The Effects Of Integrated Group Based Mastery Learning Model On Social Studies Students’ Achievement

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The Effects Of Integrated Group Based Mastery Learning Model On Social Studies Students’ Achievement


Abstract


The quest for the effective methods of teaching social studies in Nigerian schools is a continuous one. This research is designed to investigate the effects of Integrated Group Based Mastery Learning Model on social studies students’ achievement in junior secondary schools in Benin City. The problem of students’ poor performance and underachievement in social studies has been a major issue of concern and interest in the Nigerian educational sector.

Seven research questions and seven corresponding hypotheses were raised to guide the study. A quasi-experimental design of non-equivalent control group was adopted. Two mixed secondary schools were purposively selected from Benin City out of which, two in-tact classes were selected. One of the two classes was used as the experimental group, taught with integrated group based mastery learning model and the other as control group, taught with the traditional/expository instructional model. There were 100 students in the two groups combined. The instrument used for the data collection was the Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT). The data collected were analyzed using t-test of independent sample for hypotheses one, two, three and four. Hypotheses five and six were tested using one-way ANOVA, while hypothesis seven was tested using two-way ANOVA. The hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance.

The result of the study showed that there was a significant effect of treatment on social studies students’ achievement. This means that the integrated group based mastery learning model was more effective than the traditional expository method. The result of the study also showed that initial ability level did not have any significant influence on the effect of ML on students’ achievement in social studies. It was concluded that students’ achievement in social studies is more likely to improve if more teachers employ the mastery learning. It is recommended that social studies teachers should be encouraged through in-service training, seminars or other forms of on-the-job training to employ mastery learning models. Also, teacher-education in the universities and colleges of education should intensify the teaching of skills related to the application of mastery learning model.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research Questions
  • Hypotheses
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Assumptions of the Study
  • Scope of the Study / Delimitation
  • Limitations of the Study
  • Operational Definitions

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Theoretical Framework
  • Expository / Lecture method in the Teaching of Social Studies
  • Historical Background of Mastery Learning
  • Models of Mastery Learning
  • Empirical Studies on Mastery Learning
  • Research Evidence on Gender and Academic Achievement
  • Learners’ Ability level and its Influence on Learners’ Academic Achievement
  • Summary Review of Literature

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • Research Design
  • Population of the Study
  • Sample and Sampling Procedure
  • Instrument for Data Collection
  • Validation of the Instrument
  • Reliability of the Instrument
  • Method of Data Collection
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Discussion of Results

  • Hypothesis One
  • Hypothesis Two
  • Hypothesis Three
  • Hypothesis Four
  • Hypothesis Five
  • Hypothesis Six
  • Hypothesis Seven
  • Discussion of Results

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for Further Research
  • Contributions of this Study to Knowledge
  • References
  • Appendices
  • 1. Table of Specification for 40 Items in Social Studies
  • 2. Pre-Test on Social Studies Achievement Test
  • 3. Post-Test on Social Studies Achievement Test
  • 4. Course Outline

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The recent socio- political and economic changes in the world and within nations have brought about changes in educational goals and greater challenges for social studies. The schools are called not only to equip the learner with basic knowledge of social studies content but also with higher cognitive skills, such as problem solving and thinking skills that allow for self-development and continuous learning. To meet up with these challenges, there is a movement away from the behaviourist method of direct teaching such as in the lecture method, note copying and dictations, where the learner is given contents to memorize and regurgitate.

Social Studies as a discipline continues to enjoy changes in educational objectives. In the 20th century, History, Economics, Government and Geography were taught as separate subjects with a listed series of facts to be memorised. With changes in educational outcomes students’ learning had to be reconsidered and taught as integrated discipline. Emphasis is now shifted from learning as acquisition of facts to learning as utilization of facts; from learning as memorization (from Geography and History texts), to learning as a process of discovering important relationships and principles inductively; from learning for learning sake to learning as a way of inquiring and thinking according to the processes of the Social Sciences. This can only be achieved through the process of mastery learning strategy (Onibokun, 1999).

