Effects Of Laboratory Exercises On Science Secondary School Students’ Performance In Chemistry In Kaduna State, Nigeria
This research work investigated the effects of laboratory exercises on science secondary school students’ performance in chemistry, in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In most of the literature reviewed, the final outcome favoured laboratory exercises. Quasi experimental and descriptive survey research were employed in this study. In quasi experimental design the researcher selected six (6) schools out of 372 science schools across the state. Similarly, 31 schools were selected for survey research, questionnaire was used to collect data.
The six sample schools are from the central educational zone selected through stratified sampling technique. Four research questions and two hypotheses were formulated in conformity with the stated objectives. The reliability of the twenty test items were obtained through pilot study, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient r=0.78. While Cronbach Alpha was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire r=0.55. The two null hypotheses were analyzed using Ttest with α = 0.05. The researcher recommended among others that, chemistry teachers should see laboratory exercises as a need that cannot be avoided
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Table Of Contents
- List Of Tables
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Null Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Review Of Related Literature
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Definition and Historical Perspective of Science Laboratory
- 2.3 Origin of the Experimental Science
- 2.4 Importance of Laboratory Work in Secondary Schools
- 2.5 Effective Design of Laboratory Learning Exercise
- 2.6 Gender in Science Learning
- 2.7 Improvisation of Laboratory Equipments
- 2.8 Science Teaching Method
- 2.9 Safety in Laboratory
- 2.10 Review of Empirical Studies
- 2.11 Summary and Uniqueness of the Study
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research Design
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
- 3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
- 3.6 Validity of the Instruments
- 3.7 Reliability of the Instruments
- 3.8 Administration of the Instrument
- 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
Data Presentation And Analysis
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Research Questions
- 4.3 Null Hypotheses Testing
- 4.4 Summary of Major Findings
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary Conclusion And Recommendations
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of the Study
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Implications of the Study
- 5.5 Limitations of the Study
- 5.6 Recommendations
- 5.7 Suggestions for Further Studies
- Appendix I – Guide to Chemistry Practical Test
- Appendix II- Marking Scheme for Guide to Chemistry Practical Test
- Appendix IIIA – Lesson plan on volumetric Analysis for Experimental Group
- Appendix IIIB- Lesson plan on Volumetric Analysis for Control Group
- Appendix IIIC- Lesson plan on Separating Funnel for Experimental Group
- Appendix III D – Lesson Plan on Separately-Funnel for Control group
- Appendix III E-Lesson Plan on Qualitative Analysis for Experimental Group
- Appendix III F – Lesson Plan on Qualitative Analysis for Control Group
- Appendix IV A- Pilot Study on Achievement Test, Government Day
- Secondary School Kwoi (SS II).
- Appendix IV B – Pillot Study on Questionnaire, Government Day Secondary School Kwoi (SS II)
- Appendix VA – Chemistry Achievement Test
- Appendix VB – Marking Scheme for Achievement Test
- Appendix VI – Questionnaire
- Appendix VII- List of Selected Schools for Survey Research, on Laboratory Utilization
- Appendix VIII- T-test Analysis
List Of Tables
- Table 3.1: Kaduna state Educational Zones, schools, Staff and Students Enrolment
- Table 3.2: Categorization of Sample Schools to Experimental or Control Group
- Table 3.3: Distribution of Study Sample by Gender
- Table 4.1: Frequency count table on laboratory Utilization
- Table 4.2: Factors that affect the effective use of laboratory exercises
- Table 4.3: T-test on performance of students in Kaduna state that are Exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises and those that are not
- Table 4.4: T-test on performance of male and female secondary school students In Kaduna State that are exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises
1.1 Background to the Study
Laboratory is a focal point for all scientific activities. It is usually equipped with tools that facilitate effective teaching and learning of science. Science is experimental in nature and the laboratory helps to enhance scientific knowledge through the process of science (observing, classifying, measuring and interaction with objects and events of scientific interest). Abdullahi, (1982), emphasizes that science is not science unless it is accompanied by laboratory exercises i.e putting theories into practice. Laboratory provides ideal setting for skill development, discovery learning, inquiry and problem solving activities. Laboratory work is a range of activities from true experimental investigation to confirmatory exercises and skill acquisition. Since science is experimental in nature, any course in science should reflect this by introducing laboratory work. This is because, it is in the laboratory that learners learn science through precise measurement, accurate observation and clarity in Communication (Muhammad, 2010).
Laboratory work is an established part of chemistry at all levels of education. The original reasons for its development lay in the need to produce skilled technicians for the industry and highly competent workers for research laboratories (Morrell, 1972). There is need to prepare students practically in the laboratory as well as develop some follow-up activities.
