The Effects Of Poor Funding Of Primary Schools In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

The Effects Of Poor Funding Of Primary Schools In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examined the effects of poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the factors contributing to poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State; identify the implications of poor funding on educational quality in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State; and ascertain the effect of poor funding on pupils academic achievement in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers and principals of selected primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the factors contributing to poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State includes; inadequate source of income, corruption, mismanagement of funds by principals, increased population of pupils, and political interference. The study also revealed that the implications of poor funding on educational quality in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State includes; inadequate provision of educational facilities, acute shortage of qualified teachers, poor learning outcomes, low access to education, and poor performance of teachers and students. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should be committed to the adequate funding of primary education through appropriate budgetary allocation for the sustenance of primary education in the country. The government should consider an upward review of the educational budget to meet up with the 26% allocation recommended by UNESCO and above. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Financing formal education in Nigeria has become an issue of public concern as a result of the present economic down turn and world wide inflation. According to Central Bank of Nigeria (2003), poor financing has been the bane of Nigerian education system to the extent that the budgetary allocation has been very low. Furthermore, the federal government allocation to education has declined steadily since 1999 and is much lower than average in the last five years. This is particularly important in view of huge increase in number of intake at all levels of education primary, secondary and tertiary. Ajetomob and Ayanwale (2004) observed that one of the approaches government adopts in financing education in Nigeria is the annual budgetary allocation to the sector that are distributed as subvention or grants to the different levels of education, the grants or subventions are made through respective education ministry of government by the coordinating agencies of education such as the National University Commission (NUC), National Commission for Colleges of Education (NABTEB), Secondary Education Management Board (SEMB) and Universal Basic Education Commission. They went further to say that since the oil crisis in the eighties, the proportion of capital budget allocated to education has been consistently lower than the proportion of recurrent expenditure over the years, the government capital expenditure allocated to education as a percentage of total capital budgets ranged from as low as 1.7 percent in 1999 and not up to 9% in all case. Like total budget, the proportion was not consistent and this however, has retarded progresses in building facilities (Okunamiri, 2007). This view agrees with Moja (2000) when he asserts that building of classroom has not kept up with increased enrolment in all levels of Education in Nigeria. Worst affected are primary and secondary schools where classes are offered in the open air. In several primary schools, as many as four classes are accommodated in one classroom and these are classes that are already over crowded and in poor state of repairs.

Abdullahi (2003) stated: “since independence there has been a consistent increasing demand for educational services in Nigeria. This demand arose as a result of population growth, increasing social demands (the desire to educate a good proportion of the population) and need for more skilled manpower in the country. The increasing demand on educational services means the establishment of more schools and provision of more teachers and materials. The result is that the burden of funding education in Nigeria, which rests mainly on the various tiers of government, is becoming unbearable. This fact is evident by the existence of numerous problems bedeviling the Education sector in the country. It is a foregone conclusion that in Nigeria with a population of over 100 million, a good percentage of which consists of young people, the funding of education can no longer be totally left in the hands of government .”

The scenario described above, particularly the rapid changes in the education sector since independence, depicts a state of chaos in the sector. The result is that numerous problems are easily discernible in the sector including the following:

  • Poor infrastructural facilities in schools at all
  • Poor number and quality of teachers particularly at primary and secondary level
  • Poor quality products (graduate) from schools at all
  • Loss of confidence by the general pubic in the

Most of these problems arose from inadequate funding of the sector (Nwagwu, 2002).
Fashina (2005) observe that in 1994, the funding formular was revised by the government so that the state would share 50% equally, thus educationally disadvantaged states 25%, pupil enrolment 25% and population of the states 10%. In 1999, the then government scrapped the National Primary Education Fund (NPEF) and reconstituted it under another name (the National Primary Education Commission). This action was taken in recognition of the states and local government’s constitutional responsibility for financing and managing primary education. Alternative source of funding explored by government is the Education Tax Fund (ETF) established in 1995. It ensured that companies with more than 100 employees contribute 2% of their pretax earnings to the fund. Primary education receives 40% of this fund; secondary education receives 10% and higher education 50%. Primary education has in the past also received from Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF) for capital expenditure and provision of instructional materials. While in higher institutions, gifts, endowment funds, consultancy services farms, satellite campuses, pre-degrees are other alternative funding sources. Despite all the alternatives, the infrastructures, and facilities remain inadequate for coping with a system that is growing at a very rapid pace. The annual population growth rate was 3.3% (C.B.N, 2003). Due to poor financing, the quality of education offered is affected by poor attendance and inadequate preparation by teachers at all levels. The morale of teachers is low due to basic condition of service and low salaries.

