The Effects Of Stress On Health Care Workers During The Covid 19 Pandemic

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The Effects Of Stress On Health Care Workers During The Covid 19 Pandemic


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effects of stress on health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic in Lagos State general hospital. The study was carried out to examine some of the causes of stress among health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic, determine the effect of stress on the performance of healthcare workers health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic, evaluate the Rate/frequency of Stress sustained by health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic, and evaluate the relationship between stress and performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of healthcare workers in Lagos State general hospital. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 70 respondents and 70 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Pearson correlation statistical tool SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that stress during Covid-19 had numerous effect on the performance of nurses at Lagos State General Hospital, among which include; stress affected output, stress affected service quality, stress affected clients’ satisfaction, and stress affected nurses commitment level. Furthermore, the study revealed that There is a significant relationship between stress and performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Therefore, it is recommended that the manager should endeavour to increase her observational skills in order to detect increased stress levels or signs of burnout among her personnel in the early stages and in order to identify the sources of stress and to reduce or eliminate them. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In recent times, there has been a growing belief that the experience of stress at work has unwelcome effects, both on the health and safety of workers and on the health and effectiveness of their organizations (Payne, 2001). This belief has been reflected not only in public and media interest, but also in increasing concern voiced by the trades unions and by scientific and professional organizations, including the International Labor Office. Particular concern has been expressed for the effects of stress on health-care professionals and, in particular, on nurses. He concluded that nursing is, by its very nature, a “stressful” profession. In a similar vein, Harris (2001) observed that every day the nurse confronted with grief, stark suffering, and death as few other individuals do. A lot of nursing tasks are unrewarding and mundane. Many are, by normal standards, disgusting and distasteful. Some are simply frightening, others are often degrading. It is barely amazing that nurses, faced by such tasks and events, have been detailed to experience high intensities of stress, and their difficulties emerge to be further worsened by a range of organizational matters increasingly accepted as being active in the stress process.

Stress has been grouped as a stimulus or antecedent, as a response or consequence, and as an interaction. It has been deliberated from many diverse perspectives. For instance, Smith et al (2001) anticipated a physiological evaluation that supports considering the connection between stress and illness. On the contrary, Cox and Griffiths (1996) argued that a psychological view in which stress is has a particular relationship between the person and the environment.

Menzies (2011) recognized four sources of nervousness among nurses: decision making, patient care, taking responsibility, and change. The health care workers’ responsibility has long been considered as stress-filled based upon the human suffering, physical labor, work hours, interpersonal relationships and staffing that are vital to the work health care workers do. However, in the last three decade the work stress of health care workers’ have been rising due to the increasing use of technology, continuing going up in health care costs and unrest in the work environment.

Stress is a common and costing setback in today’s working environment. Smith et al (2001) indicated that majority of workers report high intensities of stress and are associated with considerable rises in health service utilization. He also indicated that stress is the main cause of labor turnover, absenteeism, conflict and accidents in any organization. It is against this background that this study seeks to examine the effects of stress on health care workers during the covid pandemic.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Work stress threatens the wellbeing of organizations and employees’ performance (Musyoka, et al., 2012). The issue is becoming a serious problem for many organizations due to organization cost and other negative effects towards organizations and employees’ performance (AL-Omar, 2003). Azizolla, et al. (2013) state that work stress exists when people experienced difficulties in coping with the demands relating to work and when sense of wellbeing is jeopardized. According to Kazmi, et al. (2008) health sector is an inherently stressful work setting with long working hours, ethical dilemmas, difficult patients and incompatible demands. Health sector in Nigeria is among of the sectors which are affected by the said problem. Therefore, it is not exempted from the said consequences. There is however a paucity of research evidence as to whether work stress affects the performance of health workers in Nigeria in general, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. It is in this respect that this study aims at assessing the extent of work stress among health workers during Covid-19 and evaluates the relationship between work stress and health workers performance.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of stress on health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic in general hospital Lagos State.

