Effects Of Instructional Materials On Achievement And Retention Of Biology Concepts Among Secondary School Students

Biology Education Project Material

Effects Of Instructional Materials On Achievement And Retention Of Biology Concepts Among Secondary School Students


Abstract


This study investigated effects of instructional materials on the academic achievement and retention of SS 2 biology students in Delta State. The study sample consisted of 86 SS2 biology students randomly selected from a population of 5,626 students drawn from 18 public schools. An instrument designed and developed from past WAEC questions by the researcher known as Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was validated by some senior lecturers in science, English and statistic from Ahmadu Bello University and senior biology teachers in Delta State. The instrument used was tested and certified to be reliable at 0.65 coefficient. Quasi-experimental design was adopted which involves two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group was subjected to treatment using instructional materials but the control group was taught without any instructional materials. Four null hypotheses were tested using t-test statistics. The following major findings were made: There is a significant difference between the mean academic achievement scores of students taught using instructional materials (EG) and those taught without the use of instructional materials (CG).There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught biology concepts using instructional materials. There is significant difference in the mean retention scores of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials. There is significant difference in the retention ability of male and female students exposed to the use of instructional materials. On the basis of these findings some recommendations were made, one of which is teachers should make use of instructional materials to facilitate the teaching of biology at secondary school level.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Science explains the natural existence of man and his activities. Science could be seen as problem solving in order to improve the living standard of man. There are different definitions of science by different schools of thought; Onche (2014) defines science as an integrated part of human activities. It is seen as a dynamic human activity concerned with manipulating spherical world. It is seen as “knowledge covering general truths and laws, obtained and tested through scientific methods as concerned laws with the physical world”. Science can be seen as the bedrock of national development. A nation that is not scientifically advanced is termed a backward nation. Science is used by humans to solve daily problems and control the environment. The usefulness of science cannot be under-rated. There are many areas of life that science has contributed such as in medicine, geophysics, hydrology, agriculture, communication, technology, education, transportation, healthcare to mention a few. Agriculture has improved greatly through the introduction of high yield improved agricultural seeds. Science has led to breakthrough in medical care. Diagnostic machine for checking different ailments and diseases are now controlled and diseases cured through science. The usefulness of science to humanity cannot be over emphasized.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the main problems facing most secondary schools in the Nigerian society today is the relative decline in the academic achievements of the students especially in the sciences. The secondary schools in Delta State are no exception. The academic achievements of students in the sciences have been on the decline (Elman, 1994) and being able to reach the desired goal can be termed achievement. Most research findings in academic achievement in sciences are applicable to Biology as a science subject. The poor achievements in biology could be attributed to some factors such as: – lack of use of apparatus Ogunbi (1986), lack of fund to purchase material Olayinka (2016). From experience as a teacher, there are other factors that contribute to poor achievement in biology which include:

  1. Lack of facility for imparting knowledge.
  2. Inadequate equipment in laboratories where they exist.
  3. Lack of teacher’s zeal to make use of instructional materials or improvise in the absence of standard materials.
  4. Lack of students’ exposure to practical lessons and insufficient time for practical activities.
  5. Lack of interest in creativity in the part of teachers and poor teaching strategies.
  6. Large size of the classes, leading to inadequate or poor management of classes.
  7. Unqualified or inexperience teachers handling biology classes.

Analysis of students’ poor achievements in recent WAEC examination and result poses a great concern to the nation. James and Pemida(2000) in a paper termed “biology education through the biological garden” is of the view that biology stands out distinctly to be taught and learnt among other science subjects by making use of available materials. According to James et al (2000) mere collection of specimens taken to the laboratory do not give room for active participation of students and thus, does not contribute to scientific attitude of students. The transfer of knowledge from school to life situations, to the development of decision making skills and values, cannot be nurtured through the conventional chalk and board nor can it be effective through traditional laboratory experiments but the use of more interactive strategies that can facilitate participatory learning and independent enquiry (UNESCO 1987 –2006). Biology is developing more rapidly today than in past and so in Connell (2000), the skill and techniques of imparting useful biological knowledge, lecture and text book as a sole source of knowledge should give way to newer educational techniques that require the use of instructional materials. Available literature shows that much of biology teaching is carried out through chalk and board with little or no emphasis on the use of instructional materials. This study therefore investigated effect of the use of instructional materials on academic achievements and retention of Biology concept among SS2 student in Ika North East area of Delta State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is effects of instructional materials on achievement and retention of biology concepts among secondary school students. The specific objective is as follows :

