Effects Of Poverty Reduction Programmes Of Federal Government On Rural Communities In Nigeria (A Study Of Owerri North L.G.A)
All to often, one Nigeria from diverse background engage themselves in argument above the desirability objective result and effectiveness of government policies. In doing this, they most times got emotional about these policies, and because they do not have necessary fouls for evaluating public policies which end up with in accurate judgments. This project is an effort in equipping the impact, the effect of poverty reduction or alleviation programme on rural communities in Nigeria.
It is a comprehensive text for students of public administration and all the policy makers who have in trust in evaluating government programmes. from the chapter 2 of this project, it reviews some past public programmes of the past administration towards inculcating and enhancing the living standard of the populace.
The aim of this is basically to show the readers the effects of government towards reducing poor living standard of the people. Thus, I am not taught the roles and methods of carrying out effectively of poverty reduction programmes of the government.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1. Background of study
- 1.2. Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Statement of hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 limitation of the study
- 1.9 Definitions of terms
2.0. Literature review
- 2.1. Introduction
- 2.2 Some of the past poverty reduction programmes in Nigeria.
- 2.3 Objectives of poverty reduction policies and programmes (PRPP) in Nigeria.
- 2.4 constrains in poverty reduction policies and programmes in Nigeria.
- 2.5 The impact of poverty reduction policies and programmes of president Olusegun Obasanjo effort in a appraisal.
- 2.6 Features of poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria
- 2.7 Problems of poverty management techniques in Nigeria
- 2.8 Lack of involvement of beneficiaries in project design, implementation and mentoring and evaluation
3.0. Research design and methodology
- 3.1. Introduction
- 3.2. Research design
- 3.3 Source /Method of data collection
- 3.4. Population and sample size
- 3.5. Sampling technique
- 3.6. Validity / reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.7. Method of data analysis
4.0. Presentation and analysis of data
- 4.1. Introduction
- 4.2. Presentation of data
- 4.3. Analysis of data
- 4.4. Test of hypothesis
- 4.5 Interpretation of result (s)
5.0. Summary, conclusion and recommendation
- 5.1. Introduction
- 5.2. Summary of findings
- 5.3. Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
- Appendix 1
This chapter introduces the topic of the project i.e. the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, definition of terms etc.
1.1. Background Of The Study
Every one now acknowledges the fact poverty is a global phenomenon threatening the survival of humanity with more than one billion people living in the state abject poverty. Now it is generally accepted that dangers posed by poverty must be addressed and alleviated in the short –run and eliminated in the long run (UNO 2005:30).
Consequently, the have come out with such terms like “poverty alleviation” poverty eradication. All these have been a policy initiated by the past administration to tackle poverty effectively and efficiently in Nigeria. In this chapter, I intend to examine the impact of poverty reduction policies and programme on rural communities in Nigeria, which have been adopted over the years by successive Nigeria governments aimed at tackling the problems of poverty in the country. Before proceeding to this, I will like to examine how poverty is being measured.
Poverty can be conceptualized and measured in different ways. The conventional approach focuses on the quantifiable poverty line based solely on consumption and expenditure pattern (World bank 2006), while the poverty line is an important measure of poverty in a country over time. Poverty goes beyond income level.
It comprises access to health care and education, respect, status, isolation within communities and feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness. Poverty is mult-dimensional and many of its dimensions are often hidden.
(Revelation 2005, Moser 2005). Secondly the united nations development programme (UNDP), uses the Human Development index (HDI) to measure human progress or retrogression. This is done by utilization of data purchasing power parily (PPP) or real GBP per-capital adjustment for the local diving. As of 2004 the UNDP ranked Mifen 146 country in its HDI. This shows that the level of poverty is very high in the country (UNDP 2005:3)
However, poverty in Nigeria can be viewed from the dimensions, urban rural and individual poverty. Urban poverty deals with the aggregation of the poor a social forms of urban poverty is evident in such terms as slums, ghettos or shanty, tourn, these firms described certain area of the city by its stage of physical deteriorate and are occupied by individual that are experiencing various rounds of social deprivation that include level of unemployment and inadequate social welfare services.
In addition to these, policy and progrmmes of reduction of poverty calls for the provision of conducive environment for heavy investment. These includes goods and accessible road network, simple and affordable transportation, low and medium housing for the populace portable water supply, agricultural and industrial development.
In a quest to achieve these, the Nigerian government bad in the past and present constituted policies, programmes and bodies to see to a speedy result. These poverty reduction policies and programmes include operation feed the nation (OFN 1976), Green Revolution of 1978, structural adjustment programme (SAP 1980’s), Directorate for food, Road and rural infrastructure (DFRRI 1986).
