Effects Of Processing Methods On The Physico-chemical Properties Of Sweet Potato And Sorghum

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Effects Of Processing Methods On The Physico-chemical Properties Of Sweet Potato And Sorghum


Abstract


This study evaluated “the effects of processing methods on the physico-chemical properties of sweet potato and sorghum flour”. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an important food crop in the tropical and sub-tropical countries and belongs to the family convolvulaceae. Sweet potatoes are rich in dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and anti oxidants such as phenolic acids, anthocyannins, tocopherol and β-carotene. The proximate composition of sweet potato was determined and these include moisture, lipids, ash, protein, carbohydrates and fiber.

In carrying out the analysis practically, methods used vary according to the food material. The anti oxidants were also determined alongside with phenol oxidase, pasting properties, minerals and sugar contents. Sorghum is a tropical plant belonging to the family of poaceae. More than 35% of sorghum is grown for human consumption. The analyses carried out in sweet potatoes are same with sorghum with the exclusion of phenol oxidase.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Research Objectives

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Origin And Distribution Of Sweet Potato
  • 2.2 Description Of Sweet Potato A. The Root System
  • 2.3 Naming
  • 2.4 Origin
  • 2.5 Dispersal In Historical Times
  • 2.6 Transgenicity
  • 2.7 Cultivation
  • 2.8 Production
  • 2.9 Nutrient Content
  • 2.10 Comparison To Other Food Staples

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Sample Collection And Identification
  • 3.2 Chemicals And Reagents
  • 3.3 Instruments
  • 3.4 Chemical Analysis
  • 3.5 Statistical Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • Reference

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To Study

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an important food crop in the tropical and sub tropical countries and belongs to the family convolvulaceae. It is cultivated in more than 100 countries. ( Woolfe, 1992). Nigeria is the third largest producer in the world with china leading, followed by Uganda. Sweet potato ranks seventh among the world food crops, third in value of production and fifth in caloric contribution to human diet (Bouwkamp, 1985).

Sweet potatoes are rich in dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins and anti oxidants such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, tocopherol and ß- carotene. Besides acting as anti oxidants, carotenoids and phenolic compounds also provide sweet potatoes with their distinctive flesh colours ( cream, deep yellow, orange and purple). Sweet potato blends with rice, cowpea and plantain in nigerian diets. It is also becoming popular as a substitute to yam and garri. It can be reconstituted into fofoo or blended with other carbohydrate flour sources such as wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and cassava ( Manihot esculenta) for baking bread, biscuits and other confectioneries (Woolfe, 1992).

The leaves are rich in protein and the orange flesh varieties contain high beta carotene and are very important in combating vitamin A deficiency especially in children.

Sorghum (sorghum bicolor (S. bicolor) is a tropical plant belonging to the family of poaceae, is one of the most important crops in Africa, Asia and Latin America. More than 35% of sorghum is grown directly for human consumption. The rest is used primarily for animal feed, alcohol production and industrial products ( FAO, 1995). The current annual production of 60 million tons is increasing due to the introduction of improved varieties and breeding conditions. Several improved sorghum varieties adapted to semi-arid tropic environments are released every year by sorghum breeders. Selection of varieties meeting specific local food and industrial requirements from this great biodiversity is of high importance for food security. In developing countries in general and particularly in West Africa demand for sorghum is increasing. This is due to not only the growing population but also to the countries policy to enhance its processing and industrial utilization.

More than 7000 sorghum varieties have been identified, therefore there is a need of their further characterization to the molecular level with respect to food quality. The acquisition of good quality grain is fundamental to produce acceptable food products from sorghum. Sorghum while playing a crucial role in food security in Africa, it is also a source of income of household . In West Africa, ungerminated sorghum grains are generally used for the preparation of “to”, porridge and couscous. Malted sorghum is used in the process of local beer “dolo” (reddish, cloudy or opaque), infant porridge and non fermented beverages. Sorghum grains like all cereals are comprised primarily of starch.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

The sweet potato or sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae. Its large, starchy, sweet-tasting, tuberous roots are a root vegetable.[1][2] The young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. The sweet potato is commonly thought to be a type of potato (Solanum tuberosum) but does not belong to the nightshade family, Solanaceae, but both families belong to the same taxonomic order, the Solanales. The sweet potato, especially the orange variety, is often called a “yam” in parts of North America, but is botanically very distinct from true yams.

The plant is a herbaceous perennial vine, bearing alternate heart-shaped or palmately lobed leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, orange, red, brown, purple, and beige. Its flesh ranges from beige through white, red, pink, violet, yellow, orange, and purple. Sweet potato cultivars with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh.[3]

Ipomoea batatas is native to the tropical regions in the Americas.[4][5] Of the approximately 50 genera and more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the only crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally (e.g., I. aquatica “kangkong”), but many are poisonous. The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato also includes several garden flowers called morning glories, though that term is not usually extended to Ipomoea batatas. Some cultivars of Ipomoea batatas are grown as ornamental plants under the name tuberous morning glory, used in a horticultural context. This study therefore seeks to investigate the effects of processing methods on the physico-chemical properties of sweet potato and sorghum.


1.3 Research Objectives

The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of processing methods on the physico-chemical properties of sweet potato and sorghum.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The initial field reducing sweet potato sampling provided information on the promising sweet sorghum varieties based on the amount of reducing sweet potato they can accumulate and the following: ICSA 89002 X SPV 422, ICSR 93034, ICSA X NTJ -2, E 36-1, SPV422, SWSV 2006-5-2, SWSV 2006-3, SWSV 2007-1 were selected.

The optimal conditions discovered for HCl treatment are 2.0%HCl concentrations, 1:50 ratio of sample to 2.0%HCl, at 138oC for SPV 422 and 2.0%HCL concentrations, 1:50 ratio of sample to 2.0%HCl at 121oC for SWSV 2006-3. For H2O2 optimal conditions of 3.0% H2O2 concentrations, 1:200 ratio of sample to 3% H2O2, at 121oC for both SPV 422 and SWSV 2006-3.

The glucose concentration released from the two sweet sorghum varieties suggests that 3.0% H2O2 together with the optimized condition can degrade cellulose effectively. The pith of sweet sorghum may be more susceptible to hydrolysis than the whole stem. Therefore the difficulty and cost of hydrolysis can be reduced if the pith alone is used.


5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made:

  1. Genetic modification of the reducing sweet potato rich sweet sorghum is required in other to harness their usefulness, by introduction of a factor that enhances stem size and pest resistance.
  2. Further enzymatic hydrolysis to validate the effect of treatment conditions should be optimized

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Effects Of Processing Methods On The Physico-chemical Properties Of Sweet Potato And Sorghum

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.