The Effects Of Nutrition On Student’s Academic Performance

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The Effects Of Nutrition On Student’s Academic Performance


Abstract


This study focused on the effects of nutrition on student’s academic performance using public secondary schools in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State as case study.

The study is was specifically set to determine the impact of balanced diet on student’s academic performance; analysing the effect of nutrition on physical development, skeletal development, body index and obesity; evaluating the effect of malnutrition on student academic performance; analysing the effect of nutritional disorder on academic performance and investigating the influence of these factors on student nutrition, which are parental socio-economic status, Advertisement, Nutritional education and food availability.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are parents and teachers of pupils in selected public secondary schools in Owo, Ondo State.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis of the study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the study
  • 3.10 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypothesis

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

No nation can afford to waste its nation resources, the intellectual power of it people. But that is precisely what is happening where micro nutrient deficiencies permanently damage the brain and where anemia and short-term hunger limit children’s performance at school. In an educational world filled with failing schools and apathetic students, state of board of education have search for answer on how to increase test scores, examinations performances and create school systems where all student receive the best education possible. One of the possible solutions to improve academic performance is to look the nutritional substance of what school aged students are eating each day as they struggle day by day learning and the effect of such nutrition on their academic performance.
Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development across the entire life span. From the earliest stages of foetal development, at birth and into adulthood and old ages, proper food and god nutrition are essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance and productivity health and well being (FAO/WHO, 1992, WHO 2000). The role of nutrition in human life as well as in academic performance is like the role of “fuel” in motor vehicle. Our cells are like microscopic energy making machines and just like machines, they needs to be properly maintained to remain in good working order, when your cells don’t receive the correct nutritional fuel, they become sluggish and insufficient.

Some people believes was that food is anything to overcome hunger, the consumption of insufficient diet i.e. non balance diet food, which leads to some malnutrition diseases, such as; obesity, pellagra, night blindness, rickets, goiter, anemia, etc. the relationship between nutrition and cognition as well as psychosocial behavior, which determine academic performance is not well address in the past research, but some exist studies only look into the nutritional benefit of many proteins, vitamins and all other food substances. Dietary patterns in infancy and cognitive and neuropsychological function in childhood, Gale, (2010) journal of child psychology and psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 50 (7) : 816-823, 2010, suggest that improving young children’s diet may benefit cognitive development. Our school has the potential to play vital role in preparing and sustaining our student’s potential leaning ability and reduce the effect of nutrition on academic performance of students, as well as benefitting their social behaviors by supplying nutritious breakfast and lunches during school days. In accordance with the School Nutrition Association, current pattern require that SBP serve the following on daily basics (SNA, 2008).

  1. One half to two ounce of meat/meat alternatives
  2. 1-2 serving of grains/bread
  3. Three quarters of a cup of fruit/ vegetable
  4. 8 Ounces of milk

Though some schools have no access to school mid-day meal but there should be an health education program to counsel the students, parents, schools cafeteria and those that are selling foods in the school compound to be aware of the types of food and reasons those essential nutrients should be present in the food and proper checking or monitoring should be done by the school administrator.

Poverty has been the most important factor affecting diet and nutrition of people living in Owo local government area, even though their major occupation was farming, the major consumption food was carbohydrate, that is full of starch such as; garri, elubo, eba, fufu, yam, cocoyam, pap etc and they also lack the knowledge about the arrangement, the way to consume the necessary diet at appropriate time at the villages, most of them are illiterate, and they lack knowledge of nutrition. “A good eater must be a good man, for a good eater must have a good digestion, and a good digestion depends upon a good conscience”, Benjamin Disreali, (Microsoft Encarta, 2009). Federation of African Nutrition Societies, 2nd FANUS 2011 meeting in collaboration with Nigeria Nutrition Societies, information conference centre Abuja, Ngozi Nnam, Sanus explain needs for assessment for professional training in nutrition education (NEAC). Nutrition training is essential so that they will be able to understand the effect of nutrition if not properly taken.

The lack of reliable recent census statistics in Nigeria complicated the process of mapping socio economic variable in Nigeria. Nigeria has been far less successful in combating its high level of malnutrition, although the Rome Declaration on food Security (1996) states the need for adequate access to safe and nutritious food. IFPRI (2011) warns that unless more aggressive measure are taken, progress against malnutrition is likely to slow down, yet malnutrition levels in Nigeria have not changed over the decade. In fact, anthropomorphic studies reported in SOFI (1999), put Nigeria amongst the ten countries with the highest incidence of underweight, stunted and wasted children under five years per 1000 birth (1995 figures).

