Effects Of Solid Waste Management

Project and Seminar Material for Geology

Effects Of Solid Waste Management


Abstract


The solid waste management problem in Nigerian cities is becoming more alarming. The volume and range of solid wastes generated daily in Nigeria has been increasing within the last few years. This is mainly due to the high population growth, urbanization, industrialization and general economic growth. This study was carried out to assess the effect of solid waste management. The study made use of the cross sectional design with the study area in Lagos Municipal.

The study revealed that communal skip containers were the main place of solid waste disposal by households, followed by the dumpsites and the collection of solid waste by private waste management firms. Also, the study disclosed that most residents would prefer to dispose their waste properly but there were hindrances to the will of residents in this aspect. Based on these findings, the study recommended education of residents, provision of skip containers and dustbins, and improvement in the local authority’s policy for effective solid waste management.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Limitations
  • 1.6 Purpose Of The Study
  • 1.7 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.8 Definition Of Terms
  • 1.9 Organization Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Waste
  • 2.2 Solid Waste
  • 2.3 Solid Waste Management
  • 2.4 Problems Of Solid Waste Management
  • 2.5 Effect Of Solid Waste Management In Nigeria

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Target Group
  • 3.3 Sample Size
  • 3.4 Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Method Of Data Collection
  • 3.6 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Household Solid Waste Disposal
  • 4.2 Present Situation Of Solid Waste Management
  • 4.3 Challenges Of Effective Solid Waste Management
  • 4.4 Effects Of Solid Waste Management

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Solid waste management as defined by Robinson (1986) is the application of techniques that will ensure the orderly execution of the functions of collection, transport, processing, treatment and disposal of solid waste. Waste in terms of definition can be understood as any product or substance that has no further use or value for the person or organization that owns it, and which is, or will be, discarded (www.wikipedia.com). It thus excludes products or substances that are reused or sold by its owner. The entire understanding of waste is based on the primary owner’s or potential consumer’s value judgment. Solid waste is classified into domestic, commercial, agricultural, institutional and miscellaneous ways (Hargety et al. 1973).

As in most countries, Nigerian governments have intervened in solid waste management for public health and also amenity reasons. Even in the absence of government intervention, households and firms likely use less-than-ideal means of disposal, creating risks of disease, and dumping and littering problems. The systematic collection and disposal of waste to a centralized facility offered a solution to these problems, but also created new problems. Nigeria’s most dominated means of waste disposal was, and remains, to bury it in landfills with little regard to the environmental risks such actions create.

The amount of solid waste generated in Nigeria has been increasing with the rise in the country’s population. It was estimated, based on the population of 22 million that the country generates 3.0million tones of solid waste annually and an average per capita daily generation of 0.45kilograms (Mensah and Larbi 2005). It is projected that the amount of waste generated is expected to increase as population rises (Ibid).

The need for solid waste management has led to the emergence of waste management companies that are having tremendous impacts on the Nigerian people and our environment as a whole. Though the main objective of such organizations is to clean up the environment for reasons such as sanctity, beautification, health benefits and their own personal gains as in profit making, employment of the Nigerian people in this case indigenes of Lagos Municipal is not left out.


1.2 Problem Statement

Solid waste disposal in Lagos Municipal is being an unmanageable burden to the authorities. From the ethical point of view, proper waste management is the most important task of the Lagos Municipal sub-metro authorities for keeping the town clean and healthy. The Lagos Municipal Metropolitan Assembly (2006) is of the assertion that solid waste management in Lagos Municipal city is associated to inadequate funding for capital investment for effective delivery of waste management services, inadequate byelaws and lack of enforcement of available ones, the poor state of infrastructural conditions especially road networks and waste collection points, revenue mobilization inadequacy to finance waste management service costs, and the lack of effective environmental health education and service promotion strategy which has resulted in the indiscriminate household disposal of waste and littering.