Social studies as a subject is of a fairly recent origin throughout the world. The concept of social studies was first developed in USA in 1916 by the committee on social studies of the commission on the reorganization of secondary education of the National Education Association (Jarolimek 1977). Later in I930s social studies was introduced into Europe especially in Great Britain due to unprecedented enthusiasm to reform the conventional curriculum to meet up with the demands of the society. From 1950 to 1956, the subject had spread to many African Countries. The new independent nations of Africa were faced with how to re-order their national policies to enable them perform their expected roles as independent nations within the world community of nations. The development of social studies in secondary schools in Nigeria gained momentum from the year 1977 after the introduction of National Policy on Education popularly known as the 6-3-3-4 system. This rapid progress was caused by two major factors. The first was that the Universal Primary Education (UPE) introduced in 1976 made social studies the only social science subject to be taught in the primary schools. The second factor was that social studies was made a core subject for the junior secondary school. This has brought a lot of awareness to the students and the teachers on the significant roles of social studies especially as it affects the implementation of 6-3-3-4 system of education.

In order to implement the national policy on education, government at all levels became more interested in the schooling process in terms of educational outcomes, learning activities, instructional resources, instructional strategies and evaluation procedures. In view of this, emphasis has been on the need to:

Make educational activities centre on the learner for maximum self-development and self-fulfillment.
Structure the educational system to develop the practice of self -learning (FRN, 2004). The implication of these for classroom teachers is that, they should develop a teaching approach which encourages the learners to participate in the learning processes.

Despite the efforts of Government in restructuring the educational system to develop the practice of self-learning, the dominant approach to instruction in schools has been the expository type especially since the inception of western education in Nigeria in 1843. Other methods of instruction were later introduced into the learning processes. For instance, since 1960, curriculum planners have emphasized the inquiry approach by claiming that carrying out investigations is the most promising method by which students will master inquiry skills and become literate in social studies (Schwab, 1963; Yager & Lutz, 1994). Even at that, it cannot be said that schools have done well in developing such skills in the learners.

Quite a number of studies have been conducted to investigate the causes of students’ under achievement in Junior Secondary Social Studies (Onasanya, 1985; Ogbu, 1993; Iroegbu, 1998; Adegbite, 1999; Adepoju, 1999) and the most reoccurring factor in all is the inadequate teaching method used by Social Studies teachers.

Consequently, learners’ individual needs, preferences and interest cannot be met by most strategies utilized in the traditional, expository method of teaching. This is one of the reasons the researcher is interested in trying out other method such as mastery learning strategy. If the objectives of Social Studies education are to be met, then the need to look for an alternative teaching paradigm in the form of an improved and effective teaching strategy that is result oriented becomes necessary.

Social Studies as a school subject introduced by the Federal Government was to help students acquire basic social knowledge, positive attitudes, values and social skills needed to make the students functional and responsible citizens and contributing members of the society. It provides knowledge, skills and attitude that enable learners understand their physical and social environment in order to act or behave as responsible citizens. It prepares students to live in a global and culturally diverse world, as well as keep pace with rapid development in electronically and technologically changing world, (Martorella, 1996). It involves person with group and group with group. It is a study of man’s relationship with his environment, how environment affects man and how man in turn influences his environment.

The teaching of social studies is therefore an activity that involves both the teacher and the learner. The purpose of teaching is to ensure that learning takes place. While learning involves a behavioural change in the learner, social studies teaching involves the transmission of the relevant body of knowledge, attitudes, manner, dispositions, skills and values that enable the individual to survive in a growing and dynamic society.

Adeyemi (2007) defines teaching of social studies as a process of facilitating student learning through a proper management by the teacher of the inter-relationships among the students’ interest, the content for learning and the methods and materials he or she intends to use in the teaching and learning of the content materials. It may involve giving instruction to somebody on knowledge, skills and attitudes with the intention that the person will be able to know the information or to do something or act in a particular way that is compatible with the instruction. We know that the person the instruction is given to may be a learner, a pupil, a student or a trainee. The means employed by the teacher to pass information to the learner would determine ultimately, if he or she is teaching.

According to Lynn, Douglas and Gerald (2009), Mastery Learning is an instructional process that provides students with multiple opportunities to demonstrate content mastery. Initial instruction is presented at a fast pace to engage all learners. Students who do not demonstrate mastery are given additional instruction specifically designed to correct their misunderstandings. Re-teaching should involve strategies that are different from the original instructional methods. For example, if the original material was presented in a lecture format with visuals, the re-teaching process might involve hands-on activities and cooperative learning strategies. A retest is later given to these students to allow them to demonstrate mastery.

