The Effects Of Managing School Finance On The Academic Performance Of Students In Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


The study was carried out on the effects of managing school finance on the academic performance of students in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State. This study made use of descriptive survey research design. The researcher used simple percentage to analyze the demographic data of the respondents. The findings indicated that, there are other sources of funding the schools outside government grants and school fees, and these funds generated are not properly administered or accounted for. Also, there is no tangible development in the public secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State. Principals are the sole signatories to the schools’ accounts and there is no strict adherence to budgetary plans. The study further disclosed a number of solutions to financial mismanagement such as: necessary administrative and other specific trainings in financial management for the school Principals to ensure they acquire relevant skills for effective service delivery, regulatory should monitor the Principals’ financial activities. The study concluded that there is a direct relationship between the quality of instructional facilities provided (in other words, the level of infrastructural development) and the managerial practices employed by school administrators. The study recommended that secondary School Principals should harness the potentials of multi-sectoral partnerships of companies, banks, PTA, organizations/associations, and industries in funds generation;


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Operational Terms

Chapter Two

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Studies
  • 2.4 Summary of Literature Review

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Area of the Study
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and Sampling
  • 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Methods of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analyses

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis, Interpretation And Discussion Of The Findings

  • 4.1 Data Presentation and Interpretation
  • 4.2 Discussion
  • 4.3 Implication of the Study

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations And Suggestions

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • 5.4 Suggestions for Further Research Studies
  • 5.5 Limitation of the Study
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In Nigeria, the Principal is the executive head of a secondary school. He is responsible for coordinating all school activities ranging from student enrolment, coordinating the planning of the school time tables, keeping of school records like the class registers, log book, visitors’ book, updating his staff with information from the ministry of education, instructing the students, making budgetary and fiscal plans, sourcing for fund to run the school and managing the funds made available to run the school with the aim of realizing educational goals and objectives.
One of the responsibilities of the Secondary School Principal is financial management. The Principal is expected to source for funds for running of the school. He is expected to expand the sources of the school income from school magazines, school workshops, school canteens, student’s arts and crafts, school poultry and farms rather than over-dependence on government grants. Beyond sourcing for funds, the principal has the responsibility of managing the available cash in the school to avoid waste and displacement of priorities in attending to school needs.

What then are financial management and financial mismanagement all about? Financial management is the major task of educational administration that involves the utilization of all available financial resources in an effort to achieve the objectives for which educational institutions are established. It involves managing the funds available to ensure the provision of a wide variety of school resources and facilities. Financial management is the application of conventional principles in unwasteful spending of organizational funds with the aim of achieving institutional plans and aspirations (Oche, 2009). For Nwaokolo and Akilaya (2000), financial management is concerned with the management of funds for educational expansion.

According to Egbule and Igbogbor (2000), financial management deals with how to plan, budget for, secure and maintain financial resources in order to attain the institution’s objectives. Pandey in Aliyu (2018) defines financial management as an activity which is concerned with the planning and controlling of an organization’s financial resources. According to Ogbonnaya (2005), financial management implies liability to be called upon to account for or answer for funds entrusted to one’s care.

On the other hand, mismanagement is the process of organizing or controlling something badly (Cambridge Dictionary, 2014). Thus, financial mismanagement is management that, deliberately or not, is handled in a way that can be characterized as “wrong, bad, careless, inefficient or incompetent” and that will reflect negatively upon the financial standing of a business or individual (Wikipedia, 2019), or an organization. There are many ways of how financial mismanagement is carried out. For example, the wrong distribution of responsibility, to be inconsistent with payments, bills and taxes and neglecting responsibility, financial problems and economical standing can cause great financial mismanagement.

In Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State, secondary school Principals are expected to prepare school budgets to guide their spending in these areas after which the budget should be sent to the Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State Ministry of Education for consideration and approval. It is also the principals’ duty to raise funds from approved sources and ensure that funds are spent for what they are originally budgeted for (Ezebunanwa, 2004).

Proper accounting of revenue and expenditure of schools should be kept. In essence, financial management by principals should include budgeting, fund raising, and disbursing of school funds. Where the Principals efficiently do these, there will likely be increased and improved school facilities (Enyi, 2001). But where there are cases of mismanagement by principals, the status of school human and physical facilities will be such that educational objectives are hardly achieved.

