The Effects Of Militancy On Development Of The Nigeria State
For so many years, the Niger Delta Region has been oppressed by the Military and Civilian Government. This research work examines the effect of Militancy on the Development of the Nigeria states. It relied on secondary source such as books, journals, newspaper articles. It focuses on damage and the negativity as a result of the operation of the militant. Also attempt on how the crises can be solve. This is mainly by creating Jobs and equitable sharing of the resources. The research therefore recommends that the administration of YarAdua should as a matter of urgency create a welfare package people of Niger Delta by creating Jobs and building of industries in the region.
1.1 Background of the Study
Niger Delta struggle has never ceased to throw up all kinds of character. The agitation for better treatment of this oil – bearing region has yielded the likes of Harold Dappa Biriye, Adako Boro, Henry Okah, better known as Jomo Abomo (Ademola, 2009. 30).With the arrest of Henry Okah, while on a mission to buy fire arms in Angola, Government Edpoemupolo, alia Tompolo, is easily the most dreaded and influential warlord in the Niger Delta region today (Ademola 2009). The fear of Tompolo is the beginning of wisdom and even governors deters to him in the interest of peace (Ademola,2009).The criminality that reign in the Niger Delta in form of oil theft, kidnapping of expatriate oil workers, fellow Nigerians and Sabotage of oil installations has made Angola to overtake Nigeria as Africa’s biggest oil producer. (Tokunbo, 2009. 34).In the Niger Delta Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC) is the largest oil and gas; exploration and production in joint venture with Nigeria National Petroleum Co-operation holds 5%, Shell 30% and Agip 5%. The company, Shell Petroleum Development Company was granted an exploration license in1938, and discovered the first commercial oil field at Oloibiri in the Niger Delta in 1956 leading to the first export of oil in 1958. (Ogbe, 2006).
The Niger Deltans are people living in the coastal area of the country. This people are naturally blessed with mineral resources especially oil. The oil is supposedly to be blessing to the people in the region, but with what is happening now in the region, the reverse is the case. Violence and criminality in the Niger Delta has escalated since the country returned to democratic rule in 1999. Why because of marginalization. The Niger Deltans are mostly farmers and fishermen. Since oil exploration began, damages have been done to the aquatic life of the plant, farm product and fish in the rivers as a result of oil spillages in the area. With this operation, the people of Niger Delta region mostly, those living in the creek have been affected and they are not finding it easy. Many of them are suffering from lack of food, no good road, no water even electricity, it was as a result of this that the people began to cry of “what is the meaning at this”? And marginalization in the Niger Delta areas, over 90% of the substance and revenue generation of the country is derived from the Niger Delta region (Adebanwi, 2001). Unfortunately, many of them are living in abject poverty and cannot afford three square meals in a day. These issues of neglect have been on for decades, and this has put the Niger Delta region in depth crisis of monumental proportion. This crisis is manifested in various forms.
Pipeline vandalization, killing and kidnapping.(Ademola 2009).Apparently, the issue of militancy in Niger Delta recently took serious effect since the inception of democratic rule since 1999. It was absolutely when the then government of Delta state started making emphasis on resource control; these actually opened the eyes of the boys. “That was the origin of the problem in Niger Delta” (Nwosu 2009). The people of the Niger Delta are facing a lot of problems. The harm has been done with this entire concession thing, over the years, armed groups have emerged, a greater share of Nigeria oil wither for oil bearing communities in the region. Among the major groups is the Niger Delta people volunteer force (NDPVF) led by Alhaji Mujaahid Asari Dokunbo who was incarcerated and charged with treason under the administration of then president Olusegun Obasanjo (Nwosu, 2009)
1.2 Statement of Problems
The prevailing crises and war – like situation in the Niger Delta most especially in the creek has been so tensed that, one has to be very careful in analyzing the cause and effect. The militant operation in the Niger Delta has made thing not to be working out well and this has affected the nation economically, politically and socially (Ogbe, 2009).This observation remains true, whether the government like it or not. The paper will therefore provide answers to the following questions. What is responsible for the up surge in militancy activities since 1999 till date?
- Who are they? And what do they want?
- What are the ways forward?
1.3 Objective of Study
The broad research of this project work is to examine the cause in the rising militancy activities in the Niger Delta. Other objectives are:
- To know, to investigate who these people are and what they want.
- To create awareness on the government and militancy on the danger of crisis.
- To ascertain the effect of militancy on development of the Nigeria state
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there is no awareness by the government on the danger of militancy crisis
H1: there is awareness by the government on the danger of militancy crisis
- H02: there is no effect of militancy on development of the Nigeria state
H2: there is effect of militancy on development of the Nigeria state
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will give a clear insight on the effects of militancy on development of the Nigeria states. The study will be beneficial to students, Nigeria government and the general public. It will also serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study provides insight into the effect of militancy on the development of the Nigeria State using the YarAdua administration as a case study. The study will investigate who the Niger Delta militants are and what they want.
Also, this study will create awareness on the government and militancy on the danger of crisis.
In pursing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed. All these impediments brought about a conspicuous clause with the research work. They include, limited availability of relevant materials, time constraint and financial conditions.
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The use of confrontational or violent methods in support of a political or social cause.
Development is the growth of something such as a business or an industry. Development is the process or result of making a basic design gradually better and more advanced. We are spending $850m on research and development.
A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Militant means vigorously active, combative and/or aggressive, especially in support of a cause, as in “militant reformers”
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of militancy on development of the Nigeria states. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of the militancy on development of the Nigeria states.
This study was on the effects of militancy on development of the Nigeria states. Three objectives were raised which included: To know, to investigate who these people are and what they want, to create awareness on the government and militancy on the danger of crisis, to ascertain the effect of militancy on development of the Nigeria state. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents of selected states in Niger Delta region. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made village heads, elderly men, women and youths were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
The Niger-Delta region of Nigeria has become very volatile in recent times resulting to insecurity of lives and property. Militarism, kidnapping, killing and other vices have become the order of the day. Multinational companies are spending so much hiring security agents to protect their facilities and personnel. The government is equally spending huge amount of money to maintain peacekeeping forces in the region and also to provide compensation to the militants. This study revealed the cost of peacekeeping force in the region and also to provide compensation to the militants. This study revealed that the cost of peacekeeping in the Niger-Delta region has a negative significant impact on the productivity of firms and economic development in Nigeria. This finding agrees with previous studies such as that of Akeem and Erhun (2012) and Thomas (2008). Reports from newspapers, radios and televisions in Nigeria have shown that the cost of peace enthronement in the Niger-Delta region is almost equivalent to the cost of providing development and other compensation plans to the people. It is therefore out of place for government to continue investing in security measures of the Niger-Delta question
Based on the above, it is recommended in the paper that the federal government and her parastatals (e.g. NDDC) as well as the multinational oil companies should pay special attention to the Niger-Delta question by making provision for higher level of infrastructures such as electricity, good roads, efficient communication systems, portable water, employment opportunities for the youths, scholarship awards among others. This will bring about peaceful coexistence in the region, thereby eliminating the cost of peace enthronement and consequently improve the economic development of the country
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