Effects Of The Use Of Instructional Materials On The Teaching And Learning Of Computer In Junior Secondary Schools
This study evaluated the effects of the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of computer in the junior secondary schools of Ebonyi State. The study also examined the effect of instructional materials and gender on students’ academic achievement in computer studies. The performance of students taught with instructional materials was compared with those of students taught with conventional teaching method. In order to carry out the study effectively, three research questions were asked and tested. Many related literature were reviewed. The sample for the study consisted of 100 secondary school students.
The population of the study consists of all the junior secondary school in Ebonyi state of the total of 223, using the JSS1 student of about 19,250. The researcher constructed the test items, which were then face validated by Experts; one in computer education and the other in measurement and evaluation after which it was administered to the students. Computer studies achievement test (CSAT) was used to collect data for the study. The data obtained were analyzed. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question.
The analysis indicated that instructional materials had significant effects on students’ cognitive achievement in computer. Gender was a significant factor in the students’ overall cognitive achievement in computer. Thus, it is recommended to use instructional materials in the teaching and learning of computer, state governments or their ministries of Education and professional associations should organize workshops, seminars and conferences to train the serving teachers on the use of instructional materials technique. Finally, the limitation of study and suggestion for further studies were highlighted.
Table Of Contents
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Significance of the Study
- 1.5 Scope of the Study
- 1.6 Research Questions
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 The Need for Computer Education in Nigeria Secondary Schools
- 2.3 The use of Instructional Materials
- 2.4 Theoretical Framework
- 2.5 Review of Related Empirical Studies
- 2.6 Summary of Related Literature Review
- 3.1 Design of the Study
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.6 Validity of the Instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.8 Experimental Procedure
- 3.9 Control of Extraneous Variables
- 3.10 Method of Data Collection
- 3.11 Method of Data Analysis
- 4.1 Summary of Findings
Discussion Of Findings, Educational Implications, Recommendations, Limitations, Suggestions for Further Studies, Summary of the Study and Conclusion
- 5.1 Discussion of Findings
- 5.2 Effects of Instructional Materials on Teaching and Learning
- 5.3 Educational Implications
- 5.4 Recommendations
- 5.5 Limitations of the Study
- 5.6 Suggestions for Further Study
- 5.7 Summary of the Study
- 5.8 Conclusion
1.1 Background Of The Study
Attainment of any teaching and learning objectives involves both human resources and materials resources and factors, that is, the teacher who is the enforcer of the subject content and the availability of both convectional materials and improvised materials, otherwise known as instructional materials. These factors must be in place to ensure attained educational objective, instructional materials are said to be all those materials needed in the classroom to be used by the teacher for the purse of facilitating teaching and learning. According to Kay (2008), instructional materials stimulate the students’ desire to learn, and assist learning process by making assimilations and memorizing of the learned topic easy for students.
Agun (2008) refers to them as learning materials, the proper use which helps learners to learn faster and better. Offering computer studies, the computer itself serves as an instructional material because the subject is more of concrete object that can be seen and touched by both the teacher and learners (Ituma, 2010).
According to Benson (2011) instructional materials are materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous impact if intelligently used. In most cases learner have the difficulty in understanding some certain concepts as a result of their cognitive operation and ability, hence the need for teachers to employ materials and methods that will facilitate students’ understanding of the concepts as in the case of computer studies is appreciated. It is against this background that (Nwuba2016) cited jean Piaget who postulated human beings to be classified along sensory motor, pre-operational, concrete and abstract cognitive level.
In a real sense, a teacher is someone who combines materials and interprets concepts in other to have desired change or outcome in the learners. The role of a teacher is often formal and ongoing carried out by way of occupation or profession at school or other formal settings. Education has instrumentally impacted positively to the survival of the society at large, this sole reason is why modifications are required in the educational field in other to induce and facilitate teaching and learning and also meet up with latest changes and trends. Education of yester years relied on few or no instructional materials in trying to impact knowledge in learners, their assumptions were that knowledge can be forced on student regardless of the individual differences that is found in the classroom. (Obanya2013)
The subject computer studies was introduced into the secondary school curriculum to develop and input in learners the right knowledge and skills about computer and also to empower the youth through entrepreneurships since computer centers are current moving trend in the society (Adebayo, 2013).
