Effects Of Overpopulation On The Academic Performance Of Students In Government Secondary Schools
The study aimed at establishing the effects of overpopulation on the academic performance of government secondary schools. It is designed to identify the factors that contribute to the increase in students’ population, find out the students – teacher ratio in government secondary schools and also the impact of the increase on the academic performance of students. A descriptive survey design was used, while the population of the study consists of government owned secondary schools in Owerri educational zone. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the four (4) schools out of the nine (9) schools in the zone. A total of thirty (30) students and (10) teachers were randomly selected from four selected four schools. One Hundred and sixty (160) students, forty (40) per school were selected for the study. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used to gather information for the study. The information obtained was then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that 97.3% of the respondents were of the opinion that there was shortage of infrastructural facilities due to overpopulation of classrooms. The analysis also indicated that overpopulation of classroom significantly influenced behavioural attitude of students to their studies. It also showed that overpopulation of classrooms significantly affect effective teaching and learning. The analysis further indicated that overpopulation of classroom negatively affected academic performance of students, being the major factor responsible for poor performance of students in public schools. The study concluded that overpopulation of classroom had significantly influence on student’s behavioural attitude of students to their studies.
1.1 Background to the Study
According to the Federal Ministry of Education, as at 2004, the population of Nigeria secondary schools stood at one hundred and eighteen thousand, two hundred (118200) secondary schools while that of Imo state showed a total number of two hundred and five (205). Owerri Municipal council had about seven (7) secondary schools, with a population of Seven thousand, six hundred and fifteen (7615) students. This figure when compared with that of 1999 which was inclusive according to Federal Ministry of Education was very high because during that period, it was so in order to attract Federal Government attention.
The present Nigerian population of secondary schools going by the above number is almost twenty one thousand, eight hundred and twenty eight (21828) secondary schools, with Imo state having three hundred and twelve (312) secondary schools and Owerri Municipal 9 government secondary schools.
According to the statistics department, Secondary Education Management Board (SEMB), there has been a rapid increase in the population of students in Owerri Education zone from seven thousand, six hundred and fifteen (7615) students to ten thousand, five hundred and seventy (10570) students. There is a constant increase in the population of secondary schools which runs contrary to the new encyclopedia Britannica, volume (A) assertion. Unlike population of insects, population rarely has been subject to explosive or collapsing numbers.
Overpopulation refers to a situation where the total number of people in an area exceeds the available resources. Overpopulation can also be defined as deficiency in resources development in relation to the available people Osuji (2008). This means existing resources can not march the immediate population number.
Evidence has shown that the population of students in urban schools is on the increase. The steady areas to enjoy recreational facilities, which keeps them busy after studying is one of the factors that contributes to overpopulation of secondary schools in urban areas.
Under population of secondary school in Nigeria has had a negative impact in the Nigeria educational sector, and the output is devastating in terms of loss of standard and its attendant results.
This situation of over population could be speculated to be speculated to be responsible for the untold hardship, corruption, social disorder, poor standard of living, crime etcetera. In this, there will be lower standard of education, inadequate instructional materials, production of poor or a few quality text books, congested classrooms and attendant education in characters (dropout as a product of the so called schools).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, there has been an increase in the population of students in urban secondary schools. This has been consistent, without the attendant increase in facilities, teachers and infrastructure, etcetera. With the decline in the quality of education and output, it therefore becomes imperative to find out whether the increase in population of students’ directly affect their academic performance and identify the causes of increase in population of students in government secondary schools in Owerri educational zone and what could be done to remedy the situation.
1.3 Research Questions
This research shall attempt to address the following questions.
- What are the factors responsible for over-crowding of the public school classroom?
- Is there any relationship between overpopulation of the classroom, students attitude and behaviour?
- Has overpopulation any effect on teaching and learning?
- Has overpopulation any significant effect on academic achievement of students in government secondary schools?
- Is there any relationship between overpopulation of classroom and the general standard of education?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
- To examine the factors responsible for over-crowding of the public school classroom.
- To assess the relationship between overpopulation of the classroom, students attitude and behavior.
- To examine the effect of overpopulation on teaching and learning.
- To examine the significant effect of academic achievement on students in government secondary schools.
- To establish the relationship between overpopulation of classroom and the general standard of education.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
To achieve the objectives this research shall be guided by the following underlisted assumptions.
- Hi1: High birth rate and shortage of infrastructural facilities are responsible for overpopulation of classrooms.
Ho1: High birth rate and shortage of infrastructure are not responsible for overpopulation in the classrooms.
- Hi2: Overpopulation of classrooms significantly influence behavioural attitudes of students.
