Effects Of Instructional Materials On Computer Students Performance
This study was carried out on the effects of instructional materials on computer students performance in Kaduna North and South L.G.A of Kaduna State. The study was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 significance level. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted in this study. The target population of the study was all the JSS three students in Kaduna North and South L.G.A in Kaduna state. A sample of 236 students was drawn from the population of 600 through simple random procedure. The selection of the sample was based on the recommendation of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of determining sample size. A test items was used to obtained data for the study. Data collected from the study were analyzed using frequency, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test. The study found difference exists between the pre-test and post-test scores of the respondents in the experimental group which indicate that the performance of students improved when instructional material was introduced in the lesson. The study recommends that at all time teachers school employ instructional material during lesson.
1.1 Background of Study
Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skill, knowledge, perception, facts, principles, new information at hand etc. (Adeyanju, 1997) Learning can be reinforced with instructional materials of different variety because they stimulate, motivate and as well as arrest learners’ attention for a while during the instruction process. Instructional materials are learning aids and devices through which teaching and learning are done in schools.
According to Akamobi, (1998) instructional materials are those materials used in classroom or workshops for instruction or demonstration purpose by students and teachers. Chauha (1973) saw them as actual equipment used as “hands on” process by learners in order to develop the degree of skills sought by the course of requirement. Examples of instructional materials include visual aids, audio aids, audio-visual aids, real object and many others.
The visual aids in form of wall charts illustrated pictorial materials, textbooks etc. thus audio instructional materials refer to those that make use of the sense of hearing only like the radio, audio tape recorder etc. an audio visual instructional material therefore is a combination of devices which appeals to the sense of both hearing and seeing such as television, motion pictures and computers.
Instructional materials, we may gather that computer as an area of education deals with instructional problems and solutions through the use of various visual, audio and audio-visual materials and equipment. Problem of inadequate preparation of teachers to carry out reading instruction (Bello, 1980). This inadequacy translates in poor reading performance in computer and by implication other subject areas. Students in our various secondary schools equally lack the basic textbooks and other important materials that will support them in the learning of computer science at that level.
Teaching computer without relevant instructional materials leads to poor performance in other subjects. Instructional materials facilitate teaching and learning activities and consequently, the attainment of the lesson objectives. However, this depends on the adequacy and appropriateness of materials so selected. This in effect, means that learning resources are not selected haphazardly (Jiya, 1993). Indeed instructional materials to be used should be carefully selected by the teachers.
Brunner, (1961) in Mustapha (2005) also emphasized that oral reports require visual aids and improvisation. Improvisation is the art of providing the alternative or next to real thing when the real thing is not available or difficult to come by. It is therefore important that teachers of computer use teaching aids or improvise to make learning easy, enjoyable and permanent. They is therefore, great need for the teachers of computer who want to be effective at their work to be able to use all available instructional materials as well as improvise where they are not readily available.
The obvious facts remains that people remember those they have seen, touched and even played with. The primary task of teaching is to facilitate effective learning and understanding of the content materials (shoji, 2005). Instructional materials which appeal to all learners’ understanding of the language phenomena should be encouraged for use in our schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, an instructional material has been a useful tool in enhancing teaching and learning process of students. Inability for proper use of instructional materials by the teachers could be seen as one of the problems that might lead to poor performance of computer students. Lack of knowledge on the improvisation of instructional materials may also lead to poor performance of computer students. Finally, most research has been carried out on effect of instructional materials, but not even a single research has been carried out on the effect of instructional materials on computer student’s performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of the study is to determine the effect of instructional materials on computer students’ performance
This study was based on the following objectives which are to:-
- Determine the difference in the mean of pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Computer science concepts with the use of instructional materials.
- Determine the difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Computer science concepts without the use of instructional materials.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the difference in the mean of pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Computer science concepts with the use of instructional materials?
- What is the difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Computer science concepts without the use of instructional materials?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested in this study.
Ho: There is no significant difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Computer science concepts with the use of instructional materials.
Hi: There is no significant difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Computer science concepts without the use of instructional materials.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is expected to be relevant to the following:
- Help to bring awareness of teachers on the need to at all time used instructional materials in class room instruction.
- The study will stimulate school administrators to ensure that teachers make use of instructional materials effectively
- This study would enable the State Education Board to appreciate the relevance and provides instructional materials in teaching-learning not only in computer science but in all subject areas; and
- This study will be a material in which other research can make reference to.
1.7 The Scope, Delimitation of the study
The study is limited to two schools with 234 sampled students broken into two groups of experimental group and control group in Kaduna North and Kaduna South local government areas of Kaduna state.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter dealt with the summary of the major findings of the study. It also puts forth the conclusions made and recommendations based on the findings of the study. It is the hope of the researcher that the recommendations made in this study will be implemented by those concerned with computer science education and other subjects areas in Kaduna North and South L.G.A in particular where this study is based and Nigeria in general.
