ method of teaching. The popular opinion in Nigeria today is that the standard of Education has fallen short of what it should be. This fall in the standard of education is perceived by many as the inability of the teachers to impact knowledge to the learners, the way they will understand and write well in examinations. Reports by examination councils in Nigeria have disclosed the recurrent and endemic failure of students in both internal and external examinations especially in Home Economics annual reports; (2010-2015). Teachers no more show commitment as they see themselves as most “measure up” and teacher’s lateness to work, absenteeism and poor attitude to work encourage indolence and contribute to poor performance among home economics students. The problem of this study is therefore to investigate impact of teaching methods of home economics on academic achievement of junior secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone.


1.2 Objective of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate into the impact of teaching methods of home economics on academic achievement of junior secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone. Specifically, the study will examine:-

  1. The various teaching methods in teaching and learning of home economics in junior secondary school in Enugu Education Zone.
  2. The relationship between teachers’ methods of teaching home economics and students’ academics’ achievement.
  3. The factor influencing the home economics teachers’ choice of teaching methods in junior secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions are raised to guide the study:

  1. What are the various teaching methods in teaching and learning of home economics in junior secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone?
  2. What is the relationship between teachers’ methods of teaching home economics and students’ academics’ achievement?
  3. What are the factors influencing the home economics teachers’ choice of teaching methods in junior secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone?
  4. Would Two teaching method have any significant effect student achievement in home economics?

1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings from the study will be relevant to teachers, student and curriculum planners. To Students, The finding will help the students who have lost hope in doing well in home economics that all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their teachers. The teachers will benefit since the study will help them to understand the appropriate methods of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties. The curriculum planners will get used information that will enable them improve in their planning of curriculum. The overall significance is that when all the stake holders in this study benefit from the findings, the learning of home economics will be very enjoyable and the students will perform better in both internal and external examinations. Finally the study contribute to body of existing literature and serve as reference material to scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focused on the impact of teaching methods of home economics on academic achievement of junior secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone with the view the examine; various teaching methods in teaching and learning of home economics in junior secondary school, relationship between teachers’ methods of teaching home economics and students’ academics’ achievement and factor influencing the home economics teachers’ choice of teaching methods in junior secondary school, all in Enugu Education Zone.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Notably, like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. However in spite of the constraint all these constraint were downplayed to give the best.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Challenges:

The situation of being faced with something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person’s ability

Home Economics:

This is a field of study that deals with the economics and management of the home and community. It deals with the relationship between individuals, families, communities, and the environment in which they live.

Learning:

Is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential change in synthesizing information, depth of the knowledge, attitude or behavior relative to the type and range of experience.

Teachers:

Persons who help others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone.

Teaching:

The process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The study focused on the impact of teaching methods of home economics on academic achievement of junior secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone with the view the examine; various teaching methods in teaching and learning of home economics in junior secondary school, relationship between teachers’ methods of teaching home economics and students’ academics’ achievement and factor influencing the home economics teachers’ choice of teaching methods in junior secondary school, all in Enugu Education Zone.

The research adopted a descriptive survey design was employed to assess the opinions of the respondents. A total of 150 participant were selected from 5 (five) sampled junior secondary school in Enugu education zone.Well structured questionnaire was issued to the 150 respondent of which total of 141 responses were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed in frequencies using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation.


5.2 Conclusion

Home Economics is a skill acquisition that demands adequate infrastructures for its effectiveness in an institution. However, the issue of adequacy and relevance of Home Economics facilities is still neglected in most junior secondary schools in Nigeria today. Since no nation can develop meaningfully, without infrastructural facilities in her institution of learning.The study, establishes the facts, that investment in a vocation oriented course as Home Economics is an investment on individual, family and the society at large, which enhances technological advancement in the nation.

Findings from the study revealed that Class Size, Availability of teaching aids, available laboratory equipment, level of qualification and teachers subject mastery and Management policies are determinant factor that enhances teacher to choosing a particular method. finding also revealed that when teachers choose tow method such as traditional/modern method that can facilitate student academic achievement in home economics.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the above, the researcher therefore, recommends as follows:

  1. There should be adequate provision of Home Economics facilities such as laboratories, equipment and instructional materials.
  2. All the four aspects of Home Economic (Clothing & Textiles, Food and Nutrition, Home Management and Child Development) should have a separate laboratory with equipment.
  3. Qualified teachers that can teach all the aspects of Home Economics should be employed.
  4. Teachers and students should be careful with the facilities to ensure proper management and maintenance of available tools and equipment.
  5. Proprietors or the administrators should support Home Economics programmes financially.
  6. Momentous intervention will require that all stakeholders in education should look inward and address these challenges; by adequately funding monitoring and supervising the teaching and learning of Home Economics Education programmes in the Universities in Nigeria.
  7. Government should initiate a loan scheme for students in home economics programmes where they can assess some financial assistance towards meeting their needs to purchase equipment as future entrepreneurs.
  8. Institutions of higher learning should have a working relationship with industries where experts can sometimes come in to share practical experiences with students;
  9. Students should also be made to spend one year in the industrial training programme.
  10. Teachers in the system should be trained, and retrained to be updated with new skills, new methodology and technology in the Home Economics teaching and learning.
  11. Government should equip junior secondary schools with physical facilities, modern equipment and laboratories in the different areas of home economics

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