According to Abu (2004), the importance of computer device in our society cannot be over-emphasized and that is the reason why the teaching of the computer studies should not be toyed with and should be handled with proper instructional materials. Instructional material is a major determinant that controls the pace of teaching and learning in the classrooms. Okereke (2009) stressed that many school in the state level cannot boast of instructional materials and contend that every government should make education a top priority to help improve the standard of education by providing instructional materials. Instructional material is an aid of teaching and learning. It helps to raise learning from verbalization to practical aspect of teaching and learning. Instructional materials make teaching and learning interesting, easy and amusing. They make learning effective.
Otu ( 2007 ) stressed out that the computer studies is a “tool”; it is real and should be treated as such, the inability to produce the right teaching instructional materials poses a big threat in students’ academic achievements and performance in the subject. For computer studies to be learned properly, there must be a computer device, due to the fact that the subject presents a level of abstract concepts that need to be visualized by student so as to induce their understanding and to remedy the issue of individual differences.
Therefore for the effective understanding of the subject matter in computer studies and for students to achieve better in computer studies, there is great need to examine the effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of computer studies with the aim of stimulating the interest of the students.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The junior secondary school is the first part of the secondary school level of education according to the national policy on education (NPOE 2004), which means that proper attention is needed to ensure that students perform well academically, this may not be possible without the application of instructional materials in the classroom. The teachers’ level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination is credited to the achievement of quality of education. These are expressed on how well the teacher is able to perceive, create, use important information that can enhance and promote effective teaching and learning activities.
Instructional materials are major determining variables that control the pace of learning. It has to do with the creation of environment in which students can develop the full potentials and lead productive lives in accordance to the demands of their interest, either as individuals or as group within the society.
The Nigerian government, at all levels over the years placed enormous emphasis on instructional materials in shaping efforts as strategies aimed at improving students’ standard of learning in the country but both theoretical and empirical literature failed to capture the real factors as to why the standard of education in the country still remain very low. Therefore, the question to be answered by this study is: what are the effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of computer studies in Ebonyi State secondary school system
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of the study was to ascertain the effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of computer studies in Ebonyi State.
Specifically, the study sought to:
- Examine the effects of instructional materials on students’ achievements in computer studies in junior secondary school of Ebonyi state.
- Examine the effects of instructional materials on the achievements of male and female students in computer studies in junior secondary school of Ebonyi state.
- Examine the interaction effects of treatment and gender on students’ achievements in computer studies in junior secondary school of Ebonyi state.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
This study will be of immense benefit to the computer studies teachers, students, curriculum planners and the Ebonyi State ministry of education.
The result of this study will unveil to teachers the importance of instructional materials in the classroom and make them appreciate and begin to use them for their instructions.
The findings of this study will serve as a reference document to groups and learners when conducting research on the effects of instructional materials in computer studies.
And also, the findings of this study will help curriculum planners to attach great importance to instructional materials and also make them to be conscious of integrating instructional aids and theoretical frameworks in curriculum developments.
This study will also play a vital role as source of information to the government of Ebonyi State that inability to provide adequate instructional materials in the subject is leading to the failure of the attainment of instructional aims and objectives.
1.5 Scope Of The Study
The study focuses on the effects of instructional materials in teaching and learning of computer studies in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi state. It also encompasses both private and public junior secondary schools in Ebonyi state.
1.6 Research Questions
The following questions were designed to guide the study:
- What is the difference between the achievements of students taught with instructional materials and the students taught without instructional materials?
- What is the difference between the achievements of male and female students taught with instructional materials?
- What is the effect of interaction between treatment and gender on students’ achievements in Computer Studies?
