Effects Of Manpower Planning In The Management Of Government Owned Establishment
In years past, there has been concerted effort by the government and organized private sector to enhance productivity. For instance, the federal government organises seminars and workshops which aimed at making its personnel to increase productivity, but all to no avail as low productivity is still in record. All these bother on manpower planning because its right personnel are not in the right place, capable and willing individuals are not given the opportunity, hence the decreasing of low productivity in most government owned establishments. These are the key issues this research work intends to address, thus the topic: the effects of manpower planning in the management of government owned establishments and to ensure that this key issues are properly addressed, it is grouped into five (5) chapters chapter one deal extensively on the introduction note, chapter two on literature review, chapter three on the research methodology, chapter four on the presentation of Data analysis, while chapter five is the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation by the researcher.
1.1 Background of the Study
Manpower resources are different from all the other resources in the organization, in the sense that if mobilizes the other resources and Employs and deploys them, if all the other resources are scarce human resources or labour is more scarce. It is like the saying in the ancient marine, which goes like this, water everywhere but not even enough to drink, labour abounds everywhere but you are looking for the right type of labour in their various kinds and degree but may not be seen, moreover, the making or production of labour costs a fortune.
To produce a qualified personnel manager takes a lot of time to train a doctor until he qualifies will stretch the sponsor to a breaking point, even when a production Engineer or an accountant is employed in an Organization. It becomes a delicate issue to retrain him or her, labour is expensive and delicate, labour should be used with care and respect, organization that do not understand this finds it difficult getting the right type of employees whenever they needed them.
This lack of understanding of the nature of labour has significantly contributed to the downfall of many organizations with attendant colossal loss in profit. Labour can work out organization can as well matter of how well the human factor in the enterprise is taken care of.
As a result of the above considerations and understanding of the vital role manpower plays in any organization there should be a systematic planning of its requisition deployment and utilization in the enterprise. This in essence is what manpower planning involves.
Manpower planning reduces excessive recruitment, training and random transfer of workers and thereby saves management time and money moreover, major changes in population, technological innovations, size and complexity of the organization have made informal methods of manpower planning obsolete and less rewarding.
The situation is more crucial in Nigeria where there is scarcity of qualified manpower to fill existing positions. Manpower planning is very compelling to effectively and efficiently utilize whatever personnel are available. It is only in this way that people in the organization who need further training could be identified to up grade their skills in order to assume more responsible positions. It would also aid the organization to start very early to seek and find capable hands to replace those about to retire to cushion the effect of their departure from the establishment.
Manpower planning is part of the management activity; it is a part of organization planning. it should therefore be seen not in isolation but in context of the growth of the enterprise. It covers more than simply planning the future manpower requirements of an organization since it hinges on all aspects of the business.
There is need to maintain adequate balance in all categories of staff of a given enterprise. A cleaner is as important as the chief executive the chief executive cannot function in his office it if is not properly cleaned, similarly communication may be hindered and slow if the typist and secretaries are not there, moreover, a receptionist may snub you if you delegate her to do the work of a cleaner so for an organization to remain healthy, all necessary vacancies and positions should be filled.
These are the hallmark of manpower planning if government’s organizations or corporate bodies are to accomplish their set goals and objectives greater emphasis has to be laid on enhancing its manpower resources which is sequel to adequate manpower planning. Hence, these and other effects of manpower planning in an organization establishment shall be the primary focus of this research work.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
From the foregoing, manpower planning plays a significant role in the overall well being of every organization especially government owned establishment manpower planning covers all the sections, departments and units of any given enterprise.
One problem that confronts manpower planners in the management of government owned establishments is whether to design the job that will suit the individual or to fit the individual to suit the job. To the researcher a compromise must be struck between the two, one cannot go on designing jobs which are meaningless to the individual and full of abstraction. Similarly, we cannot please the individual and defect the goals and objectives of any given enterprise by simply designing jobs that are not result- oriented.