Ho2: Overpopulation of classrooms has no significant influence on the behavioral attitude of students.
- Hi3: Overpopulation of classrooms significantly affects effective teaching and learning.
Ho3: Overpopulation of classroom has no significant effect on teaching and learning.
- Hi4: Overpopulation significantly affects academic performance of students.
Ho4: Overpopulation has no significant relationship with academic performance of students.
- Hi5: Overpopulation in public schools is responsible for the decline in the standard of education.
Ho5: Overpopulation has no significant relationship with decline standard of education.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense benefit to students, teachers, educational planners, government and society at large. For the students, it will motivate and increase their willingness to attend school and help improve their performance in school. To the teachers, it will help improve abilities of the teacher to manage the classroom efficiently because reduction in the number of students encourages teacher – students’ relationship and leads to effective and efficient academic performance. To the education planners, it will be a guiding material to enable them check the population of students in relation to the available schools to accommodate them. To the government, it will serve as a guide to identify the need to improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning. The study will be of great significance to the society at large as it will help produce qualified citizens that will contribute positively to the growth of the society and it will also serve as a resource and reference material to future students.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is carried out on the effects of overpopulation on the academic performance of students in government secondary schools. This study is therefore delimited to government secondary schools in Owerri, Imo state.
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary of the study; Conclusion drawn from findings of this study was made after which recommendations based on the findings were presented
5.1 Summary of Findings
The study examined the impact of crowded classroom on academic performance of government secondary schools students in Owerri Local Government in Imo state. It specifically investigated the factors responsible for over- crowding of classroom. It also examined the relationship between overpopulation of classroom and pupils/students attitude and behaviour. It assessed the overpopulation the effect on teaching and learning. It hypothesized if overpopulation had significant effect on academic achievement of students as well as examined the relationship between overpopulation of classroom and general standard of education.
The population for this study consisted of all the teachers and students in government secondary schools in Owerri Local Government area of Imo state. For the purpose of this study, a total of thirty (30) students and (10) teachers were randomly selected from the selected four school. In total we have one Hundred and sixty (160) students being forty (40) per school. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used to gather information for the study. The information obtained was then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Names of the schools are as following:
- Community Secondary School, Orogwe
- Comprehensive Secondary School, Avu
- Nekede Secondary School
- Comprehensive Secondary School, Obinze
The revealed that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that there was shortage of infrastructural facilities due to overpopulation of classrooms. The analysis also indicated that overpopulation of classroom significantly influence behavioural attitude of students to their studies. It also showed that overpopulation of classroom significantly affects effective teaching and learning. The analysis also indicated that overpopulation of classroom negatively affects academic performance of students, and that it is the major factor responsible for poor performance of public schools.
From the data analysis and the findings, the conclusion could be drawn in the view that it is obvious from the findings that overpopulation of classroom had significantly. Conclusively, it is hoped that the teachers should also understand the effects of the environment in teaching, learning and understanding, a wide knowledge of this will helps in organization of the schools environment and admission of students.
With regard to the findings of this work, these recommendations are offered as ways of improving on the effect or impact or overpopulation on academic performance of students.
- The Government should give education the desired attention by allocating adequate resources to the sector. In developed countries, education takes the highest allocation in annual budget but in Nigeria the highest to the section has been (13%) Thirteen percent below the defense and power sectors, yet this (13%) is consumed by corrupt officials.
- Education is of foremost important to the society; because without it Technological advancement cannot be achieved therefore the government should consider it necessary to declare state of emergency on education.
- The authorities should admit, with regard to available spaces because admitting all and offering half education is dangerous.
- The government and educationists should adhere to UNESCO’s recommendation of 1:25 Teacher and Students ratio and old schools structures should be renovated and new ones constructed to enhance the academic performance.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is the effect of overpopulation on academic performance?
The effect of overpopulation on academic performance is that education is the best legacy a nation can give its citizens, especially the youths. This is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such a nation or community.
How does population growth in secondary school affect the learning process?
The rise in the population growth in secondary school has really affected the learning process of the students because of the inadequate facilities which include classrooms, overpopulation has generated poor performance in academic work and has turned the school environment into a playing ground instead of to learning environment.
How does overpopulation make the sitting arrangement in a classroom become?
Overpopulation makes sitting arrangement in a classroom become so complex in the sense that the number of students will be greater than the seat available. A place, community or society is said to be over populated, when the resources or facilities available cannot cater for the residence of that place or society.
What is overpopulation in economics?
According to Olowo-Onyanemi et al (2003) in his book titled, an introduction to business economics defined overpopulation as a situation when the people living in a given country is more than the resources or adequate resources such as land.