Effects Of Simulated Petroleum Oil Pollution On Soil Characteristic And Growth Parameters Of Jatropha In Obio Akpa Southeastern Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Soil Science

Effects Of Simulated Petroleum Oil Pollution On Soil Characteristic And Growth Parameters


Abstract


A green house study was conducted at Akwa Ibom State University to evaluate the effect of crude oil pollution on the growth parameters of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas). Completely randomised design (CRD) with three replications was employed for the evaluation. Composite soil samples weighing 5kg where collected at 0-30cm depth into perforated pots. Three treatments; 0, 2.5 and 5.0% w/w of the crude oil was applied to 5kg of soil in 5liters plastic pots. Jatropha seedlings averaging 5cm in height were transplanted 4 weeks after sowing in the nursery and one seedling was sown in each pot to the depth of 5cm and the plants were monitored for a period of 4 months. The result obtained showed that, crude oil pollution significantly (P<0.05) reduced the plant parameters assessed. At 2 months after planting, there was reduction in the height of Jatropha at 2.5 and 5%w/w with mean values of 13.0 and 13.0cm, while 0% produced the tallest plant with mean value of 16.67cm. Number of leaves follow the same trend, with mean values of 3.33, 2.33 and 5.00 for 2.5%, 5% and at 0%. The mean value recorded for leaf area were 52.75, 21.60 and 80.57cm2 for 2.5, 5% and the control (0%) respectively. 3.07, 3.03 and 3.67cm was recorded for stem girth at 2.5, 5% and at 0% .At 4 months after planting the height of jatropha at 2.5, 5%w/w were 15.00 and 14.33cm while 0% recorded the highest plant height of 21.33cm. Numbers of leaves recorded were 4.00, 4.00 and 8.67 for 2.5, 5%w/w and the control (0%), 64.30, 32.44 and 110.33cm2 was recorded for leaf area at 2.5, 5%w/w and the control (0%). The mean values for stem girth were 3.70, 3.57 and 4.47cm for 2.5, 5%w/w and the control (0%). Fresh leaf biomass after harvest was 12.18, 11.86 and 14.6g for 2.5, 5%w/w and at 0%. Dry leaf biomass after harvest was 2.23, 0.89g and 3.44 for 2.5, 5% and at 0%. The experimental soils were fairly fertile as some soil properties (such as soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total Nitrogen, exchangeable Calcium, sodium, exchangeable acidity(EA), effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and percentage base saturation were within the recommended standards for crop production while others (such as available Phosphorus, Exchangeable K, Mg) were low. The adequacy of some soil properties seen in crude oil polluted soils do not portray any usefulness of the soils in crop production since limitations in such soils to crop production caused by the pollution would render the soil unfit for crop production.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents
  • List Of Tables
  • List Of Plates
  • List Of Figures

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Objectives of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Effects of Crude Oil Pollution on Soil Physiochemical Properties
  • 2.1.1 The Jatropha Plant
  • 2.1.2 Effects of Crude Oil Pollution on plant Growth

Chapter Three

Materials and Method

  • 3.1 Description of Experimental Site
  • 3.2 Experimental Materials Used / Sources
  • 3.3 Soil Sampling
  • 3.4 Treatment Application and Planting
  • 3.5 Data Collection
  • 3.6 Laboratory Analysis
  • 3.7 Statistical Analysis

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1. Physicochemical Properties of the Experimental Soil before treatment application
  • 4.2 Fertility Status of Soils after Crude oil Pollution
  • 4.2.1 Particle Size distribution and Soil texture
  • 4.2.2 Soil pH
  • 4.2.3 Electrical Conductivity
  • 4.2.4. Organic Matter
  • 4.2.5 Total Nitrogen
  • 4.2.6 Available Phosphorus
  • 4.2.7 Exchangeable Bases
  • 4.2.8 Exchange Acidity, Effective Cation Exchange Capacity and Base Saturation
  • 4.2 Effects of Crude oil Pollution on the Growth parameters of Jatropha curcas L.
  • 4.3.1 Plant Height
  • 4.3.2 Number of Leaves per Plant
  • 4.3.3 Stem Girth
  • 4.3.4 Leaf Area
  • 4.4 Effects of Crude oil Pollution on Leaf and Root Biomasses of Jatropha curcas

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary and Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Properties of soil used for the experiment before treatment application.
  • Table 2: some soil physiochemical properties of polluted and unpolluted soils at 2 and 4 months after pollution.

List of Plates


  • Plate 1: Experimental layout showing polluted soils at various levels of 0, 2.5 and 5%.
  • Plate 2: Polluted Jatropha seedling at 2 months at various levels of 0, 2.5 and 5% w/w.
  • Plate 3: polluted Jatropha seedling at 4 months at various level of 0, 2.5 and 5%w/w.

