The Effects Of Solid Waste To Business Environments In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

The Effects Of Solid Waste To Business Environments In Nigeria


Abstract


This study evaluated the effects of solid waste to business environments in Nigeria. The study specifically examined the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria, investigated the consequences of poor solid waste management in Nigeria and examined the strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of residents of Akure in Ondo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 261 respondents and 259 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria include lack of efficient waste management system, littering of streets, clogging of water channels, odour etc. Therefore, the study recommended that there must be total overhauling of the existing systems of waste management to accommodate recent technologies in waste handling with little or no environmental consequences.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Solid wastes comprise all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted. Also included are by- products of process lines or materials that may be required by law to be disposed of (Okecha 2000). Solid waste can be classified in a number of ways, on the basis of sources, environmental risks, utility and physical property. On the basis of source, solid wastes are again classified as: Municipal Solid Wastes, Industrial Solid Wastes and Agricultural Solid Wastes. Nigeria’s major urban centres are today fighting to clear mounting heaps of solid waste from their environments. These strategic centres of beauty, peace and security are being overtaken by the messy nature of over flowing dumps unattended heaps of solid wastes emanating from household or domestic or kitchen sources, markets, shopping and business centres. City officials appear unable to combat unlawful and haphazard dumping of hazardous commercial and industrial wastes which are a clear violation of the clean Air and Health Edicts in our environmental sanitation laws, rules and regulation.

Refuse generation and its likely effects on the health, quality of environment and the urban landscape have become burning national issues in Nigeria today. All stakeholders concern with the safety and the beautification of our environment have come to realize the negative consequences of uncleared solid human wastes

found in residential neighbourhoods, markets, schools, and central business districts in our cities. These solid wastes have become recurring features in our urban environment. It is no longer in doubt that Nigerian cities are inundated with the challenges of uncleared solid wastes. As a result, urban residents are often confronted with the hazardous impact to their collective health and safety.

A United Nations Report (August 2004) noted with regret that while developing countries are improving access to clean drinking water they are falling behind on sanitation goals. At one of its summit in 2000 (Uwaegbelun 2004) revealed that The World Health Organization-(WHO 2004) and United Nations International Children Education Fund- (UNICEF 2004) joint report in August 2004 that: “about 2.4 billion people will likely face the risk of needless disease and death by the target of 2015 because of bad sanitation”. The report also noted that bad sanitation – decaying or non-existent sewage system and toilets- fuels the spread of diseases like cholera and basic illness like diarrhea, which kills a child every 21 seconds.

The hardest hit by bad sanitation is rural poor and residents of slum areas in fast-growing cities, mostly in Africa and Asia. In 1992, the “Earth Summit” succeeded in alerting the conscience of the world to the urgency of achieving environmentally sustainable development. The Summit asserted that if we know enough to act today, then we must also find answers to many tough conceptual and technical questions that have remained unsolved over time. It affirms that rapid urbanization in developing world if ignored can be a threat to health, the environment and urban productivity.

Cities are the engines of economic growth, but the environmental implications of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems facing developing countries and their cities are the health impact of urban pollution that are derived from inadequate water services, poor urban and industrial waste management, as well as air pollution, especially from particulates which constitutes part of solid waste.

Among the pressing environmental and public health issues in Nigeria today is the problem of solid waste generation and disposal. The problem of solid waste management is a historical one because man’s existence is inextricably linked to the generation of waste. The problem is becoming intractable as many cities in developing countries cannot keep pace with urbanization, pollution, and the increasingly concomitant generation of garbage due to changing life styles and consumption patterns.

The mountainous heaps of solid wastes that deface Nigerian cities and the continuous discharge of industrial contaminants into streams and rivers without treatment motivated the federal government of Nigeria to promulgate Decree 58 for the establishment of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) on 30 December 1988 (Federal Military Government 1988).

A national policy on the environment was formed and the goals of the policy include: to secure for all Nigerians a quality of environment adequate for their health and well being; to raise public awareness and promote understanding of the essential linkages between the environment and development; and to encourage individual and community participation in environmental protection and improvement efforts (FEPA 1989). As regards the solid waste sector, the specific actions desired include collection and disposal of solid waste in an environmentally safe manner; setting up and enforcement of laws, regulations, and standards; encouragement of public participation; environment monitoring and imposition of penalties on defaulters to encourage compliance (FEPA 1989; FRN 1991).

In spite of the formulation of FEPA and a national environmental policy, the environment has not been adequately protected. Interest is mainly on aesthetics, which is rarely achieved (Agunwanba 1998). Wastes collection is irregular and restricted to the major cities. Improperly sited open dumps deface several cities, thereby endangering public health by encouraging the spread of odors and diseases, uncontrolled recycling of contaminated goods and pollution of water sources (Adegoke 1989, Singh 1998).

Sadly, there seems a resignation to the unremitting solid wastes build up by the relevant authorities, where such bodies exist at all. However, in reactions to the inescapable environmental impact of delay in solid wastes removal, the federal government for example, introduced the monthly environmental sanitation in the early seventies. There from the States and Local Governments were expected to take a cue and evolve their own solid wastes management (SWM) strategies based on the peculiarities of their environment.