The important tool to help improve the student achievement and their academic performance is to ensure that students are safe, drug fee, resilient and healthy which is the centre to improve academic performance. How can students healthy without knowledge of nutrition, without good nutrition or balance diet. According to WHO (1946), “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not mere absence of diseases and infirmity”. Qualities of good health include; freedom from disease, normal systems and body functions, health of mind and emotion, adequate diet which is the central tendency and master of all qualities, according to says which says “an hungry man is an angry man, so therefore, if a student is hungry, him/her is not in a state in a state of healthy of mind and emotion, nutrition can also control the immune system of the body to achieve “freedom from diseases” and normal systems (digestion and excretory system) and bodily functions. Growing numbers of children are coming to school with hunger, non balance diet and micronutrients diseases. Improper nutrition has a link to many varieties of disease such as impairment of intellect, obesity, extreme weight lost, stunted growth, weakened resistance to infection, pellagra, dermatitis rickets, diarrhea, anemia beriberi, and scurvy e.t.c.

Undernourished children (low weigh for age) tend to be enrolled later in school than better-nourished children. This could be because parents deem shorter children to be young, because they do not believe the children are physically large enough to attend school, or perhaps because they are investing more in better-nourished children. In any case, late enrollment compounds the problems of intellectual impairment caused by nutritional deficits. Nutrition may affect both physical, mental and emotional challenge of children and may also lead to children and may also lead to brain retardation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In an educational world filled with failing schools and apathetic students, this has generated a lot of controversy from concerned bodies, such as teachers, parents and governments. People believes was, it is the role of the government, if nutrition is to be improve, while says parent and teachers have their own role to play. One can then ask the question “what is the effect of nutrition on student academic performance.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The study intends to find out the effectiveness of nutrition on students academic performance. The purposes of the study are to find out;

  1. The impact of balanced diet on student’s academic performance.
  2. To analyse the effect of nutrition on physical development, skeletal development, body index and obesity
  3. The effect of malnutrition on student academic performance
  4. To analyse the effect of nutritional disorder on academic performance
  5. The influence of these factors on student nutrition, which are parental socio-economic status, Advertisement, Nutritional education and food availability.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Does parent socio-economic status has any role on students academic performance
  2. What role do balance diet play to ensure proper students academic performance
  3. Does food availability has any influence on students academic performance
  4. Can knowledge of nutrition has any influence on students academic performance

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between Nutrition status and students academic performance

Hi: There is a significant relationship between Nutrition status and students academic performance


1.6 The significance of the Study

The study when completed will test the effect of nutrition on student’s academic performance.

Furthermore, this study will find out some of the health related diseases that are associated with nutrition and nutritional diseases noted from students in Owo local government area, Ondo state. Solution and prevention will also be preferred to some health problem associated with nutrition. They will also have the knowledge about diseases associated with nutrition and its effect to academic performance.

It is hoped, therefore, that the findings of the study will be value to the state and the local governments in their effort to promote good health and nutritional services to students in Owo local government area, ondo state. This study will enable student s, parents and teachers to have the knowledge of how to manage the little available resources to meet up with the Nutritional Association Current Meal Pattern Requirement. It will also serve as reference point to the other researchers.


1.7 Delimitations of the Study

The study will be delimiting to secondary schools students in Owo local government area, Ondo state. This project will also cover both male and female secondary schools students in Owo local government area, Ondo state.


1.8 Limitation of Study

Finance,inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study


1.9 Definitions of Terms

1. Nutrition:

Is the science that deals with all the various aspect of which food is composed and the way in which proper nourishment is brought about

2. Nutrition Disorder:

Refers to as lack of procedures caused by nutritional imbalance, either over nutrition or under nutrition

3. Malnutrition:

The condition caused by an improper balance between what an individual eats and he requires to maintain health.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of nutrition on student’s academic performance using public secondary schools in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effects of nutrition on student’s academic performance using public secondary schools in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State as case study. The study is was specifically set to determine the impact of balanced diet on student’s academic performance; analysing the effect of nutrition on physical development, skeletal development, body index and obesity; evaluating the effect of malnutrition on student academic performance; analysing the effect of nutritional disorder on academic performance and investigating the influence of these factors on student nutrition, which are parental socio-economic status, Advertisement, Nutritional education and food availability.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are parents and teachers of pupils in selected public secondary schools in Owo, Ondo State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. Nutrition affect pupils in diverse ways which include; stabilize their energy, improve their minds, help them maintain a healthy weight, and help prevent mental health conditions. Hence, nutrition intake has a significant effect on pupils.
  2. Nutrition intake positively affect pupil’s academic performance as it better their attendance, improve their behavior during learning, improve their concentration, and improve their cognitive ability. Hence, nutrition intake has a significant effect on pupils academic performance.
  3. Scholastic achievement is a function of nutritional intake.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends;

  1. It is expected that Home Economic teachers, community nutritionist and extension workers should enlighten parents on the type of food to be given to the children.
  2. Government and other stakeholder in education and bodies that see about children like UNICEF should consider giving the pupils breakfast or lunch at least once a day.
  3. Policy maker should include good nutritional provision in the primary school curriculum.
  4. Teachers should be equipped and encouraged to put more effort in teaching nutrition.
  5. Only qualified and competent teachers should be recruited; training and re-training of teachers for innovative ideals. Cooking utensil, equipments and standard laboratories should be provided.

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