National Directorate for employment (NDE), better life and family support progamme education for all by the year 2000, the economic Advancement programme which is the brain child of former president olusegun obasanjo, electricity by the year 2010 and other self help programmes like keke napepe, needs seven point agenda, micro finance schemes etc.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
This boils down to what constitutes the problem on the study of impact of poverty reduction policies and programmes in rural communities in Nigeria. Just like the cause of poverty, the problems be devil. Poverty reduction policies and programmes on rural communities in Nigeria reference to Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo state are many and dimensional.
- Poverty reduction programs (PRP) in the Nigerian communities suffer from inadequate co-ordination. There is no known umbrella organization that co-ordinates the activities of DRP’s in Nigeria. This is the main reason why some PRP get themselves involved in the duplication of functions.
- Another problem being faced by PRP in the rural communities is inadequate fund given the wide spread nature of poverty in the country, it would have been expected that adequate consummate amount of money to released for PRP care such as NDE to combat via mass employment creation meanwhile, what government most often make available to PRP is not enough to enable them take the magnitude of poverty in the country.
- There is also lack of comprehensive policy frame work of poverty reduction. This is supposed to articulate ways by which various manifestation of poverty can be effective and efficiently tackled so as to ensure sustainable growth and development in the country.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of poverty reduction policies and programmes in rural communities in Nigeria with a view to suggesting strategies that will promote the standard of living of the rural dwellers.
The specific objective are:
- To examine governments effort in curbing poverty in Nigeria in general.
- To make suggestions and recommended towards policies on poverty reduction.
- To examine the areas in which poverty reduction policies and programmes have improved the lives of Owerri North people.
- To identify the remote course of rural poverty especially in rural areas.
- To identify the impact of poverty reduction policies and programmes on rural communities in Owerri North.
1.4 Research Questions
- In what area have poverty reduction polices and programmes improved the lives of the people of owerri north.
- Does poverty affect the income of the people of Owerri North L.G.A
- How does poverty affects some rural communities in Nigeria.
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
H0: Poverty does not affect the income of owerri North people.
H1: Poverty affect the income of owerri North people.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The significance of the study has to do or reflect both in the theoretical and practical importance of the study. Theoretically, the study will serve as an information quid for reservation who insight be in trusted in working on the area of poverty reduction on the rural communities in Nigeria.
Past governments have engaged in the past time of glorifying poverty reduction on the pages of news papers and news conference bat have failed the deliver. The earliest poverty reduction polices and programmes were the 1972 Gen. Yakubus Gowon’s national acceleration food production programme and the Nigeria Agricultural and cooperative Bank entirely devoted to finding agriculture.
The (NAPPP) turned out to be a colossal waste and nothing was achieved. Then operation feed the Nation came to limelight by military initiation, Gen Olusegun Obasanjo which expended to go to the rural areas to teach the present farmers on hour to farm. The scheme only success was in creating awareness of food shortage and need to tackle the problem. Apart from all the polices been initiated by past military and civilian government my question goes this way.
Would this present measures by president Yar’adua to any different, would they last see the poor? The previous measure all started like today’s own. The batter life for rural women, the family support programme and the people bank were particularly in trusting because they were directed to the poor.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This study will seek to identify the causes of poverty in Nigeria with reference to rural communities in owerri North local government area in Imo state.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
Some of the limitation can be ascertained as
- Time constraints for the researcher
- Poor accessibility to the internet
- Poor access road to the place of research
- Financial constraints in the side of the researcher
- Poor weather condition during the time of research
1.9 Definition Of Terms
This means or can be defined as the statement of principles or group of principles with their supporting rules of action, that conditions and governs the achievement of certain objectives to which a business is directed.
It can be defined as the act of reducing something or the state of being reduced.
It is a plan of picture event or activities, or of government of a country.
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
Chapter five is the conclusion summary and the recommendation of the project.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
Poverty is a multivariate phenomenon in which the standard of living, health, housing, education, occupation, wage level, demographic factors and a number of other variable are the social framework the plays a role in its generation. These are different kinds of poverty, these are made of largely of urban refuges from the traditional subsistence of the economy. These is poverty of unemployment, poverty may be due to lack of objective, opportunities, poverty may also be due to the use of outdated and traditional technique of production.
However, this is relevant to the poverty of the rural sector which is the main theme in this research.
Hitherto for the purpose of explicit understanding of this study, the researcher borrowed the wisdom of other scholars. From the foregoing reviews, one can understand the meaning people attached to poverty varies from societies but the central issue remains an irreducible care of absolute deprivation which translate reports of starvation, malnutrition and visible hardship without having to ascertain first the relative picture. As the case may be the researcher could not have access to literatures with a direct bearing on the topic, the death of such relevant literature in no small measure, constituted a research problem in this study. The literature review, the theoretical perspective used in this study sees poverty as a feedback system. This theory is advanced by coast and silbur (2006) they argued that the various circle in which poverty breeds occurs through time and transmits its effect from one generation to another. This theory sometimes is known as the “Vicious circle theory of poverty” they argued that the various circumstances of the poor combines to maintain them in poverty, they are trapped in situation with little chance of escaping.
