Effects Of Non-Use Of Instructional Materials In The Teaching Of English Language In Secondary Schools In Owerri West Local Government Area Of Imo State

Project and Seminar Material for English Education

Effects Of Non-Use Of Instructional Materials In The Teaching Of English Language In Secondary Schools In Owerri West Local Government Area Of Imo State


Abstract


This study investigated the Effects of Non-use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of English Language (A Case Study of Owerri West Local Government Area of Imo State). Three research questions were formulated for the study. 78 participants took part in the study. A questionnaire was used to ex-ray the effects of non-use of instructional materials in teaching English Language in secondary schools. The questionnaires was used for data analysis. Findings showed that non-use of instructional materials has adverse effects on the study of English Language. Findings showed that students taught with instructional materials performed better than students taught without instructional materials. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made that school authorities should make efforts to make instructional materials available in schools for the teaching of English Language and compel teachers to use these materials for teaching English Language.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Scope of the Study and Delimitation
  • 1.6 Research Questions

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Concepts of Instructional Materials
  • 2.2 Availability and Utilization of Instructional Materials
  • 2.3 Classes of Instructional Materials
  • 2.4 Non-Usage of Instructional Materials
  • 2.5 Ways of Improving the use of Instructional Materials
  • 2.6 Summary of the Chapter

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of the Study
  • 3.2 Area of the Study
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validation of the Instruments
  • 3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Research Question One
  • 4.2 Research Question Two
  • 4.3 Research Question Three
  • 4.4 Summary of Data Result

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of the Studies
  • 5.2 Educational Implication of the Study
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Limitation of the Study
  • 5.5 Summary of the Studies
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The vital role education plays in the life of an individual child cannot be overemphasized. Early secondary school education should be simplified, properly organized and channeled towards the achievement of life long education. This means that knowledgeable teachers using the necessary instructional materials are used by classroom teacher to make concepts or idea clearer to the students. These instructional materials can be classified into facilities such as building, workshops, machines, radio, television sets and projectors. Some examples of classroom teaching aids includes: the chalkboard, the clock and some improvised materials.

In the use of instructional materials in making learning effective among secondary school students is what one cannot overemphasize. The use of instructional materials in teaching at the secondary school level makes learning real. They help the students to learn with real situations that are acceptable. This is because, these materials are observable and within the reach of the learners who could use them to rehearse or practice what they are taught.
When teaching subjects that have some practical aspects, the use of instructional materials is important for example during demonstration in the course of teaching practical projects in the workshops, students will understand what is being done if materials used for demonstration are well known by the students. This means that instructional materials in teaching voice production in English Language and also when teaching electricity or electronics are very essential. In all cases however, it is important to note that students should a have good access to these instructional materials so that they can fully understand their relevance to the subject matter they are learning.

The reason for attempting these experiences in this research project come from personal experience and for the fact that teachers are not used to instructional materials for teaching English Language. The use of instructional materials for teaching other subjects like Mathematics, Physics, Geography etc have been researched on and explained but not in the teaching of English Language. It becomes necessary, therefore to investigate the effects of use of instructional materials in teaching English Language as a second language.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

The absence of non-use of the instructional materials in the teaching of English Language has so much affected the teaching and learning of the language. The students do not have good mastery of the language. The outcome is poor performance in both spoken and written work. One of the researcher’s personal experiences during her practical teaching exercise comes into play. During the exercise, it was observed that English Language teachers did not reach with instructional materials and most of the students studying English Language never felt happy whenever the teacher entered the class, with the result that some of them moved out of the class for one reason or the other. The researcher wondered whether it was because of non-use of instructional materials in the teaching of English Language in these classes that have made the students to loose interest in the subject. The researcher decided to carryout the research on the effects of non-use of instructional materials in teaching English Language in the secondary schools in the Owerri West local government area with hope of filling the gap created by this faulty approach.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate into the effects of non-use of instructional materials in the teaching of English Language in secondary schools in Owerri West local government of Imo State. The purpose of this study is:

  1. To specifically identify if the non-use of instructional materials affect the students oral English.
  2. To identify the level of performance in English Language in the absence of the use of instructional materials.
  3. To determine the attitude of students towards the use of instructional materials in the teaching of English Language.
  4. To find out if teachers make adequate use of instructional materials in their teaching.