Furthermore, physical facilities need to be upgraded and resources such as libraries, modern communication and information technology equipment have to be provided (Anozie, 2000). The quest for meeting these basic education needs has been the cause of unending crisis between government and trade union such as Nigerian union of teachers (NUT), Academic staff union of universities (ASUU), Non-Academic staff union (NASU). In the same direction, Ogbonnaya (2005) contends that education sector competes with the industrial, health, agriculture, communication sectors of the economy and as such demands effective funding from government. The same is true of other sectors. Thus, the funds made available for education are never enough as these sectors must receive attention as well. In view of the above, it may be observed that formal education is at cross roads in the country, especially when other sectors of the economy are competing keenly for attention as much as education does in the national budgetary allocation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Funding of formal education in Nigeria has been a topical issue due to the present bleak in economy arising from the global inflationary trend and economic down turn. Inspite of the efforts of the different governments of the federation to provide funds for education, educational institutions still lack the necessary funds to implement various programmes.

The problem of this study emanated from various inadequacies associated with the Nigerian educational system, inadequacies in terms of teaching and learning facilities, school plants, non payment of teachers salaries, modern technologies, uncondusive learning environment. This thus, arouses the interest of the researcher to investigate the extent to which non- governmental organization such as alumni associations, Christian association of Nigerian, town union, rotary club and market women association funds primary schools.

Therefore, the problem of this study is to evaluate the effects of poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study to examine the effects of poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.

The study will specifically focus on the aims listed below;

  1. Ascertain the factors contributing to poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
  2. Identify the implications of poor funding on educational quality in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
  3. Ascertain the effect of poor funding on pupils academic achievement in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided this study:

  1. What are the factors contributing to poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State?
  2. What are the implications of poor funding on educational quality in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State?
  3. What is the effect of poor funding on pupils academic achievement in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: Poor funding have no negative effect on pupils’ academic achievement in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
  • Ha: Poor funding have a negative effect on pupils’ academic achievement in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State

1.6 Significance of the Study

The benefits that shall accrue from this study are many. Specifically, students, parents, school principals and researchers.
This study will be of benefit to students because, they are the direct beneficiaries of what goes on in the schools. Therefore, appraising the extent to which governmental and non -governmental organizations funds schools will show a clear picture of the financial state of public primary schools, will spur suggestions on how to deal with the various inadequacies associated with the school system.

Another group that will benefit from this study are parents. This is because these group of people have their children in schools where various inadequacies have been limiting effective teaching and learning. Therefore, if their children will benefit from this study as students, indirectly their parents would also benefit from this study.

The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to various tiers of government such as local, state and federal government to whom the burden of educational funding seems to have left with. This study will show a clear picture on the extent to which non-governmental organizations fund primary schools thereby serving as an appraisal report to the government.

The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to school head masters who have been the victims of inadequacies of resources needed for effective execution of educational programmes, since this study aims at appraising the extent to which non-governmental organizations funds educational institutions. Probably, suggestions on how to improve private sector participation in funding may be arrived at thereby enabling school head-master to have enough resources to execute educational programmes in schools.

Lastly, the result of this study will be of importance to future researchers who may wish to carryout studies relating to the problem under study.


1.7 Scope of the Study.

The focus of this study is to examine the effects of poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. Hence, this study will be delimited to some selected primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Funding:

Refers to a form of financial support that is given for the achievement of a project.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effects of poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the factors contributing to poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State; identify the implications of poor funding on educational quality in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State; and ascertain the effect of poor funding on pupils academic achievement in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers and principals of selected primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The factors contributing to poor funding of primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State includes; inadequate source of income, corruption, mismanagement of funds by principals, increased population of pupils, and political interference.
  2. The implications of poor funding on educational quality in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State includes; inadequate provision of educational facilities, acute shortage of qualified teachers, poor learning outcomes, low access to education, and poor performance of teachers and students.
  3. Poor funding have a negative effect on pupils’ academic achievement in primary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The government should be committed to the adequate funding of primary education through appropriate budgetary allocation for the sustenance of primary education in the country. The government should consider an upward review of the educational budget to meet up with the 26% allocation recommended by UNESCO and above.
  2. The private sector should cooperate with the government and other educational stakeholders in supporting the education system through financial and material assistance. This should serve as part of its cooperate social responsibility since the education sector also contribute to the provision of quality manpower for this economic sector of the economy.
  3. Managers and administrators of primary education should explore other revenue outlets that will help to balance the financial needs of the school. This can be achieved through the provision of handcrafts, alumni contribution and other investments.
  4. The school managers should also endeavour to apply appropriate financial management techniques in the management of available funds. Strategies which will assist in the effective utilization of available funds should be considered and implemented.
  5. The government and Ministry of education should set up a supervision team to inspect how school managers disburse the funds assigned for different activities in the school. This will help to reduce the issue of misappropriation of school funds by school managers.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: The Effects Of Poor Funding Of Primary Schools In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.