Even though researchers have conducted research on waste management related topics, the effects of solid waste management on the people of a specific town has not been given the attention it is intended and should no longer be set aside. As stated by a publication by the Lagos Municipal Metropolitan Assembly in 2006, effective solid waste management is playing important roles on the development of Lagos Municipal city. Likewise, it represents a hindrance to its development due to the ineffective ways it is being undertaken. This situation is at hand because the phenomenon of solid waste management has two sides of influence on the people; the good and the bad. The former is the outcome of the highly efficient ways of undertaking this process while the latter emanates as a consequence of the ineffective manner of going by this same scenario.

The people of Lagos Municipal industrial area being the case study of this research practice have seen positive as well as negative impacts due to this same solid waste management issue. In instances such as: employing of its inhabitants, clean and beautiful environment, not forgetting the good health benefits that the townspeople living in the clean parts of the Lagos Municipal are enjoying being the positive aspects. And the negative resulting in dirty and unhealthy surroundings which leads to the health related problems for inhabits, and even hindrances to employment due to the poorly managed filthy parts of the town. More recently in Lagos Municipal, waste management policy has become concerned with broader issues concerning sustainability and conservation. Rather than just focusing on traditional solutions, avoidance, reuse, recycling, energy recovery and lastly disposal has been adopted. These are waste ranking system approach that value in decreasing order of preference.

Determining the impact of solid waste management is the first step to understanding how critical this research is. This is because the effects of this undertaking go a long way from amenity, health and employment to affecting the economy of the nation as a whole. This statement can be supported with the fact that solid waste management determines how useful byproducts and/or used finished products can be put to reuse and also recycled. Solid waste can also be avoided when it is effectively managed resulting in saving the country huge sums of money for allocation into other aspects of its economy. Notwithstanding the fact that, if it is poorly managed, will affect the nation and its economy in a directly opposite way. Solid waste management is a critical subject and should be considered as such. Therefore the research problem is to assess the effects of solid waste management on the people of Lagos Municipal in Lagos Municipal Metropolis.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The main objective of the research is to highlight the effects solid waste management in Lagos Municipal. Apart from the central aim mentioned above, there are other specific objectives which will be considered as well. These include:

  1. To examine the present situation of solid waste management in Lagos Municipal.
  2. To examine the hindrances to household solid waste disposal.
  3. To identify the challenge of effective solid waste management system in Lagos Municipal.
  4. To find out the effect of the challenge identified above.

1.4 Research Question

Questions to be addressed under this research project are:

  1. What is the present state of solid waste management in Lagos Municipal?
  2. What are the hindrances to household solid waste disposal?
  3. What are the challenges of effective solid waste management system in Lagos Municipal?
  4. What are the effects of the challenges identified above?

1.5 Limitations

The time period allotted for this study could become a hindrance to the research to be undertaken. Since the study is covering a very large area, the required time for the completion of the project is considered in relation to being short due to the fact that the relevant information needed would take a considerable amount of time to get such as; getting information from respondents through the use of questionnaires and interviews; accessing the internet, books, journals, newspapers, media reports and published documents.

There could also be a hindrance to finances. Access to sufficient monetary resources could become a problem. The study need a notably large quantity of stationery for the jotting down of data, printed questionnaires and also other sources of relevant information such as; reports, newspapers, books, journals, media reports, published documents and the internet which requires huge sums of money for their attainment. This might be a limitation to the study because the costs involved in the study are relatively high.

Similarly the unwillingness of some respondents to provide appropriate information is a problem to be anticipated. Most people, especially Nigerians based on their own personal reasons would refuse to give out any information or would withhold some unless their familiarity with the questioner.

These limiting conditions would not have any consequence on the excellence of the study. The competence of such a study outweighs its restrictions and should not be discarded because of these shortcomings. Although the duration of time apportioned for the study is short, time tables will be constructed to fulfill the demands of the study so that enough time needed to carry out the study will be got so as to complete within the specified duration of time.