These may enrich and enhance the whole laboratory experience and enable it to contribute more effectively to the overall learning of students in chemistry. It would be
rare to find out any science course in any institution of education without a substantial component of laboratory activity. However, it is taken for granted that experimental work is a fundamental part of any science course and this is especially true for chemistry courses. Very frequently, it is asserted that chemistry is a practical subject and this is assumed, some what naively to offer adequate justification for the presence of laboratory work. Thus, the development of experimental skills among the students is often a suggested justification.
One of the main reasons to question the place of laboratory in science teaching is that, laboratory programmes are very expansive in terms of facilities and material resources, but also, more importantly in terms of staff-time (Carnduff & Reid, 2003). Laboratory work is used to describe the practical activities which students undertake using chemicals and equipments in chemistry laboratory. The word “practical” can include other experimental activities conducted in the laboratory by students. Laboratory classes are where science students acquire and practice key manipulative and process skills while learning to move concepts from an abstract into a concrete setting (O’ Brien & Cameron, 2008).
West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and National Examinations Council (NECO) on the other hand, being the highest examination bodies for Senior secondary school students in Nigeria recommended that the teaching of all science subjects listed in their syllabi should be practical based (WAEC, 2008). This perhaps is to demonstrate the importance they attached to practical work in science.
Chemistry laboratory gives students an opportunity to handle equipment and chemicals, to learn about safety procedures, to master specific techniques, to measure
accurately and to observe carefully. However, making chemistry real and exposing ideas to empirical test is of great importance. Skills of observation, deduction and interpretation are also very important. In addition, there are many other important practical skills to be developed such as team-work, reporting, presenting and, developing ways to solve practical problems. Many school courses seek to develop some of these outcomes to help students learn science through the wise use of properly designed and utilize school laboratories for students to think scientifically. No matter how good a student is, without learning materials and effective methodology of teaching from his teacher may eventually lead him/her to low performance in chemistry. It is possible to adopt laboratory method of teaching chemistry in order to enhance students performance. This is because, laboratory teaching technique encourage students to take more active role in their learning, it also create enthusiasm and creativity in students (Carnduff & Reid, 2003).
The researcher is fully aware of other variables that could influence students academic performance, like teacher’s qualification and adequacy, effectiveness, availability of laboratory facilities, interest, leadership style e.t.c. towards the end of the twentieth century, more sophisticated alternatives had been introduced to facilitate effective learning in school laboratories. These include pre-laboratory experiences, films, video experiments, computer based pre-laboratories, post-laboratory exercises and computer simulations which can assist the students in Kaduna State to improve their performance in chemistry (Carnduff & Reid, 2003).
Inequalities in some instances down right deprivation have characterized the position of women both in education system and in the Nigerian society at large. “Deny, anybody education, you deny that human being freedom”. Women must be mobilized and motivated to seek education for themselves and their daughters. They must also be determined to get their daughters complete their study and to obtain reasonable and worth wide grades in their examinations (Shehu, 1995).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Students performance in chemistry at the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) WAEC in Kaduna state science schools, keep fluctuating. For example, students that obtained credit pass in chemistry from Government College Kaduna in 2010 was 62%, 79%, in 2011, 38% in 2012 and 57% in 2013. Schools with similar problems are; Jupavi, Government Day Secondary school Sabon-Tasha, Girls Science School Kwoi, just to mention but few.
(Ministry of education, Kaduna State, 2014). There are so many factors that hinder the effective use of laboratory exercises in teaching chemistry in the state. Such as; teachers work load, lack of equipments and materials, lack of incentives, lack of laboratory assistant, it is time consuming, and lack of exposure of students to laboratory exercises which affect their performance directly. Practical covers 40% of the total score, and students can hardly conduct these practical because they lack the basis and confidence to conduct such practical, which affect their performance in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination.
Science teachers do not always find it convenient to make laboratory work the center of their instruction, as the condition under which many teachers operate does not
engender enthusiasm to use the laboratory method of teaching chemistry, even where material and equipments are available. The workload and class size may be discouraging (Ministry of Education, Kaduna State, 2014).
Objectives of the Study
1.3 The objectives of this study are to find out;
- The level of exposure of secondary school students to chemistry laboratory exercises in Kaduna state.
- The factors that hinder effective use of laboratory exercises in teaching chemistry in Kaduna state
- The difference in the performance of students that are exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises and those that are not.
- The difference in the performance of male and female secondary school students exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are raised to guide this study.
- What is the level of exposure to chemistry laboratory exercises among secondary school students in Kaduna State?
- What are the factors that hinder the effective use of laboratory exercises in teaching chemistry to secondary school students in Kaduna State?
- Is there any difference in the performance of secondary school students exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises and those that are not?
