The Effects Of Instructional Leadership On Academic Achievement
1.1 Background to the Study
In the 1960s, instructional leadership (IL) evolved from the literature on effective schools. In the last three decades, two distinct threads have evolved. Evidence from the 1980s showed that IL improved school performance (Murphy, 1985). In the new century, a second wave of interest arose, resulting in large-scale research demonstrating the favorable influence of IL on school effectiveness and improvement (Hallinger, 2011). Instructional leadership (IL) has a long history of improving student achievement, mainly in the United States (Murphy 2013). For the past 30 years, claim the IL has been the most durable leadership technique, according to Wahlstrom (2010). In the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in IL, with many praising its usefulness in creating long-term teaching and learning in schools (Dretzkea, 2010). Students are entitled to a high-quality education that allows them to develop academically, emotionally, spiritually, and physically (Peterson, 1999). Teachers are considered valuable to society if they offer pupils with high-quality education. However, due of the combination of internal and external factors that tend to mediate instruction and produce a negative impression of the teaching profession, the sort of atmosphere favorable to teaching and learning is generally not realized. According to Harris (2007), in recent decades, the community’s opinions of teaching have been directly influenced by a variety of external factors that have fundamentally transformed the character and nature of teaching and learning. Bush (2007) claims that the quality of leadership may have a substantial impact on the transformation of teaching and learning. Both the National Development and Education visions require instructional leadership to be realized. Parents and society as a whole have high educational expectations and professional responsibility because of these goals. Schools and instructors are increasingly being held responsible for the education they deliver to the public (Mpofu, 2000). School leaders are supposed to oversee employees, discipline children, connect with parents, manage buildings, lead the educational program, ensure the safety of teachers and students, manage finances, and participate in school reform, among other things, according to Richmond (2007). Heads of schools, according to Grima (2016), are in a better position since they are more aware of what is going on in their schools and can identify areas for development because they have more contact 3 with other agencies at the same time. ―School Heads are supposed to be the managers of improvement, establishing the ideal environment for it to happen in their schools. They must have a clear sense of direction for their schools and, together with their staff, discuss and plan how to get there. The job of the principal is continually changing. In most cases, a head teacher can only manage one school; but, in other cases, head teachers are in charge of many schools. Principal, executive, associate, and head of school are examples of job titles, as are the governance systems to which head teachers are answerable. Head teachers hold a powerful position in society and shape the teaching profession all around the world (Bryk, 2009). Head teachers, on the other hand, are expected to have good ideals and goals to bring schools to higher levels because they are responsible for the schools’ and students’ performance. Head teachers’ leadership has a significant influence on the quality of teaching and student achievement in the classroom. Within and outside of their own institutions, head teachers set high academic standards and expectations. Head teachers as instructional leaders are responsible for identifying, acquiring, allocating, coordinating, and using the social, material, and cultural resources necessary to create the circumstances for teaching and learning, according to Spillane and Diamond (2004). Identification, acquisition, allocation, coordination, and utilization of social and cultural resources essential to create the circumstances for teaching and learning are all part of instructional leadership (Spillane, 2004). According to Nkobi (2008), instructional leadership aims to enhance teachers’ classroom work quality with the goal of boosting students’ achievement as well as their attitudes and conduct toward schoolwork and their personal lives. Instructional leadership is an important component in raising learner achievement.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Primary school principals are responsible for providing vision, leadership, and direction for their schools, as well as ensuring that they are managed and structured to fulfill their goals and objectives MOE (Ministry of Education, 2012). Educators must teach kids on a local level to become global citizens. When school leaders appropriately practice their instructional leadership duties, efforts to boost student achievement can succeed in a big way (Hammond, 2005). However, education quality and school leadership abilities are now at the heart of a heated national discussion. The subject taught, the teachers who deliver the curriculum, and the leaders who work with teachers, students, and the community are all factors that play a role in this area (Paula, 2009). Evidence shows that policy measures that focus only on leadership and management struggle to have more than a generic influence on student learning. Rather, significant economic, demographic, technical, and global upheaval have changed the role of school principals (Levine, 2005). Despite the fact that they play a critical role in determining the course of successful schools, public primary school administrators face a variety of challenges in their current work environment. Despite the fact that studies have been undertaken primarily to examine the challenges that primary school administrators face in order to accelerate the delivery of high-quality primary education (Oduro, 2007). However, due to the importance of this function in students’ academic achievement and the issues facing primary schools in Niger state, research into the meanings teachers attach to the role of heads of school in instructional leadership is urgently needed.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The major goal of this study is to better understand and enhance instructional leadership practices in primary schools. Specifically, the study aims to:
- Assess teachers’ perspectives of head teachers’ duties as instructional leaders.
- To determine the problems that head teachers face when they exercise instructional leadership in primary schools.
- To examine the effect of head teachers on enhancing teaching and learning in primary schools.
1.4 Research Question
- What are perspectives of head teachers’ duties as instructional leaders?
- What are the problems that head teachers face when they exercise instructional leadership in primary schools?
- What is the effect of head teachers on enhancing teaching and learning in primary schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Researchers and other educational stakeholders, such as educators, curriculum creators, parents, and policymakers, were anticipated to benefit from the findings of this study. For example, the suggested study’s findings revealed teachers’ attitudes about instructional leadership and raised teacher (educator) knowledge of regarded techniques for enhancing teaching and learning in primary schools. The findings of this study clearly assisted curriculum writers and policymakers in dealing with obstacles faced by head teachers and academic staff in exercising instructional leadership in primary schools, and they may have found answers to these problems. (For example, the type and availability of elementary school teaching and learning resources, as well as what needed to be improved.) Knowing what was lacking might help them grasp what was most required for elementary education.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will involve primary school pupils from four distinct elementary schools in Niger’s Tafa LGA.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them. However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Many scholars who have attempted to define leadership, most of them recognize it as the influence process that takes place between leaders and followers. In this regard, Bush and Clover (2003) make it clear that: Leadership is a process of influence leading to the achievement of desired purposes.
Define instructional leadership as: the identification, acquisition, allocation, coordination, and use of the social material, and cultural resources necessary to establish the conditions for the possibility of teaching and learning. According to Nkobi (2008), instructional leadership seeks to improve the teachers‘ quality of classroom work for the ultimate purpose of enhancing learners‘ achievement and also improving their attitudes and behavior towards school work as well as their personal life.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does instructional leadership improve students’ academic performance?
To investigate the influence of instructional leadership in the improvement of students’ academic performance over 3 years, students’ high school entrance scores at the preliminary stage in high school and their college entrance scores at the end of high school were both used.
Does educational leadership affect student achievement?
As was expected, the most comprehensive effect among leadership styles was found in distributive and transformational leadership. Considering the effect of educational leadership on students’ achievement, it is recommended to examine the effect of leadership on other components of school and shareholders in future studies. …
Which leadership style has the strongest impact on student learning outcomes?
Previous studies demonstrate that instructional leadership has the strongest empirical impact on student learning outcomes among all types of leadership (Hallinger et al. 2015 ).
Does the leadership style of the head teacher affect student performance?
There are numerous studies on leadership but few specially link students’ performance and leadership style. It is, therefore, important to measure the relationship between leadership styles of head teachers and the effect on students’ academic performance.