Many situations in Nigerian education system appear to threaten schools’ financial management. For instance, the rising cost of education places more burdens on principals’ financial management of schools (Okoye, 2004). Closely related to the issue of rising educational cost is the problem of the inability of government to provide sufficient funds for educational endeavours. Little wonder, Okonjo-Iweala (2005) remarked that the government faces competing demands and priorities its activities and policies on which funds are spent.

Almost all Principals of secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State depend on school fees as a source of generating fund for the school. Other sources of funds include government’s monthly or quarterly subvention and Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) levies. Irrespective of all the sources of funds available to secondary school principals, some school activities and programmes are not being handled effectively because of lack of adequate funds. Insufficiency of funds hinders the provision of infrastructural facilities, laboratory equipment, computers, power plants, audio-visual aids and stationeries among other facilities that enhances the operation of the school. Lack of these facilities frustrates school programmes and ultimately aborts educational goals and objectives. Osuala (2007) opined that the financing of education is a collective responsibility of all stakeholders. The school principal is expected to complement government’s effort by diversifying their income basis and utilizing the available funds judiciously for the attainment of educational goals.

However, the problem of inadequate instructional facilities in secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State do not exclusively rest on funding as often depicted, rather the problems are most likely made complex due to poor financial management by the principals. Some of the principals are accused of lacking the necessary training required of financial managers while others are accused of imposing illegal levies on their students, neglecting budgetary plans, delaying disbursement of funds for fraudulent purposes. This situation apparently creates a turbulent atmosphere for the success of teaching-learning process. This way, the school administrator needs specific skills in financial management, which are as follows: revenue generation, assessment of the school needs, planning and programming, prioritizing areas of pressing needs, cost benefit analysis, stock taking, market survey, budgeting, financial record keeping, receipts, banking strategies, delegation of staff for financial matters, auditing and accountability.

Financial management practices of Principals in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State has become a sensitive issue over the years because of the growing public and government interest in the provision of funds for the implementation of school programmes. The public expects the school administrators to ensure prudent management of school funds, but on the contrary, there are speculations and accusations of financial mismanagement by principals such as lack of initiative by principals to create other sources of funding the school, neglect of budgetary plans in financing school programmes, poor disbursement of funds, lack of trained personnel such as the bursars/cashiers, lack of training in financial management by some principals, illegal levies imposed on students, incompletion of projects already approved and paid for by the government, abuse of PTA funds, poor recordkeeping as well as poor auditing and accounting system. It is against this background that this study is intended to investigate the effect of financial mismanagement of secondary school principals in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The present state of some secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State is quite deplorable; most books in their libraries are obsolete, there are outdated equipment in the laboratories if at all there exist, school buildings are craving for renovation. Udoh (2011) posits that the state of infrastructural facilities in Nigerian schools is deplorable. It seems all these could be attributed to poor financial management by the school principals. There are speculations and accusations that some principals lack the capability of developing other sources of funding the school, while others lack requisite training in financial management in terms of budget preparation, fund disbursement, financial record keeping, auditing and accountability. According to Oche (2009), the Executive Secretary of the Teaching Service Board (TSB) had, in a meeting with secondary school Principals, indicted them of apparent lack of capability in developing other sources of funding their schools.

According to Knight in Mobegi, Ondigi and Simatwa (2012), the school management may produce plans for school, but such plans may be useless unless they are linked to the budget because it is through budgeting that a school can decide to allocate resources so as to achieve organizational goals, and thereby developing the organization. But the financial management practices of secondary school principals in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State has attracted criticism from parents and the general public; hence, need to be reviewed. This study, therefore, intends to investigate the financial management practices among Principals of secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State. It also proffers solution for financial mismanagement in secondary schools.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the the effects of managing school finance on the academic performance of students in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.

Specifically, this study intends to:

  1. Determine the sources of funding secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State;
  2. Ascertain how funds are disbursed/managed by the school Principals, in order to establish whether funds are mismanaged or not;
  3. Assess the impact of financial management on development of the secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State using the school Principals as respondents; and
  4. Proffer possible solutions to financial mismanagement among Principals of secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the sources of funding secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State?
  2. How are funds disbursed or managed by the secondary school Principals in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State?
  3. What are the impacts of financial management on development of the secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State?
  4. What are the possible solutions to financial mismanagement among Principals of Secondary Schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses have been formulated and tested at 0.05, level of significance, to guide the study:

H0: There is no significant difference between the sources of funding junior and senior secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.

