Effects Of Three Selected Spices: Alligator Pepper, Cloves And Ginger On The Quality Attributes Of Kunun-Zaki

Project and Seminar Material for Food and Nutrition

Effects Of Three Selected Spices: Alligator Pepper, Cloves And Ginger On The Quality Attributes Of Kunun-Zaki


Abstract


Additives used in food processing can be natural or synthetic in nature. The use of natural additives in food processing has been encouraged due to the health hazards, non-nutritiveness and high cost usually associated with their synthetic counterparts. Hence, this research work is aimed at determining the effects of three selected natural additives-spices (alligator pepper, cloves and ginger) on the quality attributes of kunun-zaki in order to encourage the use of natural additives and to establish their best concentrations for the production of kunnu –zaki. Kunun-zaki samples of different concentrations of spices: Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Alligator pepper (Aframumom danielli) at 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% of each spice were produced. Samples were stored at room (RT) and refrigerated temperature (ReT) respectively. Chemical, mineral (heavy metals), pesticide residues, microbiological and sensory evaluations were carried out on the samples for four storage days using standard methods. All the spices had various effects on the quality of Kunu-zaki produced. For the pH, specify gravity and sucrose, gradual decrease in values was observed during the first two storage days (ranging from 3.32-5.48 (RT); 6.00 -7.71(ReT); 1.0110-1.0255(RT), 2.5-1.0255 (ReT) and 0.20 – 0.15(RT), 0.77- 0.85 (ReT) respectively followed by increase in the values for the remaining storage days. For the titratable acidity, volatile acidity and free fatty acids, gradual increase in the values were observed (ranging from 0.51- 1.29(RT); 1.37 -1.40 (ReT) and 0.12 – 0.92 (RT); 0.12- 0.17 (ReT), 0.01-0.14(RT); 0.01-0.04(ReT) respectively. The control samples showed a higher rate of decrease and increase in each case. Chemically, 2.0% treated samples stored at refrigerated temperature gave better results (keep longer) than the other concentrations stored at room temperature. For the minerals (heavy metals): Lead, cadmium and Chromium were not detected but Zinc had values of 0.001 for the whole samples. Pesticide residues: Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Lindane, Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane(DDT), Aldrin, Heptachlor, Endrin, Heptachlor Epoxide and Chlorodane ) though present in minute quantity, were found to decrease as the concentration of spices increased, with 2% and 2.5% being most effective on the average. The three spices were able to effectively control the microbial growth for the first three days, while visible growth were observed for the other days in samples stored at RT and less with the samples stored at ReT. Sensory evaluations showed that there were no significant difference in colour, taste and flavour with the samples but the mean values showed that sample treated at 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% were generally accepted with 2.0 % concentration mostly acceptable. Kunun-zaki produced at 2% concentration of the spices and stored at refrigerated temperature maintained the chemical constituents of the product and exhibits the neutralization of the heavy metals. There was also reduction of pesticide residues and suppression of microbial growth. Therefore, it can be concluded that kunun- zaki be produced at 2% concentration of these spices and be store at refrigerated temperature.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Tables of Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • List of Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.2 Justification
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Beverages
  • 2.1.1 Composition of Beverages
  • 2..1.2 Utilization of Beverages
  • 2.2 Types of Beverages
  • 2.2.1 Carbonated non-alcoholic Beverages
  • 2.2.2 Non-carbonated, non-alcholic Beverages
  • 2.2.3 Alcholic Beverages
  • 2.2.5 Kunun
  • 2.2.6 Types of Kunun
  • 2.2.6.1 Kunun Gyada
  • 2.2.6.2 Kunun Akamu
  • 2.2.6.3 Kunun Aya
  • 2.2.6.4 Kunun Tsamiya
  • 2.2.6.5 Kunun Tsir
  • 2.2.6.5 Kunun zaki
  • 2.2.6.6.1 Utilization of kunun-zaki
  • 2.2.6.6.2 Composition of kunun-zaki
  • 2.2.7 Sorghum
  • 2.2.7.1 Composition of Sorghum Grain
  • 2.2.7.2 Utilization of Sorghum Grain
  • 2.2.8 Millet
  • 2.2.8.1 Composition of millet (Pebbisetum typhodeum)
  • 2.3 Processing of Kunun-zaki
  • 2.4 Food Additives
  • 2.4.1 Food Preservatives
  • 2.4.2 Chemical Preservatives and Criticisms
  • 2.4.3 Nutraceuticals
  • 2.5 Spices and Herbs
  • 2.5.1 Alligator pepper (Aframomum danielli)
  • 2.5.2 Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • 2.5.3 Black pepper (Piper guineense)
  • 2.5.4 Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
  • 2.6 Application of Spices in Food beverages Production
  • 2.6.1 Effects of Adanielli on Kunun-zaki
  • 2.6.2 Effect of A. denielli on carrot juice