The teacher must be an effective communicator who thoroughly processes his information of social studies content and presents it in an orderly and comprehensive manner. There must be an established feedback mechanism so as to enable correction of lapses in instructional methods which can thus bring about improvement in the teaching and learning of Social Studies.

Summarily, to instruct for mastery the following guideline are to be followed:

Clearly state the objectives representing the purpose of the subject

The curriculum is divided into relatively small learning units, each with modelling, practice, formative evaluation; re-teaching, reinforcement, and summative evaluation included.

Each unit is preceded by brief diagnostic tests, formative assessments.

The results of formative tests are used to provide supplementary instruction, or corrective activities to help the learner overcome problems.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problems of student’s poor performance and under-achievement in social studies have been major issues of concern and interest in the Nigerian educational sector. The need for intervention is not only recognized but also acknowledged by all stakeholders. Quite a number of studies earlier cited provide enough evidence on the poor performance of students in social studies teaching. This problem has been approached from many angles by researchers. The place of instructional methods employed by teachers has been acknowledged to be a major factor in student’s achievement. In spite of the need for innovative approach to social studies teaching, the expository instructional approach continues to dominate the teaching of social studies in Nigerian schools as revealed in literature. The approach emphasizes academic, intellectual and cognitive aspect of teaching social studies. This method to a large extent neglects human, cultural, social and affective dimensions of social studies. Consequently, learners individual needs, preferences and interest cannot be met by such strategies utilized in the traditional expository method of teaching. This has continued to attract criticisms and as a result, researchers have continued to stress the need for learner-centred methods, one of which is the Mastery Learning Models. Is this instructional approach not likely to enhance students’ achievement in social studies?


1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. Will there be a difference in the achievement of social studies students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning models and those taught using the traditional method?
  2. Will there be a difference in the retention of learning among social studies students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning models and those taught using the traditional method?
  3. Will there be a difference in achievement between male and female students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning models?
  4. Will there be a difference in the learning retention of male and female students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning models?
  5. Will there be a difference in the achievement of students exposed to integrated group based mastery learning model by ability level?
  6. Will there be a difference in the learning retention of students taught using integrated group based mastery learning model by ability level?
  7. Will there be interaction effect of gender and ability level on students’ achievement in social studies?

1.4 Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to give the study a direction:

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the achievement of social studies students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning models and those taught using the traditional method.

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the learning retention among social studies students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning models and those taught using the traditional method.

Ho3: There is no significant difference in the achievement between social studies male and female students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning model.

Ho4: There is no significant difference in the retention of learning between social studies male and female students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning model.

Ho5: There is no significant difference in the achievement of social studies students exposed to mastery learning models by ability level.

Ho6: There is no significant difference in the learning retention of social studies students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning models by ability level.

Ho7: There is no significant difference between gender and ability level on social studies students achievement in social studies.


1.5 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assess the relative effectiveness of integrated group based mastery learning models on students’ achievement in social studies at the JSS level. The study is specifically aimed at the following objectives:

  1. To investigate the effect of integrated group based mastery learning models on the enhancement of students’ achievement in social studies
  2. To investigate the effect of integrated group based mastery learning model on the enhancement of retention among social studies students.
  3. To investigate if there will be a gender difference on the use of integrated group based mastery learning models in social studies achievement.
  4. To investigate if there will be a gender difference on the effect of integrated group based mastery learning models on students’ learning retention in social studies.
  5. To investigate if there will be an ability difference on the effect of integrated group based mastery learning models on social studies achievement.
  6. To investigate if there will be an ability difference on the effect of integrated group based mastery learning model on learning retention in social studies.
  7. To investigate if there will be difference between gender and ability on the effect of integrated group based mastery learning models in social studies achievement.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will be significant in many ways and to many groups. These include curriculum experts in making adjustment and improvement on the teaching methodology of social studies. If curriculum designers are to continue to provide adequate and relevant social studies curriculum, there is need for a relevant database concerning instructional procedures at the Junior Secondary schools. The teachers would want to know the best instructional procedures for different groups of learners and learning situations rather than trial and error approach.

The findings of the study will open avenue for research on related themes as materials and methodology from other researchers become available. Also some of the existing gaps in the knowledge of methods of instruction in social studies may be filled.

The study will develop in the children the importance of inquiry which will lead to the development of problem solving, reflective and critical thinking, which are the skills required in addressing most anti-social issues of concern in their environment. This will in turn help in solving most of the problems in our society.