H0: There is no significant difference between how funds are disbursed or managed by the Principals of junior and senior secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.

H0: There is no significant difference between the impact of financial mismanagement on development of junior and senior secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great value to the following personalities and organizations; educational administrators, school administrators and proprietors, Ministry of Education, PTA, old students associations, international organizations such as UNESCO, UNICEF, etc., accounting officers like vice chancellors, rectors, provosts and principals, school clerks, as well as other school leaders. It will also be of benefit to the office of Accountant-General of the State, Office of State Ministry of Finance and State Pay Office (SPO), and finally to researchers and students among others.

The findings of this study have both theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical significance is hinged on classical management theory. This theory creates a platform that equips the managers with principles and guidelines to run the organization. These principles include: objectives, specialization, coordination, authority, responsibility, efficiency, unit of command, span of control, chain of command and balance.

The educational administrator uses these guides as bases for decision-making in regard to quality and number of staff to employ per time, prioritizing areas of expenditures as determined by school needs, market survey and available cash for both recurrent and capital expenditures.

In terms of the principles of coordination, authority, and responsibility, the school administrators and proprietors will see the need to employ staff and appoint heads of departments according to their areas of specialization, ranging from the bursary, kitchen, and security department to all the other departments in the school, in order to ensure efficiency and maximum output.

The study will practically benefit the government’s Ministry of Education (MOE) in making decisions of funds allocation to schools as well as ways of monitoring utilization of same by the school heads.

To the PTA and old students’ associations that have to render continuous financial assistance to the schools and anticipate that the funds meant for projects are to be properly utilized and accounted for, findings of this study will help them in the discovery on the impact of its previous efforts in assisting the schools to grow and how to project future plans.

International organizations like UNESCO and UNICEF could use the findings of this study as indication for financial dealings with educational institutions with which they establish such relationship. The way and manner funds should be used could be specified by UNESCO and UNICEF for school administrators, and this research work explores if these are followed or not.

The study will provide information to accounting officers like Vice Chancellors, Rectors, Provosts and Principals as well as heads of other institutions alike for the purpose of applying for grants, prioritizing capital projects, when to embark on and when to discontinue with any such project(s), and when to seek financial assistance in running the school. It helps the school managers in implementation of physical projects. It will also enable school administrators to keep proper record of their stewardships by the instrumentality of auditing financial accounting and recordkeeping admonished via this research.

The study will prevent wastage in educational institutions and guide school leaders on when to employ more staff, disburse funds, by the application of planning and programming of school finance through budgetary plans, stocktaking, market survey and savings. The findings of this study will sensitize Principals on the need to acquire necessary skills in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an essential aid in financial management.

The findings will equally be of immense help to the office of the Accountant-General of the State, Office of State Ministry of Finance and State Pay Office (SPO), as it provides reliable/valuable information on the schools’ expenditure pattern, so that they should improve on their methods of disbursement of funds to schools to check delays that hamper the implementation of good educational programme.

Authors and researchers on financial or educational management, educational planning and other areas of school administration will benefit from the findings of this study, as it will broadens their knowledge in the study area. It will also serve as a reference material and possibly help for the recognition of relevant gaps yet to be filled in the study area.

Lastly but not the least, students of educational management and planning as well as other allied disciplines relating to school administration, will benefit from the findings of this study, as it will enhance their knowledge on many fundamental concepts as well as serving as resource material for further studies.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study includes the geographical and content scope. The study investigated Secondary Schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State. The content scope will focus on sources of funding junior and senior secondary schools, revenue generation, budgeting, auditing, financial controlling and accounting, how funds are being disbursed or managed, the impact of financial mismanagement on development of the junior and senior secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State, and the possible solutions to financial mismanagement among Principals of junior and senior secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.


1.8 Definition of Operational Terms

Management:

Management could be defined as the judicious use of resources to avoid wastage and to achieve institutional objectives. It is also defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives.

