Effects Of Peer Pressure On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State

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Effects Of Peer Pressure On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State


Abstract


Educational activities are targeted at ensuring students achieve the basic goals of educational objectives which is encompassing the students good academic performance for greater tomorrow of self, society and the nation at large.
The study was on the relationship among peer pressure and academic performance of in-school adolescents in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State Nigeria.

The researcher discovered that in-school adolescent are found loitering about when lesson is going and watching film at video centre. It is this act that necessitated the present study in investigating relationship among peer pressure, time management and academic performance of in-school adolescents in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

A correlational survey method was used for the study. In-school adolescents in (SS II) composed the population from which a sample of 500 in- school adolescents was drawn in four local governments that made up the Ilishan Remo Education Zone.

The research findings, showed that a higher percentage of in-adolescents experience low pressure while lower percentage of adolescents experience negative peer pressure.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Educational activities are targeted at ensuring students achieve the basic goals of educational objectives which is encompassing the students good academic performance for greater tomorrow of self, society and the nation at large.

Academic performance refers to the degree to which a student achieves educational goals. Scott (2012) sees academic performance as how well a student is accomplishing his or her tasks and studies. There are no precise indicators for measuring academic performance, but most of the times; the academic performance of a student is measured by his grades in class assignment, tests and examination. The issue of poor academic performance in Nigeria evidenced by the failure rate of students in external examination like SSCE and NECO is becoming alarming. Statistics from the West African Examination Council revealed that between 2012 and 2014, 80.9% of candidates have 2 credits and above 70.3% have 3 credits and above. The report further showed that 16.73% of candidates’ results were withheld because of examination malpractices.

Several factors have been attributed as causes of poor academic performance. Teachers’ non-adoption of verbal reinforcement strategy, poor attitude of teachers to their job

lack of qualified and competent teachers and poor style of teaching have been identified as possible causes of poor academic performance(Arief, 2011). The causes of poor academic performance could also be attributed to student-factors such as inability of students to manage their time, poor preparation, inability to withhold peer pressure and seriousness of students towards their academic endeavours.

The extent to which the educational objectives are achieved is determined by level of peer pressure occurring around students amongst other factors. Peers play a vital role in the social and emotional formation of students, especially at adolescent stage. Peers influence starts from an early age and becomes stronger at the teenage stages and adolescents. Hence it is normal, natural and important for adolescents to have and rely on their friends as they grow and develop.

A peer is anyone one look up to in behaviour. It is equally someone who thinks is equal to one’s age, class and ability (Hardcastle, 2002). On the other hand, pressure means the influence on people to do certain things, which may at times be against their wish. Peer pressure is the ability of people from same social class or age to influence another of same age or class (Jones, 2010). Peer pressure is equally the influences peers have on each other. Peer pressure is also a force exert by people that is influenced by ideas, values and behaviours either positively or negatively and always associated with adolescents.

The term “peer pressure” is mostly associated with teenagers or adolescents, but in reality, it is not confined to teenagers alone (Areif, 2011). Peer pressure is common with variants of adolescents’ risk taking such as delinquency, drug abuse, sexual behaviours, and so on. Peer pressure can also have positive effects when youths are influenced by their peers towards positive and good behaviour such as volunteering for charity, challenge or motivate peers to put up their academic performance

The negative influences of peer pressure are generally perceived to be more prevalent in the society than the positive influence of peer pressure (Arief, 2011). Peers can encourage each other to skip classes, steal, cheat, use drugs, take alcohol and cigarette. Majority of adolescents involved in risky behaviours is greatly as a result of peer pressure. It may also lead to one’s involvement in making the decision to have boy/girlfriends. Peer pressure indulges youth to wander aimlessly around the streets, watching films, attending night parties, taping as alternative to stealing which may eventually degenerate to armed robbery. This behaviours undoubtedly have effects on various aspects of student’s life.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The academic performance of Nigerian secondary school students has been unremarkable over years evidenced by the failure rate in public examinations. Parents, teacher, school administrator, stakeholders and counsellors have expressed varying concern on this ugly issue. These categories of people have identified negative peer pressure as being responsible for students’ poor academic performance. Negative Peer pressure is suspected for luring students to engage in negative habits such as over-drinking of alcohol, smoking of cigarette and marijuana, sexual related activities and other socially unacceptable acts that distract them from their academic pursuit. These maladaptive behaviours of adolescents which causes poor academic performance raises the question, why the students are not concerned about the current state on their academic performance in internal and public examinations.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the effects of peer pressure on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State.