Discussion Of Findings, Educational Implications, Recommendations, Limitations, Suggestions For Further Studies, Summary Of The Study And Conclusion
This chapter deals with the discussions on interpretation of the results. The educational implications of the study, recommendations, limitations of the study and suggestions for further studies are equally made.
Discussion of Findings
Effects of Instructional Materials on Teaching and Learning
The result of the analysis of covariance on the performance of students taught computer using instructional materials and those taught with conventional classroom instruction indicated a significant difference in favors of the students in the experimental groups, the students achieved very much better than those taught conventionally and this goes with the findings of Nwuba (2016) who unanimously agreed that instructional materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner is so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series.
Effects of Instructional Materials on the Achievements of Male and Female Students
The influence of gender on the academic achievement of students when taught with instructional material was examined using research question. Showed significant gender difference for learners exposed to instructional material. These findings showed that gender had influence on the performance of students in computer. Thus, it can be deduced that the use of instructional material enhanced the achievement of both male and female students but the males achieved better.
Interaction between Treatment and Gender on Students’ Achievements in Computer Studies
The interaction between gender and method on students’ mean achievement in computer education was examined using research question three, the result of the analysis showed no significant interaction between gender and method on students mean achievement in computer education. the male students exposed to instructional materials obtained a mean score of 16.80, while the female students also exposed to instructional materials obtained a mean score of 16.80, they have a mean difference of 0.00, From the control group, those exposed to the Conventional Teaching Method, the male students obtained a mean of 9.88 and the female students obtained a mean of 9.71, with a mean difference of 0.17, Comparing the two results from method (instructional materials and conventional method of teaching), it is observed that those exposed to instructional materials for Computer Studies Instruction achieved better than those exposed to the Conventional Teaching Method. The males from the experimental group also showed a remarkable measure of understanding, likewise the females. Their mean differences in gender is also evident, the male students from the experimental group obtained a mean score of 16.80 while their male counterparts in the control group obtained a mean score of 9.88 with their mean difference summing up to 6.92, showing that the males exposed to instructional materials achieved better than the males exposed to CTM. Comparing the mean difference of the females as well from the experimental group and control, the females from the experimental had a mean of 16.80 while the females from the control group had a mean of 9.71 with their mean difference summing up to 7.09, the females increase in achievement was evident but not as much as that of the males.
The result of this study has some implications for the students, teachers and education at large. The study has shown that instructional aids are very effective in teaching and learning of computer studies.
In general, the study revealed that instructional materials enhanced students’ achievements in computer studies. This implies that instructional materials are effective in increasing students’ motivation for learning. With the use of instructional materials, all the senses of the learner are brought together. By using instructional materials, procedural, methodical and abstract things can be brought home to the understanding of the students and make learning very interesting and easy.
Hence, the Ministry of Education should think in the direction of making instructional materials available for classroom instruction. The ministry of education in Nigeria should organize seminars, workshops and conferences for computer teachers on how to use and possibly improvise instructional materials in teaching computer studies.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:
- The result of this study shows that instructional materials have positive effect on the students’ achievement and prove very effective; therefore, instructional materials should be procured, and distributed in all the junior secondary schools in Ebonyi state.
- Instructional materials are not always readily available for the teachers to use, even though they can manipulate it effectively, so they should be encouraged to use the aids. It is not necessarily that they should only go for the electronic types; they can equally devise local improvised types. Teachers, on their own should up-date their knowledge in the use of the instructional materials in teaching computer studies.
- Junior secondary school students should be introduced to instructional materials as a tool for meaningful learning.
Limitations of the Study
The following limitations can be observed regarding this study:
- The study was conducted using only JSS1 students, which is not the only class in the junior secondary schools, therefore the results might not apply to other classes such as JSS1 and JSS 2.
- The study was designed to focus on learning of computer by junior secondary students drawn from two junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State alone. Thus, the findings may not be generalized to other public and private junior secondary schools in Nigeria.
- The curriculum content was limited to four computer topics of the entire computer curriculum.
