Effects Of Instructional Materials On The Academic Performances Of Students In Secondary Schools
This research was carried out to analyse the effects of instructional materials on the academic performances of students in secondary schools in Olorunda Local Government of Osun State. For the study, the sample consisted of one hundred and fifty students were randomly selected from five different secondary schools with ten students representing each class of the junior secondary schools and each class in the senior secondary schools. The data collection instrument was the questionnaire and percentage rating was used to analyse the results generated from the scores.
The outcome of the analysis of data showed that the use of appropriate and relevant teaching aids, adequate instructional materials, adequate subject teachers, and academic qualifications of teachers greatly influenced students’ performances in subjects.
From the results, it was concluded that the use of instructional materials had effects on the academic performances of students in secondary schools in Olorunda Local Government of Osun State.
1.1 Background to the Study
Instructional materials which are educational input are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. It has been defined as learning resources associated with objects, persons or other aspects of the environment which can be used to impact, or help in any learning activity (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials are befits the teacher as it make instruction easier and the learners as it make the learning objectives clearer (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials if effectively used are capable of captivating students‟ interest; stimulating desires in learning and make them participates in the lesson (Mba, 2004). In a situation like this, students‟ academic performance could be positively influence. Instructional materials include both the printed and audio-visual materials and as well resource places and person. Printed instructional materials include, but not limited to textbooks, journal articles, instructor manuals and guides, student workbooks, assignments, and other reference materials. Audio-visual materials consist of electronic videos, audiotapes, slides, filmstrips, radio and/or television (Onyilagha & Nnajiofor 2016).
Academic performance is a major aspect of school system. It has been conceived as the reflection of students‟ ability in academic work (Okeke, & Attah, 2010) which shows how well a student performs in test and examination (Olibie, & Ezeoba, 2013). Academic performance of students is an area that is given wide research over the years. This is due to the poor performance students observed in public and school examination (Agreement, & Ontiretse, 2011). Instructional materials therefore, are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers‟ efficiency and improve students‟ performance. Studies on influence of instructional material on academic performance of students in Social Studies available to this researcher are conducted in Bostwana (Agreement, & Ontiretse, 2011) and Ekiti state ( Olayinka, 2016). There is therefore, the need to carry out similar study in Kaduna state thus this informed the present research with the hope that it will fill up the gap in literature and attempts to find out if the use of instructional materials could improve the performances of students in this subject at the junior senior secondary school.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the performance of secondary school students in both local and standardized examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all education stake-holders over the years. It was observed that students usually fail in examinations owing to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery (Afolabi, 2009). During the teaching process instructional material otherwise known as teaching aids meant to make instruction more meaningful, clear and much more interesting to students are brought in display. There is a general impression that education is not achieving the desired objectives especially with high incidence of students’ poor performance in senior secondary certificate examination. This situation has assumed a precarious dimension in all secondary schools in Nigeria. The failure of educational system to provide adequate and appropriate teaching-learning aids in order to improve academic performance of students is of a great concern to government, educational institutions and other concern citizens.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study is generally aimed at examining the effect of instructional material on academic performance of student. It will specifically
- To examine the different instructional materials necessary for effective teaching
- To determine the effect of instructional material on academic performance of student
- To investigate the significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance.
1.4 Research Question
- What are the different instructional material necessary for effective teaching?
- Do you think instructional materials have any effect on academic performance of student?
- Is there any significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of student?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students
Hi: there is significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study intended to find the impact of inadequate instructional materials in secondary schools. The knowledge obtained would help the government most especially local government and educators to reflect and make evaluation on the requirements of other instructional materials apart from class-rooms alone. Since the beginning of secondary schools, the government and local communities have been putting more emphasis on the construction of new class-rooms, and rece90ntly, construction of laboratories. However, provision of quality secondary school education requires more than just class-rooms and laboratory buildings. The evaluation of instructional materials, along with other reform movements, allows educators and planners to plan for appropriate environment for teaching and learning so as to provide quality secondary school education.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will be conducted in Osun state, five secondary schools will be selected for this research, both public and private school will be selected.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education (uslegal.com, 2015).
Refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This section presents the summary of the study, conclusion and the recommendations of the study.
The objective of this study is to find out the effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of students. Specifically the study examined the different instructional materials necessary for effective teaching. It determined the effect of instructional material on academic performance of student. It revealed the significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of secondary school student using Olorunda Local Government Area in Osun State.
From the study findings, the following were the observations from this study:
There is a significant effect on the use of instructional materials and academic performance of student in secondary school. It is apparent that many schools in the study area do not use appropriate instructional materials. They do not have instructional materials that the schools need to buy, nor do they improvise their own. Although all the teachers agree that instructional materials are important in contributing to students’ academic performance, they do not show a need to have these materials in their classrooms. This implies that, although the teachers have the knowledge about the importance of instructional materials, they are not inclined to develop them. This may have many reasons. One could guess that teachers do not care whether the students perform or not, and this from the management point of view, may emanate from low morale and motivation towards their teaching. Another explanation may be, poor supervision from their heads of schools. Normally, heads of schools are supposed to be instructional supervisors, to ensure that instructions are going on and students are provided with quality education coupled with quality instructional resources. Lack of supervision may be the reason for the situation found by this study.
Basing on the findings from this study the following are the recommendations;
The findings of this study as enumerated above have made it necessary to make some recommendations of certain measures which will help in the supply, acquisition and enhancement of the effective use of these instructional materials in the secondary schools in Oluranda local governement area, Osun State and Nigeria in general
- Teachers/Students should improvise locally made instructional materials using resource from the school environment or raw materials from outside the school environment to be used in teaching of social studies.
- The State Ministry of Education, Education Board and Local Education Authorities should employ competent teachers who can handle the subject very well, because most of the teachers teaching the subject are not qualified.
- Parents should be encouraged to donate money through parent teachers association (PTA) for the provision of instructional materials for teaching and learning in the schools, government alone cannot shoulder all the responsibilities in the schools, there is need for the parents to help in running the schools. The money donated by the parents should be used for the purchasing of teaching aids.
- The production of low cost instructional materials should be intensified by the board. The production of these materials can be of the Resource Centres, local raw materials can be effectively utilized in the production of the needed instructional media. This will reduce the cost of importing materials and equipment which have foreign background and may not serve the need of Nigerians. Any materials and equipment produced locally will be such that have the users needs as the focal point. Materials and equipments which could be used in the rural areas where there is no electricity would be produced locally at the resource centres, Thus, the constraints imposed by lack of electricity will be remove.
- A miniature resource centre should be established in every secondary schools by the Ministry of Education and Local Education Authority, such a resource centre should serve the secondary schools in which it is established. Instructional materials should be produced, stored, maintained and others should go there to loan any materials or equipments which they need in teaching and return such a materials or equipment immediately after use.
- Parents should help in the repairs of the damaged instructional materials in the various secondary schools in the state.
- The State Ministry of Education, Education Board should release fund to the various Zonal Education Offices and Local Education Authorities and the principals specifically for maintaining and repairing damaged equipments. This method will remove the protocol of applying, filling forms and awaiting for approval before money is released for the repair of every minor damage done to an equipment.
- Seminars, conferences and workshops on the relevance, production and improvisation of instructional materials should be organised during vocations by the State Ministry of Education and Education Board. These should be organized on Zonal Levels and Local Government basis to attract so many teachers as possible, because some teachers cannot operate some of the available instructional materials while some teachers do not know the functions of some instructional media.
- The available social studies text-books in use in secondary schools in the state were not recommended for teaching-learning by the Ministry of Education. So recommended text-books should be purchased and supply to the secondary schools.
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