Thus, man and the jobs should be the barometric interments for manpower planning. manpower planning should consider all the skills, age, men and women, religion, nationality economic ,environment, technology, political climate and all other factors essential for the survival of the organisation hence;
- What is the state or position of manpower planning in an organization?
- What is the relationship between manpower planning and the level of productivity of an organization?
- What are the significant effects of manpower planning in an organization?
- What are the factors militating against the effectiveness of recruitment, selection and manpower policy in the government owned establishment?
- What are the problems associated with manpower planning in government owned establishment and how can these be solved?
1.3 Purpose / Objectives of the Study
The study will address the following purpose/ objectives.
- To ascertain the state or position of manpower planning in some government owned establishments.
- To evaluate the significant effects of manpower planning in some government owned establishments.
- To examine the relationship between manpower planning and productivity level in an organization.
- To examine the factors militating against the effectiveness of recruitment, selection and manpower policy in some government owned establishments.
- To examine the problems associated with manpower planning is some government owned establishments and make recommendations on how these problems can be solved.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will address the following questions.
- What is the position of manpower planning in government owned establishment?
- Is there any significant effect of manpower planning in government owned establishment?
- Is there any relationship between manpower planning and productivity in government owned establishment?
- What are the factors that militates against effective recruitment selection and manpower policy government owned establishments?
- What are the problems that militates against manpower planning in government owned establishments and how can these problems be solved?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be used in the study:
- Ho1: Manpower planning does not enhance significantly the level of productively in government owned establishments
Hi1: Manpower planning enhances significantly the level of productivity in government owned establishments
- Ho2: There is no significant relationship between manpower planning and workers level of performance in government owned establishments.
Hi2: There is significant relationship between manpower and workers performance level in government owned establishment.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is very timely especially at this point in time when all hands are on deck to enhance the productivity level in most government owned establishments. This is because despite the efforts being made by the governments to enhance the productivity level in it’s corporations through organizing seminars and workshops for it’s workers, the public sector still records low productivity level especially when compared with the private sectors. There is general laxity among workers who believe that government work is nobody’s work. This research work is aimed at addressing these abnormalities.
Thus, the study will be of immense benefits to the heads of government parastatals as the research work gives them better insight on the need for proper manpower planning in their organizations. The study will also look into the problems militating against affective manpower planning in some selected government owned establishment and make recommendation and suggestions on how these problems can be solved.
This study will equally look into the important roles manpower planning plays in enhancing productivity in an organization and workers level of performance.
It will also be very relevant to the government, as she tends to understand better the need for efficient manpower planning especially in most of her own establishments, if she hopes to achieve the goals and objective of her corporations.
1.7 Scope / Delimitation of the Study
The study is concerned with the effect of manpower planning in the management of government owned establishments, but because of time and cost the study will be limited to some selected government owned establishments in Imo state such as Imo concord Hotel, Imo transport company.
The researcher were of the view that since these corporations are located in the same geographical and socio- economic conditions, the constraints and challenges affecting one also affects others.
The study covered areas like technical and managerial competence, capital, work force, production capacity and strategies involved in the business activities within the area of study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Many constraints such as time, finance, and materials were encountered in collecting data for the research work. While distributing my questionnaire, some workers were sceptical or rather afraid of giving or answering the question initially, but with much conviction, I was given the needed co-operation.
Despite all these constraints, the research work was successfully carried out.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Is the effective way of matching people with jobs. Or the number of workers needed to a particular job.
These are the targets which an organization hopes to achieve
Refers to a group of individuals who are bound together for unity of action and for the achievement of a predetermined objective through individual effort.
This involves searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for the job openings in the organization.
(V) Manpower Planning:
The process by which management seeks to maintain and improve an organization’s ability to achieve corporate objectives or accomplish its tasks.
Is a comprehensive approach, covering all parts of the organization, to achieving organization goals.
