Effects Of The Practice Of Ethics And Social Responsibility Of Management On The Goal Attainment Of Business
This research work was purposely evaluated the effects of the practice of ethics and social responsibility of management on attainment of business with consideration to the Promasidor Nigeria Limited and Nestle Nigeria Plc as the reference points and areas.
Different definitions of business ethics and social responsibility of management by various writers and scholars were considered. In all, business ethics is seen as a predominantly responsibility in the business system where it enable management to lead adequately while social responsibility is all about a means to maintain and improve overall society welfare for increases in the viability of the business system and orderly legal society.
The research further indicate how a business organization should be ethically and socially responsible to whom to should be done and on what bases.
To this end, the ambiguous conception and perception about ethics and social responsibility in Nigeria and related were addressed while despites its importance, many business firms have not been to reap fill gains of practices of them due to their negative perception. At the end, suggestions are therefore recommended to the government and business organization for effectiveness.
1.1 Background of the Study
Business is being run by management whom needs to display ethical behaviour and forgo the unethical activities but business is also part of the society and exerts considerable impact on the society. Hence, management must assist to maintain and improve overall society welfare for increases in the viability of the business system and on orderly legal society. These concepts of ethics and social responsibility of management in business is one of determinants in survivability of any well structured business organization.
Business ethics make responsibility predominantly in the business system and management to lead adequately with a consideration to the either classical view or socio-economic view of social obligation to the society and environ.
Alka (2011) Stated that Business ethics is a form of applied ethics that examined ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment.
Generally, behind the table of every business is the profit motive and behind its continuity is profit. It is the profit motive that drives owners, shareholders into buying shares and private capital owners into investing their capital in business. It is the profit motive that lead to goods and services being produced and it is the profit earning that ensures the continue existence and growth of the business. Meanwhile, this is not to say that immediate profit should be responsible in the growth, survived adaptation of an organization cannot be over emphasized.
Ibekwe, (1984) emphasized that an ethics and a social responsibility neglected by a business at a particular time, a poor quality good delivered to customer in the course of seeking immediate profit could result in loss in product corporate image of the business. In the present day highly competitive market of branded goods, a bad image could be very devastating. As sales may subsequently go down, profit making could be seriously affected.
According to Daniel and Koontz (1983), no question has received more attention by businessmen, government, politician and people in general in the past few years except question in new being addressed with an increasing frequency by government agencies and other parastatals, universities, non-profit foundation, charitable organization and so on. It in view of this that businesses are today much more ethical and socially responsible than before. Businesses are interested not just in the quality of goods and services they produce but also in continue their business environment. They appreciate but a good image and acceptability of their products and services by the public could mean substantial enhancement of long-run profit.
A loss in image could have a negative effect on the business social responsibility, but as a result of greater influence and pressure from groups like labour responsiveness to social needs, could make the business more responsive.
However, Daniel and Koontz (1983) reformed to social responsibility as an idea that is appropriate and desirable for business to consider and work with as it pursues its economic goals. In other words the business is contigent on balancing the social responsibility with basic economic and social goals.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Firstly, the existence of business ethics; Business is an entity that need to have norms, values and attitudes within its environment. Thus, to act in an ethical fashion is to conform to some standard of moral behaviour. The management is in driver’s sect in business but how do they works with business ethics necessary.
Secondly, how is the management has extreme power to influence societal conditions: Management is the decision maker in business, determine position of business and organization but management must assist to maintain and improve overall society welfare.
Thirdly, how effective practice of ethical and social responsibility of an organization tend to have influence or management activities on business profitability and survivability. It results in the creation of loyal and satisfied consumers while society gives business a chance to solve social problems that government has failed to solve because business is part of the society.
Lastly, impact of social responsibility on the business activities especially its effect on corporate image and profit level of a firm: All goods and services produced by the organization are mainly for the company’s return and for the use of the people within the environment. The business organization must take study and research of environment and market in which is operating to identify social needs in terms of education, scholarship, infrastructure, sponsoring, health improvement, etc., to place its image (corporate) on mast-head so as to make its products acceptable and profit level maximize.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study aims to know whether social responsibility and ethics in business is related to corporate image of an organization. It is to examine practice of social responsibility and indicate whether it has relationship with profitability of the company and customers’ patronage.
The result of the study will assist business firms to know what they stand to gain and loose if they are ethically and socially responsible. It will help to correct the impression that business firm should not be socially responsible due to the cost of engaging in such programmes.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher will examine the relationships and possible explanations. Therefore, research question in the problem aforementioned are the following:
- Does Nigerian firms ethically in business?
- Is it competitive pressures resulting in unethical behaviour of the management?
- Does a business ethic bring about good and lasting product corporate images?
- Does businesses are much more ethical and socially responsible today than before?
- Does quality and quantity only determine profitability of a product and business
- Does this company and business is social responsible
- Is it socio-economic view of social responsibility lead to attainment of business goal?
- Is it ethical and moral for management to be socially responsible?
- Does it results in the creation of loyal and satisfied consumers/customers?
- Is it a negation of the main organization’s objective of profit maximization?
- Is there any lack of broad public support for the involvement of management in social issues?
- Is there any social audit effectiveness from the business firm?
- Does an ethical concept change from time to time or between cultures?
- Does ethics in business and social responsibility helps in attaining business goal viably.
1.4 Statement of the Hypotheses
In order to ensure the reliability of this study, it based on some assumptions. The following assumptions will be tested and determined by the means of the statistical method. However, the researcher will be guided by the following hypotheses.