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Methods
  • 3.2.1 Preparation of Spices
  • 3.2.2 Preparation of Extract
  • 3.2.3 Production of kunun-zaki
  • 3.2.4 Treatment of kunun-zaki with the Cold Extracts of Spices
  • 3.3 Analyses
  • 3.3.1 Chemical Analysis
  • 3.3.1.1 pH
  • 3.3.1.2 Titratable Acidity
  • 3.3.1.3 Specify Gravity
  • 3.3.1.4 Sugar (Sucrose)
  • 3.3.2 Minerals
  • 3.3.3 Pesticides Residue Determination
  • 3.3.4 Microbial Analysis
  • 3.3.4.1 Total Viable Count
  • 3.3.4.2 Coliform Count
  • 3.3.4.3 Salmonella
  • 3.3.5 Sensory Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1a Effect of Cloves (Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the pH of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1b Effect of Cloves ((Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the Specific Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1c Effect of Cloves ((Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the Sucrose Level of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1d Effect of Cloves ((Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the Titratable Acidity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1e Effect of Cloves ((Syzgium aromaticum) Addition on the Volatile Acidity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2a Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the pH of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2b Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the Specify Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2c Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the Sugar Level of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2d Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the Titratale Acidity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2e Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Additions on the Volatile Acidity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3a Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the pH of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3b Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the Specific Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3c Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the Sugar Level of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3d Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the Titratable of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3e Effect of Alligator Pepper (Afrmumom danielli) Additions on the Volatile Acidity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.4 Effect of the Spices on Microbial Population
  • 4.5 Efect of the Spcies on Some Heavy Metals in Kunun-zaki
  • 4.6 Some Pesticides residues in Kunun-zaki
  • 4.7 Effect of the Spices (Cloves, Ginger and Alligator Pepper) on Sensory Characteristics of Kunun-zaki

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Figures


Figure Page

  • 2.1 Flow chart for traditional processing of kunun-zaki
  • 2.2 Flow chart for Improved Kunun-zaki production process
  • 3.1 Flow chart for production of spcies extract

List of Tables


Tables Pages

  • 2.1 Typical Composition of Sorghum Grain
  • 2.2 Typical Chemical Composition for Millet Grain
  • 4.1a Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the pH of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1b Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the Specific Gravity of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1c Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the Sucrose level of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1d Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the Total Titrale of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1e Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) addition on the Volatile Acidity of Kunun-zaki stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2a. Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the pH of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2b Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the Specific Gravity of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2c. Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the Sucrose of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2d Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the Total Titratable of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2e Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) addition on the Volatile Acidity of kunun-zaki stored at Room Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3a Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the pH of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3b Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the Specific Gravity of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3c Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the Sucrose level of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3d Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the Total Titratable of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3e Effect of Alligator pepper (A.danielli) addition on the Volatile Acidity of kunun-zaki Stored at Room and Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.4a Effect of Cloves in the Microbial Population Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.4b Efect of Cloves in the Microbial Population Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.4c Effect of Ginger on the Microbial Population Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.4d Effect of Ginger in the Microbial Population Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.4e Effect of Alligator in the Microbial Population Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.4f Effect of Alligator in the Microbial Population Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.5a Permissibles Levels of Metallic Contaminnats in kunun-zaki
  • 4.5b Effect of the Spices on some heavy Metals in Kunun-zaki Samples
  • 4.6a Effects of Pesticide Residue in Kunun-zaki
  • 4.6b Maximum Pesticide Residue Limit for Cereals
  • 4.6c Maximum Pesticide residue Limit for Drinking Water
  • 4.7a Effect of the Spices (Cloves, Ginger and Alligator Pepper) on Sensory characteristics of kunun-zaki