1.4 Significance of the Study

Since progression is the yardstick for measuring academic excellence, the students when well taught will excel in English Language examinations and other examinations which of course are written in English Language.

This will create better chance to further their education in institutions of higher learning. This will equally help to make teaching easier for the teachers. This is because the students will now pay attention and learn easily. In any school where students are known to have good command of English Language, that school is normally respected.
Venturing into such school is always very competitive and rewarding. This will equally help the educational authorities who recommend texts and give rules and regulations to know what to do.


1.5 Scope of the Study and Delimitation

The delimitation of this work is to examine the effects of non-use of instructional materials in teaching English Language (as a second language) in Owerri West local government area of Imo State. The secondary schools involved are:

  1. Ihiagwa Comprehensive School.
  2. Nekede Comprehensive School
  3. Emeabiam Comprehensive Secondary School
  4. Bishop Lasbrey Secondary School Irete

All in Owerri West local government .


1.6 Research Questions

  1. Does non-use of instructional materials affect students in their spoken oral or conversational English?
  2. Does non-use of instructional materials affect students in their level of performance in English Language?
  3. Does non-use of instructional materials affects students performance in certificate examination in English Language?

Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Discussion of Findings

Instructional materials are those things used by the teachers to help students learn easily. Those materials are used to describe or explain concept. This is why teachers of English Language agreed that non-use of instructional materials for teaching, can affect students spoken oral and conversational English. This is why in table 1, the teachers rated high such opinions that non-use of instructional materials can affect students pronunciation of words make the subject understanding and inhibit recall.

This opinion agrees with Nneka (1990) who observed that a good material for instruction should appeal to both the teachers and the students. The material will fit into and explain the idea being expressed. Nneka also explained that when selecting those instructional materials, they should consider speaking ability of those students, the age and level of those students should also be considered.

Table 2 also shows that teachers agreed that the non-use of instructional materials for teaching English Language skill of students thus making them non-productive in the life of the society. On the effect, the use of non-use of instructional materials for teaching can have on students written English. The respondents agreed that student’s imaginative skill will be over tasked. Entries in table 2 show that the teachers agree that such factors as poor performance of the subject, poor spelling habits and limited patience in listening and observing what is being taught will be some of the problems that these English students are likely to encounter.

This explain Carrel (1992) that teaching and learning has been made a mere fairly-tale since not a the learners can imagine abstract things the same way. Carrel also observed that the non-use of instructional materials for teaching have made learners loose interest in some subjects where the uses of objects are expected to assist in explaining concepts and ideas. It is believed that in the teaching of English Language, materials should be used to explain issue.

Entries in table 3 shows that the respondents agreed highly to the question according to the non-use of instructional materials for teaching English Language will make students perform poorly in certificate examination, make them poor in answering most comprehensive questions in English exams, loose of grip of skills in descriptive essay writing and thereby, become unproductive in the society.

This explains why Onyejemezie (1981) advised that the use of instructional materials for teaching will result in more effective learning of factual information and skills in less time than it should make teaching less boring. In line with this view Olaitan (1984) also explained that the non-use of instructional materials for teaching will make instructions ineffective and reduce it to mere conversation.


5.2 Conclusion

The study was carried out to determine the effect of non-use of instructional materials in the teaching of English as a second language in Owerri. The problem of the study hinged on the fact that teachers do not use instructional materials to teach. Literature was reviewed to show the effect of teaching with teaching materials on learners. These reviewers exposed how the instructional materials play very useful roles in the effective teaching and learning of secondary school subjects especially English Language.

