The Effects Of Recruitment And Training Policies On Personnel Performance In An Organization
Employees are major assets of any organization. The active role they play towards a company’s success cannot be underestimated. As a result, equipping these unique assets through effective training becomes imperative in order to maximize the job performance. Also position them to take on the challenges of the today’s competitive business climate. Although extensive research has been conducted in the area of Human Research Management, the same cannot be said on employee training especially as it concerns developing countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of recruitment and training policies on personnel performance in an organization. A qualitative research approach of the data collection was adopted using a questionnaire comprising of 18 questions distributed to 120 respondents. Based on this sample the results obtained indicate that training have a clear effect on the performance of employees. The findings can prove useful to Human resource managers, Human resource policy decision makers, as well as government and academic institutions.
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of Problem
- 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Statement Of Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance Of The Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Recruitment And Training: Keys To Human Resource Management
- 2.1.2 Staffing
- 2.1.3 Training And Development
- 2.1.4 Performance Appraisal
- 2.1.5 Compensation And Benefit
- 2.2 Human Resource Training And Development
- 2.3 Training And Development Methods
- 2.4 Employee Performance
- 2.5 Effect Of Recruitment And Training On Performance
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Data Sources And Collection Methods
- 3.3 Sample And Technique
- 3.4 Instrument For Data Collection
- 3.5 Data Analysis
4.0 Results And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
Organizations are facing increased competition due to globalization, changes in technology, political and economic environments (Evans, Pucik & Barsoux 2002, 32) and therefore prompting these organizations to train their employees as one of the ways to prepare them to adjust to the increases above and thus enhance their performance. It is important to not ignore the prevailing evidence on growth of knowledge in the business corporate world in the last decade. This growth has not only been brought about by improvements in technology nor a combination of factors of production but increased efforts towards development of organizational human resources. It is ,therefore , in every organizations responsibility to enhance the job performance of the employees and certainly implementation of training and development is one of the major steps that most companies need to achieve this. As is evident that employees are a crucial resource, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the company aims and goals as a means of sustaining effective performance. This therefore calls for managers to ensure an adequate supply of staff that is technically and socially competent and capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions (Afshan, Sobia, Kamran & Nasir 2012, 646).
The question that may arise in many instances is why human resources are important. Bearing in mind that human resources are the intellectual property of the firm, employees prove to be a good source of gaining competitive advantage (Houger 2006), and training is the only way of developing organizational intellectual property through building employees competencies. In order to succeed. Organizations have to obtain and utilize human resources effectively. Organizations ,therefore, need to design its human resource mananagement in ways that fit into the organization’s structure as this it will make the organizations achieve their goals and objectives. Moreover, it is also important for organizations to assist their workforce in obtaining the necessary skills needed and, increase commitment. The management of human resources in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular is rather challenging as most organizations have difficulties finding proper human resources. This may partly be a result of the different kinds of problems, for example, political instability, corruption, bureaucracy, poor infrastructure, low levels of education and purchasing power, diseases and famine known to prevail in the African business context (Kamoche 2002, 994 – 995).
Selection is a vital process for every successful organization because having the right staff improves and sustains organizational performance. The impact of an organization‟s selection system influence bottom-line business outcomes, such as productivity and financial performance a dream for any organization.
In the operations of any organization, recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength of organizations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. Accordingly, Recruitment and selection are conceived as the processes by which organizations solicit, contact and interest potential appointees, and then establish whether it would be appropriate to appoint any of them, Sisson (1994).
Recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process but there is a difference between the two. The recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization while selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts.
Similarly, the basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organization whereas the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to till the various positions in the organization. The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process, which is the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.
Recruiting is seen as a “positive process of generating a pool of candidates by reaching the “right” audience, suitable to till the vacancy” (Leopold, 2002), On the other hand, he stated that once these candidates are identified, the process of selecting appropriate employees for employment can begin. This means collecting, measuring, and evaluating information about candidates‟ qualifications for specified positions. Selection therefore, is a process that involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts.
Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process. Therefore, organizations use these practices to increase the likelihood of hiring individuals who have the right skills and abilities to be successful in the target job, and better recruitment and selection strategies result in improved organizational outcomes.
The more effectively organizations recruit and select candidates, the more likely they are to hire and retain satisfied employees. In addition, the effectiveness of an organization’s selection system can influence bottom-line business outcomes, such as productivity and financial performance. Hence, investing in the development of a comprehensive and valid selection system is money well spent.