1.7 Assumptions of the Study

The study was based on the assumption that achievement in social studies depends on the effectiveness of the integrated models of mastery learning which basically is to enable students to show certain skills and attitude in the use of concepts that describe honesty, discipline, obedience, orderliness, discipline, diligence.


1.8 Scope/Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this study revolves around determining the relative effectiveness of integrated mastery learning models on students’ learning outcome in social studies in JSS II. The study was restricted to all public Junior Secondary School two (JSS II) students in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.


1.9 Limitations of the Study

The limitations of this study include those that are often attributed to quasi-experimental studies generally. In-tact classes were used in this study as school authorities would not agree to random selection of students and their assignment to treatment. It is therefore a quasi-experimental study. The other limitation of the study was that some of the students did not submit their papers after the test.


1.10 Operational Definitions

Mastery Learning:

Is an instructional model that presumes all children can learn if they are provided with the appropriate learning conditions.

Learning Ability:

Is the rate at which an individual can learn and comprehend fact.

Retention Of Learning:

Is the knowledge acquired by learners which they are able to show after an interval period.

Teaching Strategy:

Is a set of unique activities, which a teacher employs to implement.

Teaching Method:

Is an approach or a procedure which a teacher adopt to explain a subject matter to learner.

Integrated Group Based Mastery Learning Model:

Is a combination of the theories of Bloom’s and Keller’s model of instruction. It involves the direct application of Bloom’s and Keller’s model to the teaching and learning of social studies in order to enhance students’ achievement in the subject.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, which resulted from the analyzed data, the consequent interpretations and discussion on the previous chapters, the following summary, conclusion and recommendations are hereby presented:


5.1 Summary

The study investigated the effects of models of mastery learning. [Bloom’s model (BM) and Keller’s Model (KM)] and Lecture Method (LM) which is also the expository strategy on learning outcomes in Social Studies. The independent variables of the study include method of instruction with two levels; the mastery learning models and Lecture method, while the dependent variable was the learning outcomes in Social Studies.

The study adopted a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design involving of pre-test and post-test. The design is described as follows:

Experimental group O1 X1 O2. Control group O3 X2 O4 O1 O2 are pretest for both groups while O2 and O4 are post test for both groups. X1 is treatment for experimental group that is the strategy while X2 is the conventional learning method or expository method.

Two government-owned secondary schools situated in the same cosmopolitan city of Benin in Edo State was purposively sampled and used for the study. The two schools were both mixed schools. Two in-tact classes (one from each school) consisting of 50 JSS II students were involved in the analysis. One experimental group and control group. Both groups were pre-tested and received treatment and thereafter was postested after a period of 8 weeks.
The instruments use in the categorization and collection of data for this study are namely:

  1. Social Studies Achievement Test (SSATA) (Pre-test): This was a 40 item multiple choice test made to determine the level of achievement of subjects before treatment.
  2. Social Studies Achievement Test (SSATB) (Post-test): This instrument was a 40-item multiple choice test drawn from the topics used for treatment. It was used to collect post-test data in achievement.

Data collected were analyzed using t-test of independent samples and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA).

One major findings of this study was that Social Studies students taught with integrated group based mastery learning model (IGBMLM) significantly performed better than the students taught with traditional expository method (TEM). An explanation for this could be as a result of the students given extra time to master the concept in other to gain mastery of the subject matter.

  1. There was a significant method effect in Social Studies students’ achievement with students’ taught with integrated group based mastery learning models and the one taught with the expository method of teaching. This implies that for learning to be meaningful a lot of activities should be carried out in the classroom and out of the classroom such as learning together, given of assignments and cooperative learning.
  2. There was also a significant difference in the retention of learning of Social Studies students taught using mastery learning and those taught using expository method. This implies that those taught with mastery learning retained more than those taught using the expository method of learning.
  3. There was no significant difference in Social Studies achievement of boys and girls both at pre-test and post test.
  4. There was no significant difference in the ability of Social Studies students taught using mastery learning model and the one taught with the expository method of teaching.
  5. There was no significant difference in the ability of Social Studies students by retention of learning.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were made. Method of instruction is a major variable that affect students’ achievement in Social studies. An appropriate method of instruction would usually boost achievement. Mastering learning model is an effective learning model and more effective when enhanced with learning together or cooperative learning and assignment. This method is therefore one of the best ways to teach Social Studies at the junior secondary school. Among other reasons for this opinion is the fact that this method helps students not only to understand the concepts but also increase their creative skills of being able to understand the concepts but also increase their creative skills of being able to understanding through the social interaction which occurs in class. Student think and talk about their experiences, they suggest and try out new ideas.