Funds will be raised from the researcher’s own personal accounts in attaining the financial requirement of the project. But more importantly, money will be acquired from friends and family and also from other philanthropists.

With the problem of obtaining information from respondents, confidentiality and anonymity will be assured of. And that the information which will be extracted from them will be used for academic purposes only. The respondents will eagerly give out adequate information for the carrying of the stud with this information reaching them.


1.6 Purpose Of The Study

Lately, solid waste management has developed into an insistent and peremptory environmental development problem. Based on this, it is therefore of significance that the Government of Nigeria, waste management institutions, non-governmental organizations, corporate bodies and individual persons find a permanent solution to the problem. A core mismanagement of the earth’s resources results in the creation of waste and cannot be corrected by any mere reaction or plan because it will just move the matter around. Solid waste management invariably has influence on the people of Lagos Municipal because it depicts a force that pulls or pushes the human or financial resources of the town and also of the entire nation at large. This assertion makes it relevant for this study to be conducted.

Even though this solid waste management situation is important as a field of research, very little study has been conducted on it using people of Lagos Municipal industrial area as a case study. This study to be undertaken will however operate as a point of reference for the local authorities and other solid waste management organizations and/or researchers concerned with this issue of the effect of solid waste management on the people based on Lagos Municipal or any other society worldwide.

The current status of solid waste generation and the present methods of waste management will be recognized by this research. It will definitely point out the inadequacies in the existing practices and hindrances to the act of effective solid waste management to the case study. After which recommendations will be made to improve upon the condition of solid waste management in Lagos Municipal. The suggestions to be made will serve as assistance to both micro and macro levels in formulation of the right policies and the implementation of effective methods in the management of solid waste.


1.7 Significance Of The Study

This research project if undertaken is meant to establish the extent to which solid waste management effects influence the people and also seeks among other things to provide great benefit to the town of Lagos Municipal. This study has an important contribution to offer to the environment or society and more particularly, the people who live and/or work in Lagos Municipal. Because this study will enlighten the importance of solid waste management by pointing out the ineffective ways which it is currently being undertaken and is leading to the negative consequences on the lives of the towns people and the Lagos Municipal environment as a whole. And again, suggesting better methods of solid waste management in the study area which will lead to positive influences on its human inhabitants and the environment.

Furthermore, this study will help the people of Lagos Municipal understand how they can avoid or reduce solid waste production; what kind of solid waste can be reused; the use of the method of recycling in the management of solid waste; why they have to employ the best methods of solid waste management; and how to manage solid waste to improve their lives and their surroundings.

On a broader importance, this study to be undertaken will enable the formulation of the factually correct policies and the implementation of effective methods in the management of solid waste in the town of Lagos Municipal, the city of Lagos Municipal and Nigeria as a whole. This is because the research findings after it is completed will improve on the knowledge base of solid waste management stakeholders of Lagos Municipal which will arise in the improvement of the lives of the people and the surroundings. Leading to the enrichment in the academia of this field and be amenable to researchers for future research application and implementation.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Waste:

In terms of definition can be understood as any product or substance that has no further use or value for the person or organization that owns it, and which is, or will be, discarded. It thus excludes products or substances that are reused or sold by the organization that owns them.

Management:

Can be defined as the act or process of deciding how to use something.

Solid waste:

Refers to any unwanted or discarded material. It can include organic waste, paper, metals, glass, cloth etc.

Industrial area:

Is an area that predominantly has industry as its main land.

Environment:

Is the surrounding or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates. That is the condition and influences in which a particular activity such as growth, health, progress etc of someone or something occurs.


1.9 Organization Of The Study

This research project is organized into five chapters. The chapter one is entailed of the background of the study, problem statement, objectives of the study, research question or hypothesis, the purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, definition of terms and the organization of the study.

The chapter two contains the literature review on the subject of the role of solid waste management on the environment.

Chapter three is made up of the methodology of the research to be undertaken: that is the research design, population under study, sampling procedure, data collections and data analysis and presentation.