This theory test explain the situation of poverty in Owerri North local government each part reinforces the others and so maintain the system as a whole. The work was based on the impact of poverty reduction policies and programmes on rural communities in Nigeria with reference to Owerri North local government area, the Ifenns covered include health, housing occasional activities of the rural communities the researcher was concerned with interviewing a random sample of 180 people. One hundred female and eighty male. The reason is that the present day Nigerian economy creates a situation where rural –urban migration still favors male activities, it is also imperative to not clearly that questionnaire methods was used in this study.
However, the researcher was centered on the people within the age bracket of 30-39 and their procedure used by the researcher in order to ensure that the largest population is fully represented, the questionnaire was distributed to the corresponding number of respondents in each of the structure of the largest villages, data have ensure reliability descriptive method of using table analysis and percentages was used. However, in the cause of carrying out this research, a lot of constraints were encountered. Example finance, death of relevant literature, time etc.
Based on the socio-demographic variable of the respondents in considering their age groups 86 or 48% has the highest number in age by this , we can understand the rural –urban migration affects people within the age category of 20-39 mostly, leaving the aged behind in the village. Again the researcher also indicated that there are less male than female. The number of people who are married in Owerri North out numbered the single and divorced. Table 4.4 proves farming as their chief or major occupation of Owerri North people, and this goes along way in affecting their educational attainment objective table 4.5 shows that illiteracy is the major cause of poverty in owerri north local government. The federal government effort to build schools that will be affordable to the people has not been successfully because majority of the respondents indicated that the could not go to school due to lack of money. In the findings, it was observed that the efforts of poverty reduction policies and programmes in owerri north affected their income, types of food eaten etc. while in table 4.12 it tires to show that the government have not been fruitful.
Finally, table 4.14 shows that 74 or 41% of respondents which also happen to be the government efforts but that none of these proverty reduction policies and programmes have improved the lives of the poor masses. Based on selfish interest of people in power, the diverted the money in their various purses thereby making the rich to be richer and leaving the poor to be poorer.
This study in its path has shown that poverty has an impact on the rural people in owerri north local government. There are major hindrance to reducing and eliminating poverty in owerri north local government and this has bee identified to be the dominant cultural role.
Poverty as a feed back system (Vicious circle of poverty) best explain the situation of poverty in owerri north local government under the theory, each parts reinforces the others and so maintain the system as a whole and that the various circumstance of the poor combined to maintain them in poverty.
The concept of rural poverty is generally not quantified at least not adequately so. This is because local income in agriculture is also associated with their factors such as small farming, low education, low or poor medical facilities. Although there is no firm definition of rural poverty in Nigeria, there is general awareness of its presence.
It is to note that any recommendation or prescriptive remedies for eliminating or minimizing poverty have incorporate the known and identifiable cause of poverty, therefore based in the finding of this study, the following recommendation have become very imperative in order to ensure a change and to see that the poor are raised above the poverty line.
- Agriculture still remain the simple largest employer of labour in rural areas till date, a concerted effort should be made by state and federal government to enhance the investment competitiveness of the agricultural sector. This however calls for the abolition of duties on all agricultural sectoral machinery and equipment as well as agro-oiled input, liberalization of export of agricultural products, easy access to credit facilities and adequate environment protection for agriculture to regain its pre-oil boom status, this will help to increase the farmers income and bring them up above poverty line.
- the role of education in hiding the human capital of any nation cannot be overstressed, therefore government should ensure that the educational inequality between the rich and the poor and even the urban and rural areas is closed, in this regarded they should fund the school in the rural areas very well, so that by so doing, the children of the poor can benefit.
- Moreover, there should be collage industries to provide employment to farmers and their families during the dry season such additional employment will spice up measured income they got from farming, the handling and implementation of such project should not be in the hands of the raised urban bourgeois who depend on the benefits of the project at the expense of the poor rather the I guess and the paramount rulers and such like in proposed towns and communities, who are aware of the problems of their people should be entrusted with this project.
- There should be a promulgation of law prohibiting Nigerian from dumping the country’s money in swiss bank and other foreign banks. Anyone that goes contrary should be made to face the law and such account frozen. This mass poverty in Nigeria is traceable to the gross corruption of the past Nigerian leaders. Cases about where some Nigerian leaders siphoned funds to keep in swiss bank such large some of money can sustain the entire population.
The researcher is therefore of the recommendation or view that if the policy makers will head to this points suggested, most rural families will be lifted above the poverty line while mass poverty will drastically be reduced in Nigeria.
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