- HO: Nigerian firms were not ethically in business
HI: Nigerian firms were ethically in business
- HO: Competitive pressures are not resulting to unethical behaviour of the management
HI: Competitive pressures are resulting to unethical behaviour of the management
- HO: Business ethics and social responsibility does not bring about good and lasting product corporate image
HI: Business ethics and social responsibility brings about good and lasting product corporate image
- HO: Business is not much more ethical and socially responsible today than before
HI: Business is much more ethical and socially responsible today than before
- HO: Quality and quantity are not only determine profitability of a product and business
HI: Quality and quantity only determine profitability of a product and business
- HO: Socio-economic view of social responsibility does not lead to attainment of business goal
HI: Socio-economic view of social responsibility leads to attainment of business goal
- HO: Effectiveness of social audit of the business firm cannot enhances goal attainment
HI: Effectiveness of social audit of the business firm enhances goal attainment
- HO: Ethics in business and social responsibility does not help in attaining business goal viably.
HI: Ethics in business and social responsibility helps in attaining business goal viably.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study will descriptively and empirically examine the relationship between business ethics, social responsibility and corporate image, emphasis on the effect of social responsibility and ethical nature on the profit level and goal attainment of Promasidor foods Nigeria Limited and Nestle Nigerian Plc.
1.6 Significance of Study
This study is poised to establish an eagle-eye to the business ethics that could be major or minor in nations to business system with management functional ability in respect of the social obligation (responsibility) of an organization to its societal environment. The problems, challenges embedded in these concepts, activities and influences on profit attainment and survivability of an organization.
The study will harmonize various views of the stakeholders in business organization and society especially focuses on Promasidor foods Nigeria Limited and Nestle Nigeria Plc. The views and the dispositions of the people who will contribute will be evaluated and in the end, recommendation will be proffered as the forward step on the generated issues or problems.
1.7 Definition of Terms
It is highly significant to clarify conceptually the key word in the study so that better understanding of the topic shall be achieved.
As a social movement seeking to argue that right and power of buyers in relation to seller. It is basically a protest movement in which consumers are protesting against what they feel to be unfair, normal or basic rate of profit earned by other business of similar type
A firm’s ability to earn a profit and its potential for future earnings
The expectation that companies should act in the public interest and contribute to the solution of social and ecological problem. It can as well be termed as obligation of decision makers, which protects and improves the welfare of society as a whole, done with their own interest.
It is the proper conduct of the individual and corporate entity in business situations.
Ethics in Management:
It is the determination of what is right and proper and fair or just in the behaviour of individuals or groups of management practitioners
These groups or individuals who are affected directly or indirectly by organization’s pursuit of its goal.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter encompasses the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations of this study. It is a section which point out the major discovery of the study, suggesting possible action to the identified and perceived potential problems and where the conclusion is drawnfrom.
5.1 Summary of Findings
These are the findings on the assessment of the corporate social responsibility in Enugu metropolis in Enugu State.
- The corporate social responsibility practices by the companies in Enugu Metropolis is seen as fulfillment of societal expectations from legal, economic, ethical and philanthropic obligations but Majority seen it as philanthropic obligations.
- That the companies in Enugu Metropolis use corporate social responsibility to create relationship marketing between the companies and society.
- It is also seen that the practices of corporate social responsibility by the companies in Enugu Metropolis is generally low.
- The corporate social responsibility benefit the company‟s in Enugu Metropolis in the area of survival and sustainability.
- The corporate social responsibility effectiveness and efficiency is determined by the companies through sales profit, customer‟s satisfaction, maximization of shareholder return and stakeholder‟s satisfaction but maximum concentration is yet to be on it by the companies.
- There is no other factor other than ethical consideration that stimulated the manufacturing companies in Enugu Metropolis to be socially responsible.
- There is no significant relationship between the company‟s corporate social responsibility practices financial cost and benefit derived from it.
In this study, corporate social responsibility practices recorded a low concentration by the manufacturing companies in Enugu Metropolis despite the priority given to the ethical issue under the social responsibility. This is as a result of low consideration given to corporate social responsibility by the business organization in the country generally. This indicated that the adoption and implementation of corporate social responsibility is still at a developmental stage due to its performance by the companies in Enugu Metropolis.
Therefore, efforts should be geared toward empowering corporate social responsibility practices among the companies in Enugu metropolis in Enugu State and nationwide. This can be done through given distinction to social responsibility practices in such a way that will differentiate and elaborate on different types of the social responsibility and how they are differently convey different messages. Also, effort should be made to explicit succinctly the contributions each type of corporate social responsibility aim to deliver to thepublic.
Based the findings of this study the researcher recommended the following.
- That both Promasidor foods and Nestle Nigerian Plc should employ more logical methods of delivering their corporate social responsibility practices in Enugu Metropolis.
- That the corporate social responsibility of the companies should be more environmentally demanded rather than Marjory from angle of ethical consideration and philanthropic obligations.
- That company should see corporate social responsibility as a marketing tool or strategy for marketing their products in order to achieve sales profit, customer‟s satisfaction, maximization of shareholders return, stakeholders satisfaction and image promotion in the face of potential employees.
- That the angles at which the companies are practicing the social responsibility should be equally extended to the areas such as community volunteering, cause related marketing, and soon.
- That the companies should also intensify efforts to incorporate more vibrant forms of corporate social responsibility such as provision of research grant to the research institutions, provision of infrastructural development, entrepreneur training, etc.
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