Students level at pre-test play a significant role in the teaching and learning of Social Studies concepts. Teachers should not overlook the role played by cognition. It is important to the teaching and learning of Social Studies. Models of mastery learning and students’ cognitive level play important role in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in junior secondary schools. Since this method of teaching and learning recognized the individual differences and facilitate learners’ participation, it is the best method for improving the cognitive, psychomotor and the affective aspects of learning. It is obvious from the study that irrespective of gender of students the achievements of boys or girls were not affected positively. This is therefore an asset to those teaching Social Studies at the junior secondary school level.

The study revealed that ability involves the amount of time a student would require to learn or reach mastery level. A student with high ability for a subject will attain mastery level faster than another with low ability. It is therefore concluded here that teachers of Social Studies at the junior secondary school must spend time with learners and built confidence in themselves rather than rely on others for self-improvement. They should understand that “You are what you want to be and not what others want you to be”.


5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made in view of the foregoing findings on the study.

Social Studies teachers should be encouraged through in-service training, seminars and other forms of training-on-the-job to employ mastery learning models. They are to enhance teaching through cooperative learning and regular assignments in other to increase the level of Social Studies learning outcome.

Social Studies Curriculum should be developed by experts, using the mastery learning model. The curriculum materials are to include activities that are needed for this strategy. Teachers of Social Studies at the JSS level should be encouraged to use instructional methods which will help to bridge the gap between learners.

Effort should be made by the government and other necessary policy makers to ensure that Social Studies teachers who lack the competence for mastery learning should be equipped with the necessary skills e.g Education and professional association to organize workshops, seminars and or conferences to train the serving teachers on this effective mastery learning strategy.

Teachers should be equipped with necessary skills as mentioned above to minimize the use of expository method. This study showed that it is the least effective method compared to the mastery learning models that was administered.


5.3 Suggestions for Further Research

This study investigated the effect of integrated group based mastery learning model on Social Studies students’ achievement. Apart from mastery learning as the independent variable other independent variables of the study is ability and their sex. The effect of those instruments is very clear as far as this study is concerned, however it might be necessary to carry out a similar investigation using the expository method and the mastery learning strategy EM/MLS and other methods to further ascertain the efficacy of the EM/MLS as revealed in this study.

This study can also be carried out in other geographical zone of the country using other methods. The efficacy of mastery learning enhanced with cooperative learning and regular assignment can be introduced to other Social Science subjects at the senior secondary school level, subjects like, economics and government can be tested using this strategy. Some other variables like school type and parental background can be other variables to be studied along with treatment to investigate the actual effects of treatment.

Lastly, research in mastery learning models should be introduced as a basic teaching method in the universities and colleges of education where teaching skills related to mastery learning should be taught to the students under teacher education.


5.4 Contributions of this Study to Knowledge

Curriculum development is facilitated by dependable information for judging decision alternatives. The study has contributed to knowledge through the information which had shown the effectiveness of the integrated mastery learning model. The model was discovered to be the best compare to the traditional expository method. This had shown that most topics in addition to those that are value-laden or abstract in nature should be demonstrated by the students so that they can recall what they have learnt instead of listening passively.

The integrated group based mastery learning had shown to be superior to the traditional expository method, mastery learning enabled the students to internalised the values embedded in the four main pillars of learning namely: learning to do; learning to know; learning to be and learning to live together.

This study had shown that there are educational conditions that should maximize learning such as the integrated group based mastery learning. Those include: providing a social learning environment including orienting strategies before instruction and providing extensive feedback.

Lastly, this study has contributed useful knowledge to educational study because it has provided reliable information that is current to facilitate judgment and decision on junior secondary school social studies curriculum at various stages of policy and decision as well as research. The new and relevant information will definitely result to innovations that can improve curriculum development and meet the curriculum objectives towards improvement of students’ learning in Benin City, Edo State and Nigeria in general.


The Effects Of Integrated Group Based Mastery Learning Model On Social Studies Students’ Achievement


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