Effects Of Malnutrition Among Children

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)


Abstract


This study is on effect of malnutrition among children. The total population for the study is 200 residents in Oredo local government of Edo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made married men, married women, public workers and youths were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Malnutrition is estimated to contribute to more than one third of all child deaths, although it is rarely listed as the direct cause. Childhood malnutrition is a serious challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa and a major underlying cause of death. It is a result of dynamic and complex interaction between political, social, economic, environmental and other factors. Malnutrition is a major contributor to mortality and is increasingly recognized as a cause of potentially lifelong functional disability. Malnutrition is well recognized as a widespread health problem with consequences that are acute and even, more often long-term problems. Malnutrition remains a problem of public health concern in most developing countries (Kennedy, Ped-ro, Seghieri, Nantel & Brouwer 2007). Containing less or no animal products, and slight amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables, diets are deficient in micronutrients and of poor qual-ity. In a global context, approximately 45% of the 6.6 million deaths of children under-five year of age in 2012 are caused by undernutrition (UNICEF, 2012). Geographically, the majority of the undernutrition burden exists in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-Central Asia (Bhutta and Salam 2012). Malnutrition has three commonly used comprehensive types named stunting, wasting and underweight: measured by height for age, weight for height and weight for age indexes respectively. Adequate nutrition continues to play an important role during the school age years in assuring that children reach their full potential for growth, development and health. Nutrition problems can still occur during this age, such as iron-deficiency anemia, under nutrition such as Kwashiorkor, marasmus, overnutrition and dental caries. The prevalence of obesity is increasing but the beginning of eating disorders can also be detected in some school age and preadolescent children. In addition, adequate nutrition prevents the onset of health-related problems, encouraging a healthy eating pattern can help prevent immediate health concerns as well as promote a healthy lifestyle, which in turn may reduce the risk of the child developing a chronic condition such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life (Story, Holts & Sofka 2000). Adequate nutrition, especially eating breakfast has been associated with improved academic performance in school and reduced tardiness and absence (Meyer, Sampson, Weitzman, Rogers & Kayne 1989). Consequently, this meets the energy and nutrient needs of the children, addressing common nutrition problems, and preventing nutrition-related disorders.

The growth and development of school-age and preadolescent children and their relationships to nutritional status is significant right from the beginning. Children continue to grow physically at a steady rate during this period; nevertheless the development from cognitive, emotional and social standpoint is tremendous. This period in a child’s life is preparation for the physical and emotional demands of the adolescent growth spurt, with aid of family members, teachers and others in their lives who model healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. This thesis focuses on the effects of malnutrition and the impact it has on the lives of children in the developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia by re-viewing existing scientific-based literatures on the topic of malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to find out and describe why developing countries are associated with malnutrition problems. The study is conducted through a systematic literature review because it synthesizes and analyzes previous literature findings in an impartial way.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The purpose of this research work is to find out the effect of poor nutrition on children in Oredo local government area of Edo State.

Over the years the problems of the study therefore come in the form:

  1. What are the causes of poor nutrition in the area?
  2. Is there any effect of poor nutrition on children who are malnourished?
  3. Is there any relationship between pre-natal and post-natal nutrition.
  4. Are children suffering from poor nutrition, suffers set back in their academic pursuit.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To examine the causes of poor nutrition in Oredo local government area of Edo State.
  2. To examine the effect of poor nutrition on children who are malnourished.
  3. To examine the relationship between anti-natal and post natal nutrition.
  4. To examine the academic performance of children suffering from poor nutrition.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there are no causes of poor nutrition in Oredo local government area of Edo State.
    H1: there are causes of poor nutrition in Oredo local government area of Edo State
  2. H02: there is no effect of poor nutrition on children who are malnourished
    H2: there is effect of poor nutrition on children who are malnourished

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The benefits that could be derived from the outcome of the research work are as follows:

  1. It will provide useful information to parents on how best to provide the necessary nutrition to their children.
  2. Identification of the causes of poor nutrition on children and the implementation of the recommendations suggestion by various nutritional bodies will lead to better and healthy generation.
  3. The result of the research work will be important to parents, government, advisers on child right and well being and education planners.
  4. Lastly, this research work tends to make her findings and recommendations a good starting point for the investigation in related field in the near future.

1.6 Scope And Limitation Of The Study

The scope of the study covers effect of malnutrition among children. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of research material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Anti-natal nutrition:

This is the taking in of necessary food substance to prevent the unborn child from any impairment before and after birth.

Cognitive development:

This is the gradual growth of the child’s mental process of understanding.

Malnutrition:

This is a poor condition of health caused by a lack of food or lack of the right type of food.

Nutrition:

This is the series of process by which the living organism obtain food substance needed to produce energy and materials for their growth, activities and reproduction.

Poor nutrition:

This is a situation of having a very small amount of required nutrient.

Post natal nutrition:

This is the process of taking nutrient, needed by a new born child for proper development both physically, mentally and emotionally.

Pre-natal:

This is the taking of necessary food nutrient, needed by pregnant women for the proper development of the unborn child.


1.8 Organization Of The Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.

Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.

Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.

Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.

Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain effect of malnutrition among children. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenge of malnutrition among children


5.2 Summary

This study was on effect of malnutrition among children. Four objectives were raised which included: To examine the causes of poor nutrition in Oredo local government area of Edo State, to examine the effect of poor nutrition on children who are malnourished, to examine the relationship between anti-natal and post natal nutrition, to examine the academic performance of children suffering from poor nutrition. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 residents in Oredo local government of Edo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made married men, married women, public workers and youths were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

Based on results, it was concluded that the infant mortality and extended unknown adverse effect was caused mainly by malnutrition. According to these results, malnutrition shows almost 34% among other problems faced in children. Infant mortality and long term effect (unknown) in children is a burning issue it is concluded that malnutrition have a role in child mortality. And also, it has extensive adverse effect of 7.62 to 7.81%, this has great impact in a country’s economy. Furthermore, malnutrition from other diseases has high proportion.


5.4 Recommendation

That efforts for redressing child under nutrition issues should focus on factors associated with development outcomes such as maternal income, maternal education, and the creation of employment or economic engagements that do not compromise important child care practices such as breastfeeding. Such efforts should also have clearly thought out strategies for targeting children in single parent households and in elucidating factors that place boy children at greater risk for malnutrition compared to girl children


Effects Of Malnutrition Among Children


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