The Effects Of Peer Instructional Strategy On Students Achievement And Retention In Chemistry In Secondary School In Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

The Effects Of Peer Instructional Strategy On Students Achievement And Retention In Chemistry In Secondary School In Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effects of peer instructional strategy on students achievement and retention in chemistry using some selected secondary schools in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State as a case study. Specifically the study is set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between instructional strategy and students academic performance in Chemistry, ascertain whether the use of peer instructional strategy facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools, find out whether peer instructional strategy improves students interest and study habit towards chemistry in secondary schools, and find out whether peer instructional strategy enhances students retention and academic performance in chemistry. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of Chemistry teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings there is a significant relationship between instructional strategy and students academic performance in Chemistry. Furthermore, the study reveals that the use of peer instructional strategy enhance students retention and academic performance in chemistry. Therefore, it is recommended that government agencies whose responsibility is to design and revise the curriculum for secondary schools should incorporate the peer tutoring in the curriculum for effective teaching of Chemistry. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Science education is an interdisciplinary field which incorporates education in the component fields of science, which includes biology education, chemistry education, physics education, mathematics education and basic science education. Science education aims at achieving the same aims of education through the study of science (Holbrook in [10]. The thrust of science education is to transform the learner into self-reliant person and active participant in socio-economic activities and effective contributor to nation building. Science education therefore equips and disposes the learner towards building himself for the overall social purpose. However, observations show that science(chemistry) classes at the senior secondary school level are scanty, relative to non-science classes.
The low level of both application of and students’ achievements in Chemistry can be attributed to many factors, among which is poor or inappropriate instructional strategy/method of teaching and learning science. This is a fact as studies [16,17,18], [14] show that academic retention and achievement in chemistry depends on methods of teaching and learning. The implication is that poor achievement in the sciences can be traced to poor teaching methods. Research focus towards determining how best to teach and learn science to achieve its set goals have been appreciable in the recent time. Among other teaching approach, active learning strategies in chemistry teaching such as inquiry-approach, laboratory approaches, discovery methods, co-operative learning strategies and peer instructional strategies has been observed to best boost and increase students academic retention and performance in Chemistry. Thus, this study if focused on peer instructional strategy.

Peer instructional strategies are those strategies in which the teacher sets the environment for learning while the learners play the teacher-role to a small group of learners at short or long time duration. This can be made possible if the teacher relinguishes a great part of his role and authority to the learners and assumes more responsibility as a facilitator of learning. [22] defined peer instruction as a method where students are able to acquire knowledge through observation, study, teaching of other students, or through their own experiences. The most popular peer instructional strategies include reciprocal questioning, game-based learning, jigsaw instructional strategies, and the pause procedure. [22]

Variations exist among instructional approaches. However, the underlying theory is consistent: peer interaction can have a powerful influence on academic motivation and achievement (Light & Littleton, 2000; Steinburg, Dornbusch, & Brown, 2004; Wentzel, 2006). The research base also suggests that socialization experiences that occur during peer tutoring can benefit both the tutor and tutee by motivating students to learn and increasing their social standing among peers (Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L.S., Mathes & Martiniez, 2002; Rohrbeck et. al, 2003; Miller & Miller, 2008). When students understand the benefits of peer instructional strategy and have the tools to become effective tutors and tutees, they make greater progress than those who are not given any instruction on how to work together (Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, Phillips, Karns, & Dutka, 2007).

Peer-instructional strategy consists of students partnership, linking high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement for structure reading and chemistry study seasons. In view of the above, this study seek to examine the effect of the effects of peer instructional strategy on students achievement and retention in chemistry in secondary school.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Literature shows that the outputs of chemistry teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria have not been positively related to input and policy specifics of government. As such the set goals have not been met to any meaningful extent. Reports from public examination bodies like the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) indicate that there is poor and declining academic achievement of students in Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations in chemistry subject. The poor academic achievement in chemistry may be due to many factors including the use of inappropriate instructional strategies.