The study specifically aims:

  1. To examine the effects of positive peer pressure on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State.
  2. To examine the effects of negative peer pressure on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State.
  3. To ascertain the peer pressure influence on the students’ academic performance based on age and gender.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Three hypotheses are formulated to guide the study in order to arrive at a valid conclusion. The hypotheses are stated as follows:

H01: Negative peer pressure has no significant effect on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State.

Ha1: There is no significant peer pressure influence on the students’ academic performance based on age and gender.


1.5 Research Questions

  1. What level of peer pressure have Ikenne Local Government school students?
  2. What is the academic performance status of ikenne local government school students?

1.6 Significance of Study

The findings of the study will be of substantial benefits to parents and guardians, teachers and school administrators, counsellors, society and the students themselves.

The study will help parents and guardians on how well to train and bring their child to enable them not to be vulnerable to the negative influences of peer pressure. The study will help counsellor to know the right technique to adopt in modifying negative peer pressure. It will also help them to create discipline in the life of students.

The teachers will equally benefits from this study as it will help them what is expected from them in terms of morality, sanity and good ethical behaviours, as the students sees them as role-models. The study will help schools to produce disciplined students who will be useful to the nation because experience has showed that disciplined students perform academically and better than the undisciplined counterparts.

The study will inform the students to know the inherent gains behind positive peer pressure and the inherent disaster behind negative peer pressure as it relates to their academic performance. The study will help the society by organizing conferences, seminars, symposiums, workshops to inform them about the effects of positive and negative peer pressure. Finally, This study will equally be helpful to future researchers as it will serve as a source of research material for them.


1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This is limited to senior secondary school students because they are believed to have experienced the good and bad sides of peer pressure


1.8 Definition of Terms

Academic Performance

The degree to which a student achieves the objectives of educational outcomes. It is also the extent of a student’s performance in classroom activities, internal and public examinations.

Peer Pressure

A force exerts by people that is influenced by ones values and behaviours either positively or negatively and always associated with adolescents.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusions, Recommendations and Summary

In this chapter, the results of the study are discussed based on the data analysis made in chapter four, interpreted and inference drawn from them.


5.1 Discussion of the Findings

Levels of Peer Pressure among In-school Adolescent

The researcher found that there exists low level of peer pressure among in- school adolescent. Data from table 1 shown that a higher percentage of in-school adolescents experienced a low level of peer pressure. The experience of low level peer pressure among in-school adolescents could mean that peer group exercised positive influence on their members in this regard. This implies that peer pressure could influence in-school adolescents to engage in group discussion, going to library to read, that will enhance their academic performance. This supports the view of Black (2002) that, peer pressure may be a positive influence and could help to motivate them to do their best. With the attainment such high percentage of level of peer pressure, it implies that peer pressure has a positive influence on school adolescents, behaviour.

The few percentage of in-adolescents with high peer pressure, it means that they are being influence negatively, such as engrossment in computer games, watching of films.

The findings that a significant number of in-school adolescent experienced a low peer pressure means that in-school adolescent received less pressure from their peers. The reasons for less pressure could be that they are matured and have know what is good for them and what is bad.