Specifically, we aim to:

  1. Examine some of the causes of stress among health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.
  2. Determine the effect of stress on the performance of nurses health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.
  3. Evaluate the Rate/frequency of Stress sustained by health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.
  4. Evaluate the relationship between stress and performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.

1.4 Research Question

The questions that the study will seek to be answered are;

  1. What are some of the causes of stress among health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.?
  2. What is the effect of stress on the performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.?
  3. What is the Rate/frequency of Stress among health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic?
  4. What is the Relationship between stress and performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between stress and performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.

Ha: There is no significant relationship between stress and performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.


1.6 Significance of the Study

Health care workersare the cornerstone of the nation’s health care industry, they do not only offer care and comfort, but also serve as role models for good health care. There is therefore adequate justification to study the effects of stress on health care workers during the covid-19 pandemic. Such study will help the health workers to identify the causes of their stress and how to manage it and be able to deliver well to increase their performance.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study has two limitations concerning the findings. First, the study area of this research was a public hospital and even so only one public hospital represented all health workers. Secondly, this study cover health workers of the chosen hospital. This suggests that the findings of this study would be limit at health workers of the General Hospital Lagos State only. There could be regional/cultural specific factors which may make results of this study specific to either the hospital characteristics or region’s culture and geographic location. A study with wider coverage of hospitals in the whole country would be able to mitigate the potential effects of these limitations.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research work is specifically on the effects of stress on health care workers during the covid-19 pandemic. In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.

Cost:

The cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.

Time:

The time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.

Scarcity of Literature:

The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Stress:

Stress is the wear and tear of our body experienced as are adjust to continually changed environment.

Stress Management:

This can be define as various effort to control and reduce the tension that occurs in stressful situation.

Employee:

This is either skilled or unskilled individual who is assured to be economically gesture, and he/she is employed for some form is reward.

Work Environment:

This is the organizational arrangement of the work situation, which has a high impact on the employee.

Performance:

This is the degree of effectiveness in utilizing the facilities of production, especially in labour and material.

Destructive Stress:

This is the stress that acts in a dysfunctional way for both individual and the organization.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The rest of the dissertation is organized as follows: Chapter two discusses related studies. The chapter covers definitions of terms, theories, empirical studies, research gap, conceptual frame work and summary. Chapter three presents the research methodology adopted by the study. Chapter four presents and discusses the study findings while chapter five provides conclusions and recommendations


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of stress on health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic in general hospital Lagos State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the effects of stress on health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemicin Lagos State general hospital. The study is was specifically carried out to examine some of the causes of stress among health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic, determine the effect of stress on the performance of healthcare workers health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic, evaluate the Rate/frequency of Stress sustained by health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic, and evaluate the relationship between stress and performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 70 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were healthcare workers in Lagos State general hospital.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Workload, conflict among colleagues and supervisors, role duality, exposure to infectious diseases, time pressure, unfairness and discrimination, and use of sophisticated technologies, are the major causes of stress among health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.
  2. Stress during Covid-19 had numerous effect on the performance of nurses at Lagos State General Hospital, among which include; stress affected output, stress affected service quality, stress affected clients’ satisfaction, and stress affected nurses commitment level.
  3. The rate/frequency of Stress sustained by healthcare workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic is high.
  4. There is a significant relationship between stress and performance of health care workers during the Covid-19 Pandemic.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Continuing education and staff development should be promoted. Increased skill training, even for those personnel who are more experienced, pays by leading to a reduction in levels of stress, turnover and better performance.
  2. The manager should endeavour to increase her observational skills in order to detect increased stress levels or signs of burnout among her personnel in the early stages and in order to identify the sources of stress and to reduce or eliminate them.
  3. Policies that reduce stress from shift work should be developed. These could include reducing the number of hours of the night shift, increasing rest time between shifts, providing adequate meal times, and providing a fair distribution of weekend and holiday work.
  4. A health care support programme for employees suffering from problems with substance abuse, weight, diabetes, or hypertension is helpful.
  5. Nutritional support should be considered for employees, including weight control classes with group support and follow-up, and information regarding the calorie, sodium, and cholesterol content of food.

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