Studies have shown that science teachers adopted learner-centered instructional strategies in chemistry classes. In particular, despite that chemistry teachers use of peer instructional strategies, the negative trend in achievement in chemistry has not been reversed. The persistent low achievement may been attributed to failure to decipher strategies that would be more appropriate for science contents based on variables learning outcome. Put in another way, it is not yet evident that chemistry teachers who venture into the use of innovative methods do so in their conviction that such methods have more positive effects on achievements than similar ones. Hence this study is face with the challenge of unveiling the effects of peer instructional strategy on students achievement and retention in chemistry in secondary school.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study seek to assess the effects of peer instructional strategy on students achievement and retention in chemistry in secondary school. Specific objectives are stated below.

  1. Determine whether there is a significant relationship between instructional strategy and students academic performance in Chemistry.
  2. Ascertain whether the use of peer instructional strategy facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools.
  3. Find out whether peer instructional strategy improves students interest and study habit towards chemistry in secondary schools.
  4. Find out whether peer instructional strategy enhances students retention and academic performance in chemistry.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. Is there a significant relationship between instructional strategy and students academic performance in Chemistry?
  2. Does the use of peer instructional strategy facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools?
  3. Does the use of peer instructional strategy improve students interest and study habit towards chemistry in secondary schools?
  4. Does the use peer instructional strategy enhance students retention and academic performance in chemistry?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The use peer instructional strategy does not enhance students retention and academic performance in chemistry.
  • Ha: The use peer instructional strategy enhances students retention and academic performance in chemistry.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be significant to various people: science teachers, science students, senior secondary school authorities and institutions that train science teachers.

Results of the study will enlighten science teachers on the efficacy of Jigsaw and peer tutoring as strategies for teaching science. They will have empirical bases to take informed decisions on which of the strategies to use in science delivery.

One of the challenges of innovative approaches to teaching and learning has to do with acceptability and adaptability by the learners. Learners often show reluctance to adapting of a new approach. Results of the study will provide science students bases to accept and adapt preferentially to the strategies, to improve their achievement.
Institutions that train science teachers will benefit from the result of this study by getting necessary information about the strategies. This will help them adopt the strategies, improve on their knowledge of instructional strategies and facilitate the mentoring of student-teachers in adoption of active learning strategies in science teaching.

The result of the study will be useful to science curricula planners. It will help them in defining appropriate materials and delivery activities necessary for proper implementation of the curriculum, especially developing strategies to improve on the efficiency of the process and application of peer tutoring in senior secondary science class.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on the effects of peer instructional strategy on students achievement and retention in chemistry in secondary school. The study will focus completely on student’s retention and academic performance. Geographically, this study will be delimited to Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Peer:

Students of the same age/ability.

Tutoring:

A person charged with the instruction and guidance of another

Academic Performance:

Evaluation of students’ expected performance on academic activities in the classroom.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of peer instructional strategy on students achievement and retention in chemistry using some selected secondary schools in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effects of peer instructional strategy on students achievement and retention in chemistry using some selected secondary schools in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to determine whether there is a significant relationship between instructional strategy and students academic performance in Chemistry, ascertain whether the use of peer instructional strategy facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools, find out whether peer instructional strategy improves students interest and study habit towards chemistry in secondary schools, and find out whether peer instructional strategy enhances students retention and academic performance in chemistry.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are Chemistry teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion:

  1. There is a significant relationship between instructional strategy and students academic performance in Chemistry.
  2. The use of peer instructional strategy facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools.
  3. The use of peer instructional strategy improve students interest and study habit towards chemistry in secondary schools
  4. The use of peer instructional strategy enhance students retention and academic performance in chemistry.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Seminars, workshops should be organized by the State government to educate Chemistry teachers on the use of peer instructional strategy in teaching Chemistry.
  2. Chemistry teachers should use peer instructional strategy in secondary schools to enhance the academic achievement and interest of students.
  3. Government agencies whose responsibility is to design and revise the curriculum for secondary schools should incorporate the peer tutoring in the curriculum for effective teaching of Chemistry.

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