This study is entitled: Effects of Instructional Materials on Performance of Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna North and South L.G.A of Kaduna State. The study was guided two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 significance level. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted in this study. The target population of the study was all the JSS three students in Kaduna North and South L.G.A in Kaduna state. A sample of 234 students was drawn from the population of 600 through simple random procedure. The selection of the sample was based on the recommendation of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of determining sample size. A test items was used to obtained data for the study. Data collected from the study were analyzed using frequency, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, and ttest. The study that found difference exists between the pre-test and post-test scores of the respondents in the experimental group which indicate that the performance of students improved when instructional material was introduced in the lesson.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher drew the following conclusions;
- It has been shown in this study that instructional materials have significant influence on the performance of the students in their academic work.
- From the findings, it was established that lack of instructional materials and its usage in teaching and learning of computer science made students to perform poorly in their academic work.
Since it has been discovered from this findings that lack of instructional materials and its usage in teaching and learning of computer science is the major courses of the students poor performance in their academic work, so the State Ministry of Education, Education Board and the Local Government Education Authorities among other should consider the recommendations below, hence it is agreed that instructional materials plays a significant role in motivating the pupils to learn, interest them in the subject, yield better performance, made practicing teachers to have confidence in whatever concepts they wants to impact to the pupils, so the uses of such materials should be encouraged.
The findings of this study as enumerated above have made it necessary to make some recommendations of certain measures which will help in the supply, acquisition and enhancement of the effective use of these instructional materials in the secondary schools in Kaduna North and South L.G.A of Kaduna State and Nigeria in general.
- Teachers/Students should improvise locally made instructional materials using resource from the school environment or raw materials from outside the school environment to be used in teaching of computer science.
- The State Ministry of Education, Education Board and Local Education Authorities should employ competent teachers who can handle the subject very well, because most of the teachers teaching the subject are not qualified.
- Parents should be encouraged to donate money through parent teachers association (PTA) for the provision of instructional materials for teaching and learning in the schools, government alone cannot shoulder all the responsibilities in the schools, there is need for the parents to help in running the schools. The money donated by the parents should be used for the purchasing of teaching aids.
- The production of low cost instructional materials should be intensified by the board. The production of these materials can be of the Resource Centres, local raw materials can be effectively utilized in the production of the needed instructional media. This will reduce the cost of importing materials and equipment which have foreign background and may not serve the need of Nigerians. Any materials and equipment produced locally will be such that have the users needs as the focal point. Materials and equipments which could be used in the rural areas where there is no electricity would be produced locally at the resource centres, Thus, the constraints imposed by lack of electricity will be remove.
- A miniature resource centre should be established in every secondary schools by the Ministry of Education and Local Education Authority, such a resource centre should serve the secondary schools in which it is established. Instructional materials should be produced, stored, maintained and others should go there to loan any materials or equipments which they need in teaching and return such a materials or equipment immediately after use.
- Parents should help in the repairs of the damaged instructional materials in the various secondary schools in the state.
- The State Ministry of Education, Education Board should release fund to the various Zonal Education Offices and Local Education Authorities and the principals specifically for maintaining and repairing damaged equipments. This method will remove the protocol of applying, filling forms and awaiting for approval before money is released for the repair of every minor damage done to an equipment.
- Seminars, conferences and workshops on the relevance, production and improvisation of instructional materials should be organised during vocations by the State Ministry of Education and Education Board. These should be organized on Zonal Levels and Local Government basis to attract so many teachers as possible, because some teachers cannot operate some of the available instructional materials while some teachers do not know the functions of some instructional media.
- The available computer science text-books in use in secondary schools in the state were not recommended for teaching-learning by the Ministry of Education. So recommended text-books should be purchased and supply to the secondary schools.
5.5 Contribution to Knowledge
This study, contributes to knowledge and literature in the following ways:
- The study found that the use of instructional material contribute to students academic performance. Based on this finding teachers are encourage to employ instructional material effectively during computer science instruction which will serve as a remedy to the risen problems of poor academic performance of students.
- This study has contributed to body of literature in the area of instructional material and academic performance generally and with reference to Kaduna state in particular.
5.6 Suggestion for Further Study
This study was delimited to two LGA of Kaduna state. The findings might differ if all the senatorial zones and rural schools in the state were involved in the study. The researcher considers this as a limitation to the present study.
The following is therefore, suggested for further study:
- The study could be replicated to cover all the Senatorial zones in Kaduna state.
- The study on the assessment availability and suitability of instructional material in implementing computer science curriculum.
- Assessment of teachers competency in the use of multi-media instructional material in implementing computer science curriculum.
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