List of Figures


  • Figure 1: Effects of crude oil pollution on plant height of Jatropha curcas at 2 and 4 months after pollution.
  • Figure 2: Effects of crude oil pollution on number of leaves of Jatropha curcas at 2 and 4 months after pollution.
  • Figure 3: Effects of crude oil pollution on stem girth of Jatropha curcas at 2 and 4 months after pollution.
  • Figure 4: Effects of crude oil pollution on leaf area of Jatropha curcas at 2 and 4 months after pollution.
  • Figure 5: Effects of crude oil pollution on root biomass of Jatropha curcas at 2 and 4 months after pollution.

Chapter One


Introduction

Pollution of agricultural soils is one of the most prevalent problems associated with the exploration and processing of petroleum hydrocarbon (Ayotamuno et al., 2006). Crude oil often known as “black gold” is a major source of income and support for Nigeria economy, (Eriemo, 2002). The high demand for petroleum products in form of cooking gas, gas oil, engine oil, lubricating oil, gasoline oil, aviation fuel, asphalt and coal tar means increased production and this eventually results in oil spills in the environment.

Crude oil may be spill into the environment through accidental discharge, leakages from pipeline or flow-line, hose failure and perhaps sabotage, (Odu, 2000; Legborsi, 2007; Emuh, 2009; Emuh, 2011). Pollution occurs when a change in the environment adversely affects the quality of human life including soil and plants. Some Nigerian researchers like Oyedeji et al., (2012) noted that, pollution of soil with crude oil may hamper the normal photosynthesis and transpiration process leading to chlorophyll deficiency and quick death of plant. Odu, (1987) reported that the ability of crops to germinate and grow on crude oil contaminated soil is dependent on the level of pollution as well as the concentration of the crude oil. Similarly, Udo, (2008) observed that, the higher the pollution, the more destructive it is to the plants.

In low level of spillage (e.g. 1%), germination may be impaired due to lack of moisture and hardening of soil structure. At high contamination, seeds rotting will take place as a result of seeping of crude oil into the seeds through the other intergument. Oil pollution of soil leads to build up of heavy metals such as (lead, zinc, nickle, copper, manganese, cadmium) etc. in soils and these elements are eventually translocated into plant tissues (Vwioko et al., 2006). Although some of the heavy metals at low concentrations are essential micronutrients to plants, but at high levels, they may cause metabolic disorders and growth inhibition for most plants species (Fernades and Henriques, 1991).

In a related view Yao et al., (2003) reported that Heavy metals does not only results in adverse effects on various parameters relating to plant quality and yield but also caused changes in the size, composition and activity of the microbial activities. The uptake of Heavy metals by plants and accumulation in the food chain is a serious threat to both animal and human health (Sprynskyy et al., 2007). Heavy metals are toxic in human body and they accumulate in the soft tissue. High level ingestion of toxic metals has undesirables effect on human which becomes obvious only after several years of exposure to it.

Pollution of the environment by crude oil is becoming prevalent across the globe. Although studies have been conducted on oil pollution effects on crop plants and trees species, (Anoliefo and Vwioko, 1995; Agbogidi 2009a; Agbogidi, 2009b); there is paucity of documented information on the effects of crude on pollution on the growth parameters of Jatropha curcas. It is against this background that a study as this was embarked upon


1.1 Objectives of the Study

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude oil pollution on growth parameters of jatropha (Jatropha curcas)

Specific objectives of this study were to:

  1. Determine the effect of different levels of crude oil pollution on the growth parameters of Jatropha curcas.
  2. Determine the fertility status of crude oil polluted soil.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary and Conclusion

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of simulated petroleum oil pollution on soil characteristic and growth parameters of Jatropha in Obio Akpa, south-eastern Nigeria. Result showed that the experimental soils were fairly fertile as some soil properties (such as soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total Nitrogen, exchangeable Ca2+ ,Na+, exchangeable acidity, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and percentage base saturation ) were within the recommended standards for crop production while others (such as available P, exchangeable K+ , Mg2+) were low. The adequacy of some soil properties seen in crude oil polluted soils do not portray any usefulness of the soils in crop production since limitations in such soils to crop production caused by the pollution would render the soil unfit for crop production. The growth of Jatropha curcas (in terms of plant height, number of leaves, stem girth and leaf area) decreased with increase in crude oil pollution, thereby meaning that pollution of soil with crude oil significantly reduced the growth of Jatropha curcas compared with those of plants grown in the unpolluted soil (control). Hydrocarbons from oil polluted soil accumulate in the chloroplasts of leaves, photosynthetic ability of the leaves becomes reduced affecting translocation in affected plants probably due to obstruction of the xylem and phloem vessels hence reduction in photosynthesis and effect on growth. Fresh and dry biomass yields decreased with increase in crude oil pollution but there was no significant effect of oil pollution on them.


5.2 Recommendation

Crude oil affected soils require adequate remediation for them to be useful for crop production. The application of organic and inorganic fertilizers would help to supply deficient nutrients to enhance soil fertility.


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