Chapter four presents the analyzing of findings or data and the discussion of processed data from the field of study.

And chapter five being the last, is composed of summaries for the important findings of the study as well as presenting recommendations and general conclusion of the research project.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

After undergoing the various stages of this study, it is important at this concluding stage to examine whether the objectives for the study have been achieved. The main objective of this study was to highlight the effects solid waste management has on the people of Lagos Municipal. In this research, it was identified that solid waste management plays a major role in the day-to-day affairs of inhabitants of the study area. Specific areas such as health of inhabitants and employment opportunities were pointed out in this study.

Apart from the central aim, there are other specific objectives which were considered. The next was to examine the present situation of solid waste management in Lagos Municipal, to which it was found that inconveniences in the disposal of solid waste which resulted to indiscriminate dumping. The third objective of the study was to examine the hindrances to household solid waste disposal. With this, it was realized that there were inadequate waste collection points and the residents’ levels of education. Another objective of the study was to identify the challenge of effective solid waste management system in Lagos Municipal. And this led to knowing the ineffective policy of the Lagos Municipal Local Authority in regards to effective solid waste management and the inadequacy of public education on solid waste management. The effect of the previous challenge identified was the last objective which was tackled. On this, indiscriminate dumping of solid waste by residents of Lagos Municipal was identified.
Making recommendations for the impacts effective solid waste management has on the people of Lagos Municipal was also accessed in areas such as; the education of residents; the provision of skip containers and dustbins; and the improvement in the local authority’s policy for effective solid waste management.

All the objectives which were set for the study have been achieved which therefore makes it key to determining the effects of solid waste management on the people of Lagos Municipal. The above recommendations are important and must be implemented to ensure effective and efficient solid waste management which will benefit the people of Lagos Municipal.


5.2 Recommendations

The following measures have been recommended to ensure that solid waste management is effective and would benefit the people of Lagos Municipal. Unquestionably, it will not be easy, but it is pivotal that it succeeds if we are to have a clear roadmap to the future and determine the right way to benefit the people of Lagos Municipal in terms of solid waste management.

Education Of Residents

Rigorous public education would be the key to transforming solid waste management in Lagos Municipal for the better. Some residents do not understand why they should dump in skip containers, when they can throw refuse indiscriminately. This matter needs addressing and can only be achieved via education. Therefore, it is recommended that, the local authority in collaboration with all stakeholders join forces in enlightening residents of Lagos Municipal on the proper ways of solid waste disposal. The local radio station (light fm) can be used extensively to educate the people. The Information Services Department of the local authority is needed to ply their services in this respect. Unit committees and religious bodies should also make it a point in educating their members on this very important issue, as it affects their well-being. A person’s habits cannot be altered in a snapshot but with persistence, there would be a breakthrough.

Provision Of Skip Containers And Dustbins.

In identification that a major problem facing domestic solid waste management in Lagos Municipal is an inadequacy of skip containers, in recommended to this, more skip containers should be provided so as to give residents the opportunity to dispose their waste properly. At least, 10 skip containers in addition would be needed to provide waste management services in the settlement. This is a very conservative figure, and could be more if the whole settlement is covered. These skip containers should be placed within a radius of 200 meters, so that most residents can reach the site with ease.

Since there are no public dustbins for disposal of waste, it is recommended that these waste facilities be provided in Lagos Municipal. This will enable people dispose of waste in a good manner so as to rid the town of filth and associated diseases.

Improvement In The Local Authority’s Policy For Effective Solid Waste Management

Even though the local authority has a policy to make solid waste management effective, there should be improvements in this policy as recommended by respondents and the researcher is in support of this. An introduction of a new policy would help but an improvement in the current policy is better. The setbacks of the current policy would be let out making room for better strategies for the policy in general. There should be strict rules to tackle indiscriminate solid waste disposal such as punishments and fines for culprits. This would motivate people to dispose waste of properly and thereby making this policy effective.


Effects Of Solid Waste Management


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