List of Appendices


Appendix Page

  • 4.1a Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the pH of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.1b Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the pH of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1c Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Specific Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.1d Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Specific Gravity of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1e Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Sugar Level of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.1f Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Sugar Level of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1g Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Total Titratale Acidity (TTA) of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.1h. Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Total Titratale Acidity (TTA) of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.1i Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Volatile Acidity (VA) of Kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.1j Effect of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) Addition on the Volatile Acidity (VA) of Kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2a Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the pH of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.2b Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the pH of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2c Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Specific Gravity of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.2d Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Specific Gravity of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2e Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Sugar Level of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.2f Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Sugar Level of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2g Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Titratable Acidity of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.2h Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Titratable Acidity of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.2i Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Volatile Acidity (VA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.2j Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Addition on the Volatile Acidity (VA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3a Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the pH of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.3b Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the pH of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3c Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Specific Gravity of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.3d Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Specific Gravity of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3e Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Sugar Level of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.3f Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Sugar Level of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3g Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.3h Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature
  • 4.3i Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Volatile Acidity (VA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Room Temperature
  • 4.3j Effect of Alligator Pepper (A.danielli) Addition on the Volatile Acidity (VA) of kunun-zaki Stored at Refrigerated Temperature

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background

Kunun-zaki is a traditionally fermented non-alcoholic beverage that originates from the Northern part of Nigeria which can be produced either from millet, sorghum or maize. Kunun-zaki is a Hausa word meaning “sweet beverage,” It is now widely consumed in several parts of Nigeria owning to its refreshing qualities (Osuntogun and Aboaba, 2004). The beauty of the acceptability of kunun-zaki is the fact that it is acceptable by the two dominants religious groups (Christians and Muslims). This is because it is used as substitute for alcoholic drinks. This beverage has been found to be highly nutritious and medicinal (Goffa and Ayo, 2002). Kunun-zaki can be consumed at anytime of the day by both the adult and children. It can be taken as breakfast drinks or food complement. It is also a refreshing drink that can be used to entertain visitors and serve as appetizer in social gatherings (Amusa and Ashaye, 2009). Kunun-zaki has poor keeping qualities which may be due to faulty processing and storage, since product is essentially a home based industry and at present, there is no large-scale factory production. This results to its proneness to microbial contamination by Lactobacillus fermentum and L. leichmannii which dominates its fermentation (Efiuvwevwere and Akoma, 1995).

Food additives are used for various technological functions like improving the nutritional qualities, organoleptic properties and general acceptability of food. They also perform a variety of useful functions in food that are often taken for granted. For example, it helps keep food wholesome and appealing en-route to market. Which can be some thousand of miles away from where it is produced or manufactured (US FDA, 1992)? Chemical or synthetic additives have been the major means of preserving foods for a long time. They are however limited in their ability to preserve foods without altering its quality parameters such as flavours, aroma and in many cases the chemical compositions. Complaints resulting from the use of synthetic additives ranges from mild one such as nausea, diarrhea and shortness of breath or even total shock after consuming such foods to life threatening disease such as cancer (US FDA, 1992).

As a result, the safety of some of these additives has become the public concern and the requirement for pre-market approval and monitoring of these substances has continued to make them issue of significance (Roller, 2003).

There is a global concern about chemical residues in foods especially during storage. Consumers demand for food products with fewer synthetic additives and at the same time increased safety, quality and shelf life (Roller, 2003). Unlike in the past, consumers are more concerned about what they consume and the world is going more natural than it used to be. Many edible plants that contain complex compounds have been found to be having fungicidal and bactericidal properties, which can be extracted for use. Some have been identified and tests were conducted to establish their efficacy and suitability. There are high demands for minimally processed, fresh-like food products with high sensory and nutritional qualities. There is a growing interest in non thermal processes e.g. pulse field, dense gasses, high pressure technology for food processing and preservation (Ade-Omowaye, 2002).

The quest for natural products has led to the introduction of ‘nutra ceuticals’ which is a term used for food or part of a food that allegedly provides medicinal or health benefits including the prevention and treatment of diseases. Stephen De Felice coined the term from ‘Nutrition’ and ‘Pharmaceuticals’ in 1989. The result is a word that refers to dietary or nutritional ingredients that promote optional health (Kalna, 2003). Quite a number of works has been done at maximizing the utilization of some natural additives, since they have been discovered to function quite well. The antimicrobial, antioxidative and preservative effect of a number of natural additives has been explored. Fruits, vegetable, spices, nuts, seeds, leaves, roots and bark have been exploited as natural sources of preservatives (Kalra, 2003).