  1. Investigate effects of the use of instructional materials on the academic achievements of SS2 Biology student’s in Delta State.
  2. Investigate effect of the use of instructional materials on the retention ability of SS2 Biology students in Delta State.
  3. Examine the gender-related effect of instructional materials and academic achievements of biology students.
  4. Examine the gender-related effect of instructional materials and retention ability among SS2 Biology students.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

  1. What is the effect of the use of instructional material on the academic achievement in biology among SS2 students in Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta State?
  2. What is the effect of the use of instructional materials on the academic achievement of boys and girls among SS2 biology students?
  3. Is there any difference in the mean retention scores of SS2 biology students taught biology concepts using instructional materials and that of their counterparts taught same concepts without the use of instructional materials?
  4. What is the effect of the use of instructional materials on retention ability of male and female SS2 biology students in Ika North East Local Government Area of Delta State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study and were tested at 0.5 level of
significance.

H01: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught biology concepts using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.

H02: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught biology concepts using instructional materials e.g chart and specimens.

H03: There is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of SS2 students taught Biology concepts using instructional materials and those taught same concepts without instructional materials

H04: There is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught biology concepts with the use of instructional materials.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant to Biology teachers in Delta State in particular and in Nigeria in general. Teachers and would find this study relevant and useful in teaching and learning procedures.

The use of instructional materials would help curriculum planners in the area of practical works.It will be helpful to examination bodies such as WAEC and NECO in setting examination questions with emphasis on area of practical works.

Science equipment manufacturers and science book publishers etc. will find this study relevant in areas of science instructional materials production to schools.

This study will be helpful for further research on retention.


1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study will investigate effects of the use of instructional materials on the academic achievements of SS2 Biology student’s in Delta State. The study will also investigate effect of the use of instructional materials on the retention ability of SS2 Biology students in Delta State. The study will further examine the gender-related effect of instructional materials and academic achievements of biology students. Lastly, the study will examine the gender-related effect of instructional materials and retention ability among SS2 Biology students. Hence this study will be delimited to Delta state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Teaching

Teaching often involves inquiring, listening, providing information, explaining a phenomena, showing a skill or process, testing understanding and ability, and enabling learning activities

Teaching Method

Teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning.

Student Performance:

This refers to the ability and capacity of the student to achieve an educational aim.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of instructional materials on achievement and retention of biology concepts among secondary school students in Delta as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the effects of the use of instructional materials on the academic achievements of SS2 Biology student’s in Delta State, Investigate effect of the use of instructional materials on the retention ability of SS2 Biology students in Delta State, examine the gender-related effect of instructional materials and academic achievements of biology students, and examine the gender-related effect of instructional materials and retention ability among SS2 Biology students. A total of 82 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from students from the selected schools.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. There is a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught biology concepts using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.
  2. There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught biology concepts using instructional materials e.g chart and specimens.
  3. There is a significant difference in the mean retention scores of SS2 students taught Biology concepts using instructional materials and those taught same concepts without instructional materials
  4. There is a significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught biology concepts with the use of instructional materials.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Teachers/Students should improvise locally made instructional materials using resource from the school environment or raw materials from outside the school environment to be used in teaching of social studies.
  2. The State Ministry of Education, Education Board and Local Education Authorities should employ competent teachers who can handle the subject very well, because most of the teachers teaching the subject are not qualified.
  3. Parents should be encouraged to donate money through parent teachers association (PTA) for the provision of instructional materials for teaching and learning in the schools, government alone cannot shoulder all the responsibilities in the schools, there is need for the parents to help in running the schools. The money donated by the parents should be used for the purchasing of teaching aids.
  4. The production of low cost instructional materials should be intensified by the board. The production of these materials can be of the Resource Centres, local raw materials can be effectively utilized in the production of the needed instructional media. This will reduce the cost of importing materials and equipment which have foreign background and may not serve the need of Nigerians.

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