Recruitment and Selection are vital processes for a successful organization, having the right staff can “improve and sustain organizational performance” (Petts. 1997).The basic purpose of recruitrnent and selection is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organization as well as to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organization which process must be based on merit or technical knowhow.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
In recent years, there has been increase in the rate of business failure, closure and at best low productivity and in m t cases; it was due to low level of organizational performance. To explain the situation, various factors have been looked into including competitive strategy in an organization. Despite the conflict between the stakeholders and the employee, the personnel have crucial roles to play in ensuring the resolution of impending conflicts between the management and the employees for the achievement of goals and objectives of the organization. Unfortunately, some organizations pay more attention on factors like money incentives, and/or physiological factors without giving much attention to the recruitment and selection of work force.
Despite the increasing effects on training of organizational employees by organizations, there is still limited literature on human resource development issues in developing countries (Debrah & Ofori 2006, 440) and increasing concerns from organizational customers towards low quality services in the telecommunications sector. It is further worth noting that while much is known about the economics of training in the developed world, studies of issues associated with training in less-developed countries are rarely found. The existing studies in this relation (Harvey 2002; Harvey, Matt & Milord 2002; Jackson 2002; Kamoche 2002; Kamoche, Debrah, Hortwiz & Muuka 2004; Kraak 2005) have taken a general human resource management (HRM) focus creating a gap on issues such as the effect of training on employee performance. This study will contribute in minimizing this gap in the literature and thereby establish the basis to understanding of some aspects of human resource management in general and training in particular in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
In light of the above background, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of recruitment and training policies on personnel performance in an organization.
The specific objectives are as follows:
- To determine the recruitment and training programs existing in the business sector
- To determine the recruitment and training objectives
- To identify the methods used and the effectiveness of these methods in meeting the recruitment and training objectives
- To determine how recruitment and training affect employee performance
1.4 Research Questions
- What recruitment and training programs exist in the business sector?
- What are the recruitment and training objectives?
- What methods are used and do these methods meet the recruitment and training objectives?
- How does recruitment and training affect employee performance?
1.5 Statement Of Hypotheses
- HO1: Recruitment and training have no significant impact on organizational performance.
HA1; Recruitment and training have significant impact on organizational performance.
- HO2: Recruitment and training does not significantly enhance getting competent staff.
HA2; Recruitment and training significantly enhance getting competent staff
1.6 Significance Of The Study
It is expected that the findings of this study will help highlight the ways in which human resource training can be beneficial not only to the organizations but also to the career development of its employees. All in all, the results pave way of improving human resources needed for the competitive performance of organizations operating in the same line of business as the sample companies in Nigeria and Africa in general.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
The importance of recruitment and training/development in the corporate world has been highlighted in the previous literature. Thus, it is essential to examine any issues related to training and development in any business sector. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of training on employee performance within the telecommunications industry in Nigeria. Moreover, sub goals are developed to facilitate a clear achievement of the purpose of the study. These include (1) What recruitment and training programs exist in the business sector?, (2) What are the recruitment and training objectives?, (3) What methods are used and do these methods meet the recruitment and training objectives?, and finally (4) How does recruitment and training affect employee performance?. The sample of the study is based on the a telecommunication company operating in Nigeria (MTN).
The findings reported in this study suggest that training and development have an impact on the performance of employees with regards to their jobs. This result is broadly consistent with prior management literature on training and development. In order to gain more specific knowledge of training and development from the sample companies, different questions are presented to the respondents and thus examined. These questions are focusing on employee participation in training, selection for training, methods of training and relevance of training to the work of the respondents. The above questions have been of particular interest because they facilitate an understanding of the training practice in the companies under study. The results from the questions on employee participation in training and selection for training indicate that these companies have good and perhaps clear policies regarding training and development as most of the respondents indicated that they have participated in training and that most of them were provided with opportunities to train under the compulsory practice of the company for all employees and/or on joining the company. In examining the question relating to the training programme quality, the results indicate that the programmes undertaken by the sample companies are relevant as considered by the respondents` opinions.
From the study it is realized that recruitment and traning is of great importance to every organization, though an integral part of human resource planning and development, it application and operation and challenges makes its policy quite difficult. These recommendations are therefore made to help make this policy more effective.
- All applicants should be treated fairly.
- Issues of favouritism should be avoided while selecting applicants.
- Jobs should be well described and analysed to selected candidates to aid performance.
- The human resource department should appraise employees to help them give off their best and help improve performance of employees; this will always keep employees on their toes to give off their best.
- Refresher courses should be organized for employees for them to be abreast with trends in the ever-growing market.
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