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
Manpower planning is aimed at maintaining and improving the ability of the organization to achieve its corporate objectives through the development of strategies designed to enhance the contribution of manpower at all times in foreseeable future based on information gathered.
One could Safely say that manpower planning have had some effects on the government owned establishments towards the achievement of its goals and objectives, this can be proved by the fact that most staff in the establishment are aware of its manpower policy. However, category and level of staff in terms of professionalism in inadequate to enhance the full contribution, of manpower in the planning of government owned establishments, thereby, having much greater effects in its achievements.
This is evidence as its official status shown in table 11.
Government owned establishments require qualified staff to man them, but as a result of the competitive wages, they go for mediocre. As the direct result of the economic situation in the country, most government owned establishments have resorted to employing primary and secondary school leaves with the intent of training them. The method of its recruitment and sourcing of manpower is devoid of any purpose of manpower planning having its effects on the management of government owned establishments.
Finally, the researchers have been able to provide various definitions of manpower planning by different authors and analyse the different factors effecting manpower recruitments. They also took a step in trying to analyse the various functions of manpower planning and the various methods of Estimating manpower requirement in developing countries, analyzing its strength and weaknesses.
The researcher has been able to look at manpower planning in government owned establishments using Imo Transport Company and Imo concord hotels as a study. Basically, the affect of manpower is a very difficult one since the human element cannot be predicted with hundred percent accuracy.
Manpower planning is intended to ensure that the right number of staff are available at any time with the required training and expertise to do the work involved in meeting cooperate objectives.
Government should make effect in developing, training and retaining of its workers in the use of modern technology, make adequate forecast of its manpower needs and costs to avoid mismanagement and loss.
So far, the following are a list of desirable points for government owned establishments in the fled of manpower planning to put into consideration.
- Ability to determine with reasonable accuracy the number and type of people it needs to recruit to secure its objective.
- Ability to asses the training needs of the employees and having the means to meet those needs.
- There should be a sound basis for management development porgrammes. Capacity to anticipate redundancy which may be necessary, but at the same time being able to avoid any unnecessary dismissal.
Having given a summary of the finding and the problems that is inherent in manpower planning, the researcher has deem it fit to propose an objectively and intellectual recommendation, which hoped if looked into will go a long way towards solving some of the problems encountered in the research work and enhance the contribution of manpower towards the management of government owned establishments.
The recommendations are based on the following
(1) Use of School as a Sources of Manpower
This is the most effective but utilized sources of manpower, the government can send its official to polytechnics, universities and collages of education towards the end of each session to sources of its manpower instead of recruiting from outside which could lead to bad selection and placement of application. This method will provide a first class information about the prospective employee since the school authority will be in a better position to provide accurate information about intellectual excellence of the prospective employee and make an objective recommendation.
(2) Establishing Career Development Programme
It is quite obvious that the government does little to help its workers to plan and develop their career, they focus primarily upon the needs in bringing, placing of transfer and promoting of workers when necessary even though the market may be saturated with manpower, this situation should be changed because of the inherent problems that may crop up.
So with career development programmes, employees can foresee their future in the organization.
(3) Availability of Procedure for Promotion and Development Activities for Employees
The need to develop people to match with a desire to make positive plans for the future should be made available to the employees. This motivates them to work towards higher efficiency and productivity. Again, it helps to reduce crisis of consistence between management and the employees.
(4) Development and Training Programe:
A training and development porgames should be organized biannually to enhance the efficiency of workers so as to compete favourably with its counterparts in the private sector. Towards this end, organizers of such programes should be cautioned in the use of textbook as most test books do not give a comprehensive account of what is done in an occupation.
Course organizers should employ the techniques of occupations analyst to identify what a worker on the job does and the frequency by which the jobs is done. Updating of skill inventory is very necessary through this way elasticity of course content can be achieved.
It is pertinent to note that no two groups are alike, the same methods of course administration should not be used in different groups, each group should be studied for its unique characteristics, i.e course should be administered in harmony with the characteristics of the group.
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