Each state had in the process of mitigating urban solid wastes, set up Wastes Management Boards (WMB) in attempts to tackle the occurrence of wastes and their hazards to society as a whole. While the unhealthy aspects of abandoned solid wastes can be contained, the more avoidable features of blocked drains, traffic impedance and floods have yet to be fully tackled. Business Environments

One resonant feature common in the wastes build-up and emanating environmental degradation scenarios is the high cost or capital intensive nature of its amelioration as well as tackling the solid wastes menace. It requires a lot of financial and human capital to minimize and attempt to eradicate the adverse effects of exposed and untreated solid wastes in our urban centres. Business Environments


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

As a result of increased urbanization and infrequent environmental sanitation exercises, urban residents dump solid wastes carelessly or haphazardly – anywhere they deem fit. Such controversial tendencies and attributes would seem incomprehensible; if we desire to live in beauteous environments. Some of the lagoon front in the country has been turned into a dump for human and all sorts of solid waste. Trucks fully loaded with feces queue up in large numbers to discharge the contents into the lagoon (Njoku 2006). Environmental experts are of the view that the implication of this practice is very grave. The failure of relevant agencies to stem the tide of reckless waste dumping and littering of Nigerian cities’ infrastructure (streets and roads) and surrounding bushes indicate a clear pattern of non-enforcement or non-implementation of existing environmental sanitation laws.

Irregular and unplanned dumping of solid wastes, especially at night, which are often in gross violation of relevant rules and regulations continue to hinder plan preparations and effective land use delineation which were expected to usher in a beautiful, clean and orderly environment. Consequently, there remains a huge gap between policy formulation, execution and implementation which exacerbate the problem of solid waste management in Nigerian cities which necessitate the need to evaluate the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria by the researcher.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objective of this study:

  1. To evaluate the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the consequences of poor solid waste management in Nigeria.
  3. To identify the strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria?
  2. What are the consequences of poor solid waste management in Nigeria?
  3. What are the strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO: Solid waste management has not been effective in Nigeria.
  • HA: Solid waste management has been effective in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. This study will educate the general public, stakeholders in environmental management, students, government and policy makers on the problems of solid waste management focusing on Nigeria with a view of identifying management strategies to combat the menace associated with poor solid waste management.
  2. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.7 Scope / Limitations of the Study

This study on the evaluation of problems of solid waste management in Nigeria will cover all issues related to solid waste management system in Nigeria. It will cover the attitude of Nigerians to solid waste management, policies and regulatory framework.

Limitation of Study
Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Solid waste:

Means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations

Pollution:

The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.

Environment:

The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.

Management:

The process of dealing with or controlling things or people. Business Environments


Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This chapter of the study is set aside to determine summarized the descriptive analysis done in the precious chapters. It also gives the conclusion and makes some recommendation.

In summary, the purpose of this study was to critically evaluate the effects of solid waste to business environments in Nigeria. Specifically the study evaluated the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria, examined the consequences of poor solid waste management in Nigeria and, identified the strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria.

In order to carry out this study research questions formulated to guard the investigation. A total of 259 residents of Akure in Ondo State, Nigeria, were randomly selected as enrolled participants for the survey.


5.2 Conclusion

In the conclusion the study is beyond doubt and abundantly clear that solid waste has become a cancer in the society.
From results obtained and analyzed, the study reveals that:

  1. The problems of solid waste management in Nigeria include:
    1. Lack of efficient waste management system
    2. Littering of streets
    3. Clogging of water channels
    4. Odour
  2. The consequences of poor solid waste management in Nigeria include:
    1. Air emissions
    2. Health impact
    3. Ecosystem services in danger
    4. Soil contamination
    5. Marine pollution
  3. The strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria include:
    1. Public enlightenment
    2. Solid-waste management method
    3. Composting
    4. Management Improvement
    5. Strengthening Waste Management Agencies

5.3 Recommendation

Recommendation on the basis of findings. The researcher made the following recommendation with the belief that when studied and applied, would help to reduce the incidence of solid waste.

The researcher recommends that:

  1. Most importantly, there must be total overhauling of the existing systems of waste management to accommodate recent technologies in waste handling with little or no environmental consequences.
  2. There is the need to improve on the open dumping system to semi controlled landfills which reduces air pollution, diseases and pests, surface and ground water pollution and also improves aesthetic values.
  3. There is the need for education and awareness especially early education. Future generation must contribute towards the success of SWM practices, because consumers must take the decision to reduce, reuse and recycle.
  4. Establishment of data base for waste generation, cur- rent and accurate date is the basis for future planning.
  5. Provision of adequate and well trained sanitary and health workers to meet the challenges of waste management and also supply adequate equipment and facilities for the sanitary and health personnel to work with, in order to achieve maximum output regulations, which will ensure that rules are adhered to and strict penalties for offenders.
  6. Establishment of solid waste recycling plants in all the states to reduce the quantity of solid wastes generated, create employment for its large number of unemployed youths as well as generate revenue from such plants.
  7. Government should encourage Public-Private Partner- ship, in order to invigorate community participation in environmental management.
  8. Government should encourage academic research and training in this field and must also be ready to implement some of the recommendations made after such study.
  9. There is the need for strong regulations to be developed and put in place like the “Sunshine regulation” in Portugal, which will monitor solid waste practices and foster competition among operators. Moreover, provision of incentives as rewards for improved performances will also accelerate development in the sector.

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