Financial Management:

This could be defined as an activity which is concerned with the planning and controlling of an organization’s financial resources. It is also the application of conventional principles in unwasteful spending of organizational funds with the aim of achieving institutional plans and aspirations.

Financial Mismanagement:

For the purpose of this study, we accept the definition of financial mismanagement as management that, deliberately or not, is handled in a way that can be characterized as “wrong, bad, careless, inefficient or incompetent” and that will reflect negatively upon the financial standing of an individual, organization, or a school.

Principal:

The Principal is an employee or officer of a secondary school, local educational agency, or other entity operating a secondary school (junior or senior) that is designate as “school leader” or “school principal” responsible for the daily instructional leadership and managerial operations in the secondary school structure. The principal is usually deputized by Vice Principal (Administration and Academic). The Principal is a person with leadership skills, who can maintain accountability, see potential and creative value in fellow teachers, peers, and students to enable them to strive for higher education by focusing on goal setting and daily objectives that are productive to the overall community, family and the individual person. The principal helps build leaders in our world.

The School Principal is said to be the highest-ranking administrator in an elementary, middle, or high school. Principals typically report directly to the school superintendent/proprietor, but may report to the superintendent’s designee, usually an associate superintendent, in larger schools. In some schools, a single person functions as the superintendent and principal. Principals, headmasters/headmistresses and others who are responsible for the overall operation of a school are often called school leaders. In Nigeria and particularly, Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State, secondary schools have always had Principals at both junior and senior levels.

Secondary School:

This refers to a school intermediate between elementary school and college and usually offering general, technical, vocational, or college-preparatory courses.

Budget:

A budget is a quantitative expression of a plan for a defined period of time, which may include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows. Budgets can be drawn up for business units, departments, products, teams or the entire organization. Another term for a budget is a “financial plan”, but budgets can also refer to non-cash resources, such as staff or time.

Budgeting:

Budgeting is the process of expressing the predicted costs and resources for a planned course of action over a specified period of time.

Audit:

Audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern. It also ensures that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law.

Auditing:

Auditing is an examination of accounting records undertaken by a professional auditor with a view to establish whether they correctly and completely reflect the transactions to which they relate.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations And Suggestions

This chapter concludes the entire study, summarizes the discussion of the findings as well as the implications of the findings in the management and development of secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State. Recommendations and suggestions are also made for further studies.


5.1 Summary

This study investigated the the effects of managing school finance on the academic performance of students in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State. The work specifically determined the sources of funding secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State, ascertained how funds are disbursed or managed by the school Principals, in order to establish whether funds are mismanaged or not and assessed the impact of financial management on development of the secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State using the school Principals as respondents. The work also proffered possible solutions to financial mismanagement among Principals of secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.

Scholarly works of literature related to the study were reviewed; four research questions were raised and three null hypotheses were formulated which guided the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. To obtain data for answering the research questions and the hypotheses, a structured questionnaire titled “Strategies for Tackling Financial Mismanagement Questionnaire (STFMQ)” was developed by the researcher and used for the study. Mean and standard deviation scores were used in analyzing the data and answering the research questions, while the t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses.

The population of the study comprises 624 respondents (312 Junior Principals and 312 Senior Principals). The findings indicated that, there are other sources of funding the schools outside government grants and school fees, and these funds generated are not properly administered or accounted for. Also, there is no tangible development in the public secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State. Principals are the sole signatories to the schools’ accounts and there is no strict adherence to budgetary plans. The study further disclosed a number of solutions to financial mismanagement such as: necessary administrative and other specific trainings in financial management for the school Principals to ensure they acquire relevant skills for effective service delivery, regulatory bodies (MOE parastatals like TSB &SUNEB) should monitor the Principals’ financial activities, all payments must be duly approved by the Principal and/or the relevant unit head, timely release of funds allocated to schools from the government/NGOs, and avoidance of delay in disbursement of fund to the schools’ departments/units. Other suggested ways out include; every department/unit gives account of fund disbursed to it, and comprehensive records of receipts/vouchers of all moneys expended are kept, ensure annual financial statement of accounts from the bursary department and the Principal’s office, surplus moneys should be returned to the school’s bursary department after expenditure to avoid irregular statement of account, and relevant Information and Communications Technology (ICT) training be organized for the Principals and other account officers, all as the possible solutions to financial mismanagement among school Principals.