Level of Time Management among In-school Adolescent

The researcher found out that there exist a low level of time management among in-school adolescents. From the data it shown that in-school in Ilishan Remo Education Zone do not manage their time irrespective of the fact that there is low peer pressure influence among them. The explanation for this is that peer pressure may not be a factor of in-school adolescent’s inability to manage their time but other factors such as breakdown in family system, watching of films, holding parties could be accountable for poor time management. The researcher is of the opinion that lack of parental supervision could lead to poor time management when in-school adolescents are without their parents’ guidance, they may spend their time in playing computer games, and gambling. Despites that they experienced low peer pressure, the tendency of managing time will not be there.

Relationship between Peer Pressure and Academic Performance of In-school Adolescents in Ilishan Remo Education Zone Data from table 3 shown that there is a medium direct positive relationship between peer pressure and academic performance of in-school adolescents. The findings implies that an in-school adolescents experience positive peer influence. But their ability to perform very well was attributed to other factors studied. Probably, their teacher was able to cover the scheme of work before the assessment. As a result it leads to good academic performance.

Relationship between Time Management and Academic Performance of In- school Adolescents

The result of the study in table 4 shown that there is medium direct positive relationship between time management and academic performance. This means that the in-school adolescents utilize their time very which enhances their academic performance. The finding could be attributed to some factor like time table, group discussion, doing assignment and read ahead before examination. When in-school adolescents map out thing to do daily and follow them sequentially there is tendency of them managing their time well. When such happens, it leads to better academic performance which supports the finding that there is a positive relation between time management and academic performance.

This is in line with Atusenuwa (2002) who pointed out that how well a student manages his or her time determines to a large extent individual chances of success and the degree of success as well. The researcher is of the opinion that proper management of time on the side of in-school adolescents could bring better academic performance.
Relationship among Peer Pressure, Time Management and Academic Performance of In-school Adolescents with

Regard to Gender

The researcher found out that their exist a medium direct positive relationship between peer pressure and time management of male and female student and their academic performance. The data in table 5 shown that female in- school adolescents experience high positive peer pressure, manages their time well which makes them to performed higher than the male in-school adolescents academically. This finding implies that academic performance of female in-school adolescents is a little bit higher that the male in-school adolescents. This means that both female in-school adolescents and male in-school adolescents did well academically only that female in-school adolescents’ performance is a little bit higher than the male counterpart. This implies their peer group is the type that do not miss lessons instead of loitering about while classes are on. It could also be that their peer group encourages one another, in their studies through group discussions before examination. This supports Head, (1965) that a child whose siblings andpeers are well motivated towards their academic work tend to achieve higher than one whose peer are more interested in social life.

The data also shown that male experienced slight negative peer pressure such as smoking of cigarette and even drinking of alcohol, but their female were able to manage their time that made them performed well academically than the male counterpart.

The analysis from chapter four revealed that there was a significant relationship between peer pressure and academic performance of in-school adolescents in Ilishan Remo Education Zone. It also revealed that there was a significant relationship between time management and academic performance of in-school adolescents in Ilishan Remo Education Zone. There was a significant relationship among peer pressure, time management and academic performance of in-school adolescents with regards to gender. Based on the result of this analysis, the peer pressure and time management put together have a positive influence on academic performance of in-school adolescents.

The reason could be that they know why they are in school and also have the determination to succeed. Because those of the females are boarders they managed their time more than those that comes from home, where other environmental factors that tend to disturbs them.


5.2 Conclusions of the Study

In light of the findings obtained in this study, the following conclusions are made.

  1. The finding implies that as in-school adolescents experience peer pressure, the ability of them performing well academically may not be there.
  2. This shows that negative peer pressure can bring about poor academic performance.
  3. The medium positive relationship between time management and academic performance implies that proper management of time enhances a better academic performance while the reverse is the case.

5.3 Recommendation of the Study

Based on the finding of this study, the following recommendations aremade:

  1. Trained counselor should be posted to all the secondary schools so as to help counsel few adolescents with negative influences.
  2. Parents should have effective supervision and should not allow other home environmental factor to distract their children. There is a need for teacher to have greater supervision and regulations on in-school adolescents to enhance effectiveness of their time management.

Effects Of Peer Pressure On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State


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