Spices are the dried, aromatic vegetable products used in food seasonings, they are usually of tropical or semi-tropical origin and include: barks (cinnamon), roots or rhizomes (ginger), flowers, buds (clove), fruits and seeds (pepper, cardamom). In most cases, spices are very aromatic and may contain large percentages of essential oil from which they derive their main flavorings character (Mau et al, 2001). The potent sources of natural antioxidants are spices and herbs. Spices have been known to impact flavor but it is now recognized that they fulfill more than this one function in food systems, certain spices prolong the shelf life of foods by their bacteriostatic activity, spices such as red chili, cinnamon leaf, clove, rosemary, sage, have been reported to have antioxidant properties. According to Pokorny (1991), when natural antioxidants are compared with synthetic ones, natural antioxidants were found to be readily acceptable by consumers as they are considered to be safer. Because they are from natural or biological sources, no safety tests are required by legislation for they belong to a component of food that is generally regarded as safe (Adegoke and Sagua, 1993). Compounds having wide spectra of anti-microbial effectiveness have been found in thymol from thyme and iregano, allicin in garlic, engenol from cloves. Adegoke and Sagua (1993), reported, the inhibition of microbial growth in tomato ketchup using spices like Eeru (Xylopia aethiopica), Ariwo (Monodora myristica) and Atare (Aframomum meleguata). The mixed extract from Chinese chive, and cinnamon were reported to exhibit better inhibition on growth of Escherichia coli than potassium sorbate at 2% mg/ml. Mau et al, (2001), reported the inhibitory effect of selected Turkish spices and oregano component on some food borne fungi. Ginger and Aframomum danielli were also found to inhibit some food spoilage yeast (Candida tropicalis, Torulopsis candida and Hansenula anomala).(Adegoke and skura,1994).


1.2 Justification

Spices have been used from pre-historic times not only as flavorant but also for medicinal purposes. According to the International Standard Organization (ISO), there are over Seventy (70) spices and herbs officially recognized, but more than 350 to 400 Spices are used in different Countries by people with different religion and Climate. They are mostly of no food value; they are only added to food as stimulant for the appetite and to aid digestion. The selection of a particular spice for food stabilization should be based on the type of quality desired in the food. The quantity of spice incorporated into the food must be minimized because excess concentration might be ineffective and not serve the exact purpose for which it is applied.

Aframomum danielli had been used to preserve Kunun-Zaki and is at its best at 2% concentration, (Adegoke and skura, 1994). However, the synergistic tendency of additives as found in synthetic \ chemical additives can also be explored in natural additive too hence, there is need to investigate the other spices synergetic effects on the quality of Kunun-Zaki. The result will provide appropriate data for food processors as well as investors in the beverage industry.


1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this work is to study the effects of selected spices (Alligator pepper (Aframomum Danielli), Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the quality attributes of kunun-zaki, a non-alcoholic beverage with the following objectives

  1. To carry out the chemical, nutritional and microbiological analysis on the produced kunun-zaki samples
  2. To perform sensory evaluation on the produced kunun-zaki samples.
  3. To establish the best concentration of the spices that can give the best quality.

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1. Conclusion

Kunun-zaki produced at 2% concentration of the spices used maintain the chemical constituents of the product, the neutralization of the heavy metals and the pesticide residues were found in the vicinity of this percentage. Moreover, microbial growth were not observed until after three to four days storage period in this concentration, coupled with the fact that this percentage was included among the generally acceptable samples, it can be concluded that Kunun –zaki be produce at 2% concentration and be stored at refrigerated temperature or at least be stored under chilling temperature condition.


5.2. Recommendation

The growth of microorganism was inhibited at higher concentrations of the spices used; lower concentrations of the spices should be venture on.

There is need to determine the performance of the spices in conjunction with other processing techniques employed for kunun-zaki processing.

As a result of their low acid nature, they can encourage the growth of bacteria that causes food poisoning; this is to also be looked into.

Since, it has been established that higher concentration of the spices preserves better, there is the need to take care of the strong characteristic flavor that are associated with high concentration of the spices. Interactions between these spices at these concentrations can be look into.


Effects Of Three Selected Spices: Alligator Pepper, Cloves And Ginger On The Quality Attributes Of Kunun-Zaki


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Effects Of Three Selected Spices: Alligator Pepper, Cloves And Ginger On The Quality Attributes Of Kunun-Zaki


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