Despite these limitations the findings are significant, particularly in the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of computer in junior secondary schools.
Suggestions for Further Study
The following suggestions are made for further studies;
- Other instructional materials should be tried out to determine their effectiveness in teaching in junior secondary schools.
- Researchers should carryout similar studies using interest and retention as variables.
- 3 Such areas as listed below should be investigated upon:.
- A comparative study of teachers’ perception on the use of instructional materials in senior or junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State.
- The availability of electronic instructional materials in schools for teaching and learning other subjects e.g. physics.
- The effects of audio-visual materials in teaching and learning of computer studies in junior secondary school.
Summary of the Study
Computer is seen as a very important subject because of its wide application or use in our world today, nearly every nation depends on computer for nearly everything. This explains why some science and technology and education researchers, among others, have in recent times concentrated their research efforts on finding teaching strategies that promote teaching of science so as to increase achievements and elements in science. Consequent upon the foregoing, this study sought to examine the effects of instructional materials on students’ academic achievement in Computer Studies.
The study adopted a quasi-experimental design approach, because there was no randomization of subjects into experimental and control groups. The gender variable was also part of the design of the study. The study area was Ebonyi State. The population of the study consisted of all JSS1 students in Ebonyi State. The sample for this study consisted of 90 JSS1 students drawn from two co-educational junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State. Two Local Government Areas (Abakaliki Local Government Area and Ezza North Local Government Area) were drawn from the state by simple random sampling technique out of 13 Local Government Areas in the state. From these two Local Government Areas, one junior secondary school was drawn from each by simple random sampling. These two junior secondary schools were assigned to the experimental group and control group by paper balloting. In each school drawn for both experimental and control, one intact JSS1 class was drawn through simple random sampling technique. Altogether, there were 90 JSS1 students that composed the sample of the study.
One instrument was developed by the researcher for the study; Computer Studies Achievement Test (CSAT). The CSAT was subjected to face and content validity by two specialists in Measurement and Evaluation and one specialist in Science Education (computer option), both of Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The final draft of CSAT was administered to 25 JSS1 students in one of the secondary schools in Abakaliki Local Government Area that was not used for the main study. These students’ scores were used to compute the coefficient of internal consistency of the CSAT, which was found to be 0.83 (See appendix III).
All the students that partook in the study were administered the CSAT as pre-test before the study and their scores were recorded. The students in the experimental group were taught four topics in computer studies with the aid of instructional materials. The second group being the control group was taught the same four topics in computer without instructional materials. After the treatment which lasted for two weeks, the CSAT was administered to the students again as post-test to determine the effects of the treatment on their mean achievements.
The data generated from the study were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for answering the three research questions. The result from the data analyzed showed that:
- The students taught Computer Studies using instructional materials achieved better in CSAT (16.80, 4.472 mean and standard deviation respectively) than their counterparts who were taught without the use of instructional materials (9.75, 2.950 mean and standard deviation respectively). 2. The female students achieved better in CSAT (16.80, 4.467) mean and standard deviation respectively than their male counterparts (16.47, 4.674 mean and standard deviation respectively), when taught Computer Studies using instructional materials.
- There was no effect of interaction between treatment and gender on students’ achievements in Computer Studies. The male and female students in the experimental group achieved better than their male and female counterparts respectively in the control group.
The results of this study demonstrated that instructional materials are effective instructional techniques for teaching computer studies in junior secondary schools. The results were also in consonance with results of many studies demonstrating the effectiveness of instructional materials for better students’ achievements, in science and mathematics as done by (Okeke, 2015) and Vivian (2014). It can therefore be concluded that a relationship exists between the use of instructional materials and achievements of students in computer studies.
It can be concluded that this study has provided strong evidence of the usefulness of instructional materials in teaching and learning of computer studies in junior secondary schools; it will therefore be very helpful if adequate attention is paid to this study. By using instructional materials, learning is made easier and retention of learnt material is ultimately enhanced.
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