- Is there any difference in the performance of male and female students exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are formulated and tested at α=0.05 level of significance
- There is no significant difference in the performance of secondary school students exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises and those that are not.
- There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female secondary school students exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings in this study will be significant to all science educators and students, because it would help to remind them of the role accorded to practical work in science. It would also remind school administrators/teachers of the need to adhere to WAEC/NECO recommendations in their syllabi, by equipping students practically before their final exams. It would also show the effect of laboratory exercises on students performances in chemistry. A well designed science laboratory if prudently used would enable students to learn the product of science, posses skills of the scientists and develop scientific attitudes, hence this can enhance their performance.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to Science Secondary Schools Students in Kaduna State that are offering chemistry. SS2 students are the targeted population, because they have covered a lot of their course work in chemistry and they know if practical are conducted in their respective schools or not. The research is also delimited to the following topics: volumetric analysis, test for ammonium ion and separating funnel technique.
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
This chapter gave a summary of the whole study, conclusion drawn from the study implication of the study, limitation of the study, recommendations and suggestions for further research were made.
1.2 Summary of the Study
Chapter one highlighted the background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, formulated research questions, Null hypotheses, significance of the study, as well as the scope and delimitation of the study. For the purpose of this study, four research questions were formulated and two null hypotheses are generate in conformity with the stated objectives.
The second chapter present a reviewed of related literature. Most of the reviewed literature encouraged the use of laboratory exercises in teaching chemistry Archibong (1997) and Sani (2010) in their findings, the result shows that students with activity Base approach achieved better. Which agree with the findings of this present study. Alabi (1999), Femi (2007), and Wasagu (2010), in their findings shows that male students performed better in science than their female counterpart. This also agree with the findings of this study in which male performed better when both were exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises.
The third chapter focused on the methodology of the study, which include; the research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instruments for data collection, validity of the instruments, reliability of the instruments, administration of the instruments and methods of data analysis. The researcher used Quasi experimental design and descriptive survey research for this study. In quasi he used 6 sample schools and 31 science schools for survey research. He used stratified sampling technique for SS2 students of the central educational zone in Kaduna State. Questionnaire and achievement test was used to collect data.
Chapter four consist of data presentation and analysis, where the stated null hypotheses are tested using T-test statistical analyses and the results of such findings are interpret in summary form. The first null hypothesis was rejected, which implies that; there is a statistical significant difference in the performance of secondary school students in Kaduna state that are exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises and those that are not.
The second null hypothesis was also rejected, which revealed that male students performed better than female students, when both are exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises.
Survey research work revealed that there is a poor conduct of chemistry laboratory exercises in science school across the state. Many factors are responsible for it, but the major factor is lack of teachers motivation (incentives).
Finally, chapter five is the summary, conclusion, implication, limitation, recommendations and suggestion for further study.
The result of this research work shows that; there is a statistical significant difference in the performance of secondary school students in Kaduna State that are exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises and those that are not.
The research work also revealed that male students performed better than female students, when both are exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises.
Survey research work revealed that there is a poor conduct of laboratory exercises in science schools across the state, which could be one out of many reasons for students poor performance in external examination such as WAEC and NECO.
Similarly, survey research reveals that the major hindrance that affect the effective use of laboratory exercises in teaching chemistry in Kaduna State, is teachers motivation (i.e incentives).
Implications of the Study
- This study has implication for science education at senior secondary school (SSS) level, since it is clear that proper utilization of laboratory exercises has positive relationship with students academic performance. This imply that students performance in chemistry in Kaduna State will keep on diminishing if laboratory exercises are not observed. This will affect the number of students that are willing to further their studies.
- It would be very easy for chemistry teachers to explain some concepts in chemistry to their students in details and also students would find it easier to understand the concept taught; because laboratory exercises have make the concept more familiar to both the teacher and the students.
- The performance of male and female students in the control group of the sample schools would improved than what is observed, when they are instructed with laboratory exercises.
5.4 Limitations of the Study
This research study is limited in the following ways
- No Pre-test for homogeneity
- Private schools were excluded in the stratified sampling techniques
- The researcher is recommending speed implementation by the State government, on the need for laboratory exercises, since it has positive relationship with students academic performance.
- Chemistry teachers should see laboratory exercises as a need that cannot be avoided.
- Kaduna state government should motivate science teachers with science allowance.
- Kaduna state government should make sure that all the science schools in the state have science laboratory. They should provide these schools with adequate equipments and material for science practicals.
- Educational planner/administrators should always put into consideration provision for laboratory exercises for student to acquire scientific skills.
5.6 Suggestions for Further Study
- Similar work should be conducted by other researchers using different practical topics, sample size and different geographical location etc.
- There is need to conduct a research work by comparing students performance between private and public schools that are exposed to chemistry laboratory exercises.
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