The study identify some factors oral and conversation in English when the teachers teaches without the use of instructional materials. Also identified where some factors that affect students in their written English when taught without using instructional materials. Three factors that affect students in their certificate examination wee also identified.


5.3 Educational Implications of the Study

Educational instructional materials play very important role in the development and enhancement of learning when learners are exposed to learn using instructional materials. The required knowledge and skills are acquired. The successful implementation of the findings of the study will assist in enhancing the study of English Language at the secondary schools in Owerri West local government area.

This is as it affects students spoken/oral and conversational English. The study will have implications for curriculum improvement, since efforts will be made to see that those useful instructional materials which are not always available will be provided to make students appreciate the value of good English writing and development of good reading skills. The study will also have implications for teacher effectiveness.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. School authorities should make effort to make instructional materials available in school for the teaching of English Language and compel teachers to use these materials for teaching English Language.
  2. English Language teachers should be encouraged to attend seminars and workshops on how to use instructional materials for teaching. They should be encouraged to learn how to prepare models and improvisational materials for teaching.
  3. Available instructional materials should be properly maintained, stored and carefully used for teaching.
  4. Class-periods should be enhanced to accommodate the use of these instructional materials by teachers especially in the English Language laboratories.
  5. Teachers should be motivated to use these instructional materials for teaching and also supervise students properly when they use these instructional materials for learning.

5.5 Limitations of the Studies

The problems encountered during the research project. The researcher have problems of finance for going to some places to collect materials for writing the project topic on the effects of non-use of instructional materials in the teaching of English Language is a new topic so the materials for writing the topic is not forth coming.

Owing to lack of finance, five secondary schools were chosen for the research. The questionnaires were shared to about seventy eight (78) teachers. Only 75 questionnaires were collected while 3 questionnaires were missing along the line. Some English teachers showed negative attitude to the questionnaires.


5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies

The following suggestions are made for further studies.

  1. Comparative effects of use of instructional materials for other school subjects not only English Language teachers should be encouraged by the government and the teachers. That there will be availability and utilization of instructional materials for the effective teaching in secondary schools.
  2. There will be implementation of instructional materials by the teachers in all the schools not only in the teaching of English Language. To stop the effects of non-use of instructional materials on students with respect to English Language instruction in Imo State on National Policy on Education (1998).
  3. Factors affecting the teaching of English Language in particular and other school subjects in general in the secondary subjects in Imo State should be addressed or stopped by the use of instructional materials in the teaching.

5.6 Summary of the Studies

From the data collected the following summaries were made:

  1. Three factors that affect students spoken/oral and conversational English were identified. They include:
    • Making students learn more words appropriately.
    • Making student’s loose interest in spoken English.
    • Making students develop poor communicative skills.
  2. Three factors that affect students written English were identified. They included:
    • Making students regard English Language as very difficult subject to write in examination.
    • Making students develop poor writing habits.
    • Making students not to acquire the skills in sentence construction.
  3. Three factors that affect students in their certificate examinations were also identified. They included:
    • Making students not to know the meaning of models as contained in some certificate examination questions in English Language.
    • Making students poor in identifying materials included in the alternative questions/sections in English Language.
    • Making students perform poorly in writing descriptive essay in certificate examination.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Are instructional materials and resources necessary for effective implementation of language teaching?

The findings of this study revealed that there are lack of instructional materials and resources necessary for the effective implementation of all areas of language teaching curriculum in the junior secondary schools in Jos North LGA of plateau State. Most teachers do not use necessary instructional materials to teach.

Do instructional materials influence students’ academic performance?

The influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic performance and teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. The teaching of English language in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled.

Does teaching English without instructional materials result in poor academic achievement?

The teaching of English language without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement.

What are the effects of lack of instructional materials and resources?

The lack of necessary instructional materials and resources reduces the students to mere passive participants in the learning process. Consequently, there is erosion of enthusiasm in the teaching/learning process by both teachers and students. 

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