5.2 Conclusion

The quality of education made accessible for the public would depend largely on the pattern of resource management in our schools. This implies that there is a direct relationship between the quality of instructional facilities provided (in other words, the level of infrastructural development) and the managerial practices employed by school administrators. The problem of shortage of qualified teachers and lack of instructional facilities do not exclusively rest on funding as often depicted, rather, the problems are made complex due to poor management or misappropriation of funds. Education is a collective responsibility of all stakeholders. Therefore, the school Principal is expected to complement government’s effort by diversifying their income bases and utilizing the available funds judiciously for the attainment of their organizational goals.

Moreover, a situation where schools Principals do not employ accountability in their financial management practices implies a hazardous condition in such schools, as minimal or no development is noticed. One can therefore conclude that, Principals in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State should perform their financial management duties in a manner satisfactory enough to enhance sustainable development of secondary schools. Hence, secondary school Principals should seek for innovative practices such as ICT training, accounting, internal auditing, prompt disbursement of funds, implementation of budget in order to enhance sustainable management of secondary education in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State.


5.3 Recommendations

On the basis of the findings in this study, the researcher made the following recommendations for improvement bearing in mind the need for effective financial management practices by secondary school Principals in Nigeria.

  1. Secondary School Principals should harness the potentials of multi-sectoral partnerships of companies, banks, PTA, organizations/associations, and industries in funds generation;
  2. Principals should explore and maximize other supplementary sources of funds (such as canteen/cafés, workshops, magazines, end-of-year events, etc.) and limit reliance on taxing the school students;
  3. The PTA should continue to liaise with Principals to manage school funds but should report cases of illegal expenditure to the appropriate authority;
  4. Government and NGOs should ensure timely release of funds allocated to schools, in order to avoid delay in disbursement of fund to the schools’ departments/units;
  5. Surplus moneys should be returned to the school’s bursary department after expenditure to avoid irregular statement of account;
  6. All payments should be duly approved by the Principals or the relevant unit heads;
  7. Principals should ensure internal auditing of school accounts;
  8. Every department/unit should give account of fund disbursed to it, and comprehensive records of receipts/vouchers of all moneys expended should be kept;
  9. Ensure annual financial statement of accounts from the bursary department and the Principal’s office;
  10. School Principals should utilize government allocated funds and other funds raised through other means for academic and development purposes;
  11. The State Ministry of Education (MOE) should organize workshops and seminars for Principals that could enhance financial management practices;
  12. Regulatory bodies (MOE parastatals like TSB &SUNEB) should monitor the Principals’ financial activities;
  13. School budget should be followed strictly, and annual financial report of expenditures must be rendered by the Principals, to the State MOE;
  14. Government audit department should keep track of the financial performance of the schools, as also maintained by Waihenya (2000);
  15. Internal audit is not itself sufficient to prevent fraud by school personnel (Rosalind & Downes, 2004). Hence, regular external auditing, either by the education authority or private auditors who are not employed by the school, is also necessary;
  16. Relevant ICT training should be organized for the Principals and other account officers; and
  17. Sole signatory to schools’ account(s) should be completely avoided.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research Studies

On the bases of the findings of this study, the researcher suggested that, further research work be carried out in the following areas:

  1. Constraints to financial management practices of secondary schools in North Central geo-political Zone of Nigeria;
  2. Application of Information and Communication Technology to the management of secondary school funds in Nigeria;
  3. The role of secondary school administrators in financial management practices in Nigeria;
  4. (iv) Problems of financial management practices of secondary school funds as perceived by Parent Teachers Association;
  5. Factors responsible for poor funding of government and community-owned secondary schools in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State; and
  6. Adequate funding of secondary school education for the realization of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

5.5 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained in a numbers of ways. The obvious limitation of the study includes the following:

  1. The study focused on government and community-owned secondary schools that have been grant-aided in Karu Local Government, Nasarawa State. The inclusion of private and Federal Government-owned secondary schools in the study may influence the findings of this study for future utilization;
  2. The study was hindered in areas of determining the respondents who have full knowledge of budget and accounting. Similarly, inclusion of secondary school bursars and financial auditors may yield a different result;
  3. This work has been constrained by time, as there was very little time available to carried the empirical study.

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