Effects Of Modelling On Students Performance In Biology In Some Selected Secondary Schools

Biology Education Project Material

Effects Of Modelling On Students Performance In Biology In Some Selected Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of modeling on students performance in biology using some selected secondary schools in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna state as a case study.The study was carried out to determine whether modeling has a significant positive impact on biology education, determine the effect of the use of instructional model on retention ability in biology concepts, determine the effect of modeling on students’ performance in biology in some selected secondary school, ascertain whether there is any difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of biology teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 107 respondents and 100 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the use of instructional model has a positive impact on students retention ability of biology concepts. The study also revealed that there is a difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models. Therefore, it is recommended that he students especially, young learners would need their teacher to provide guidance and to facilitate the learning journey. This teacher should know when to relinquish the control and little by little allow the learners to gain more autonomy to express their learning among their peers and to the teacher. This is possible when the teacher will always consider the needs of the students at all times. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A definition proffered by Bryce (2016), shows that models are simplified representations of more complex systems which enables scientists simplify the knowledge they acquire for easy understanding thereby making models very essential and indispensable in scientific research and communication. This is because science education aims at making classroom activities reflect science in practice. Hence, models have become integral teaching and learning tools adopted throughout the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Although, model-based learning and curriculum are not novel in educational theory, it is recently that modeling has taken center stage in K-12 national standards for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) .Models in Biology Research are used in two ways ; to increase our understanding about the world through evidence based testing. To evaluate the advantages and limitations of a model, it must be tested with empirical data. Models which are inconsistent with empirical evidence must be either discarded or revised. Consequently, modeling is a metacognitive tool applied in scientific method for the testing of hypothesis (Platt, 1964). Secondly, models are used in science to explain findings and communicate it to others. Which serve as platform for further scientific research to test, retest, and ultimately gain new understanding and insight. Therefore, models are used in Biology in every facet of scientific inquiry, research, and communication. Models are used for representing ideas and explanations and to describe, understand, and predict processes occurring in the natural world. (Starfield et al., 1990; Hoskinson et al., 2014). The study seeks to appraise the effect of modeling on students’ performance in biology in some selected secondary school.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The National Policy statement on biology education seek to ensure the acquisition of adequate laboratory and field skills, and relevant knowledge which can be applied to everyday life in matters of personal and community health and Agriculture, while maintaining scientific attitude which are reasonable and functional. Therefore, the contents and contexts of biology syllabus shall place great emphasis on field studies, guided discovery, laboratory techniques and skills coupled with conceptual thinking to ensure the full realization of these interesting objectives, the. Unfortunately, available evidence has revealed that students’ performance in biology has been quite discouraging (WAEC 2009, 2010 and 2011). This situation is particularly disheartening when we realize that the success of our nation in science and technology depends to a great extent on the mastery of this fundamental aspect of science. Therefore, the need for the application of modeling in the teaching of biology cannot be overemphasized. The problem confronting the study is to appraise the effect of modeling on students’ performance in biology in some selected secondary school.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The Main Objective of the study is to appraise the effect of modeling on student’s performance in biology in some selected secondary school;

The specific objectives include:

  1. To determine whether modeling has a significant positive impact on biology education.
  2. To determine the effect of the use of instructional model on retention ability in biology concepts.
  3. To determine the effect of modeling on students’ performance in biology in some selected secondary school.
  4. To ascertain whether there is any difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Does modeling have a significant positive impact on biology education?
  2. What is the effect of the use of instructional model on retention ability in biology concepts?
  3. What is the effect of modeling on students’ performance in biology?
  4. Is there a difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models?

1.5 Statement of the Hypothesis

  • Ho: The effect of modelling on students’ performance in Biology Secondary schools is negative.
  • Ha: The effect of modelling on students’ performance in Biology Secondary schools is positive.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study investigates the effect of modeling on student’s performance in biology in some selected secondary school. It provides relevant data for the effective formulation and implementation of policies to enhance the realization of envisaged objective.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study is structured to focus on the effect of modeling on student’s performance in biology in some selected secondary school. The study will be conducted in 3 selected secondary schools in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna state. Hence, biology teachers and students will serve as respondents for this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Model Defined

Models are simplified representations of more complex systems which enables scientists simplify the knowledge they acquire for easy understanding thereby making models very essential and indispensable in scientific research and communication.

Educational Supervision Defined

Educational Supervision consist of all effort involving school officials directed at providing leadership to educational workers or teachers to enhance an improved educational system and institution. The process involves the deployment of human and material resources.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of modeling on students performance in biology using some selected secondary schools in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of modeling on students performance in biology using some selected secondary schools in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna state as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to; determine whether modeling has a significant positive impact on biology education, determine the effect of the use of instructional model on retention ability in biology concepts, determine the effect of modeling on students’ performance in biology in some selected secondary school, ascertain whether there is any difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were biology teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Giwa Local Government Area of Kaduna state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Modeling has a significant positive impact on biology education.
  2. The use of instructional model has a positive impact on students retention ability of biology concepts:
  3. Modeling has a positive effect on students’ performance in biology.
  4. There is a difference in the academic performance of students taught using models and those that are taught without models.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. It is the educators’ primary responsibility to design engaging and nurturing learning environment that will help the students attain their maximum potential.
  2. The students especially, young learners would need their teacher to provide guidance and to facilitate the learning journey. This teacher should know when to relinquish the control and little by little allow the learners to gain more autonomy to express their learning among their peers and to the teacher. This is possible when the teacher will always consider the needs of the students at all times.
  3. The school principal should monitor the teachers’ learning media, especially Biology teachers, as an effort to improve students’ academic engagement.
  4. Training activities on learning models/approach should be carried out more frequently, especially related to biological materials.

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