The Effects Of Insomnia On Adult Mental Health

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

The Effects Of Insomnia On Adult Mental Health


Abstract


This study examines the effects of insomnia on adult mental health. Specifically, the study examines causes or factors that leads to insomnia, investigates the symptoms of insomnia, examines how poor quality of sleep affects the mental health of an adult and proffers solution on treatment of insomnia. The study employs the survey descriptive research design. A total of 36 responses were validated from the survey. The study adopts the health belief model. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings reveals that adults at least once in a week feel a disorder in sleeping pattern. Furthermore, the causative factors that leads to sleeping disorder include stress, bereavement, unfamiliar sleep environment, poor sleeping environment and jet lag. The study recommends that the patient’s preferences and values should be considered when selecting treatment options. Hypnotics should be used for the shortest possible period, at the lowest possible dose to avoid developing dependence and tolerance.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Insomnia is the inability to get the amount of sleep we need to wake up feeling rested and refreshed. Because different people need different amounts of sleep, insomnia is defined by the quality of sleep and how we feel after sleeping not the number of hours we sleep or how quickly we doze off. Even if we are spending eight hours a night in bed, if we feel drowsy and fatigued during the day, we may be experiencing insomnia (Sahng, Jahyun, Hong Jun Jeon M Young Rong Bang. 2016). Sleep problems are frequently observed among older adults. While the prevalence of sleep disorders is 20–40% for the population in general, this rate rises to 50% in people who are 65 years and older (Mander BA, Marks SM, Vogel JW 2015).

Studies conducted on general populations report that about one third of adults suffer from insomnia symptoms, of which about 10%-15% reported accompanying daytime impairments and 6%-10% experience symptoms of insomnia disorder, which is the most common of all sleep disorders. Although insomnia may be categorized as either a symptom or an independent disorder, it is most frequently considered a co-morbid condition in relation with another medical condition or mental disorder (Praveena D., Shahesta S.,Kusuma N.& JVC Sharma 2018). Insomnia can be short-term (acute) or can last a long time (chronic). It may also come and go. Acute insomnia lasts from 1 night to a few weeks. Insomnia is chronic when it happens at least 3 nights a week for 3 months or more.

There are serious health risks associated with chronic insomnia which is capable of affecting the mental health of an adult. Mental health refers to cognitive, behavioral, and emotional well-being. It is all about how people think, feel, and behave. People sometimes use the term “mental health” to mean the absence of a mental disorder.

Mental health can affect daily living, relationships, and physical health. Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make a contribution to his or her community

However, this link also works in the other direction. Factors in people’s lives, interpersonal connections, and physical factors can all contribute to mental health disruptions. Looking after mental health can preserve a person’s ability to enjoy life. Doing this involves reaching a balance between life activities, responsibilities, and efforts to achieve psychological resilience.

However research has drawn a link between the impact of insomania on mental health showing that untreated insomnia can have a detrimental impact on quality of life, inducing such conditions as fatigue, difficulty paying attention, bad mood, memory and visual disorders, and aggressiveness. Thus it is upon this premise that this study is set to examine The effects of insomnia on adult mental health.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the pursuance of life goals and daily activities, there is need for human to maintain their sanity and stay mentally healthy. This cannot be realized when an adult cannot get enough sleep at least 5-8hours sleep(). The way that sleep and mental health are intertwined becomes even more apparent by reviewing what is known about how sleep is tied to a number of specific mental health conditions and neurodevelopmental disorders. Insomnia impairs cognitive and physical functioning and is associated with a wide range of impaired daytime functions across a number of emotional, social, and physical domains. Compared with good sleepers, people with persistent sleep disturbances are more prone to accidents, have higher rates of work absenteeism, diminished job performance, decreased quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Studies that improve the knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms controlling regulation of sleep homeostasis, circadian rhythms, physiological hyperarousal, genetics, stress, and cognition are needed to adequately evaluate the causes and mechanisms of insomnia. Effective pharmacological and behavioural interventions to treat insomnia rely on accurate neurobehavioral and neurobiological information. As we have different methods to identify insomnia, there is a possibility to understand better about the patient symptoms and find possible alternatives to treat the disease. Therefore knowing that mental status is intertwined with sleeping pattern, this study seeks to examine the effects of insomnia on adult mental health.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main focus of this study is to examine the effects of insomnia on adult mental health. Specifically it seeks

  1. To examine causes or factors that leads to insomnia.
  2. To investigate the symptoms of insomnia.
  3. To examine how poor quality of sleep affects the mental health of an adult.
  4. To proffer solution on treatment of insomnia.

1.4 Research Question

The following research question guide the study

  1. Does adult at least once in a week feel a disorder in sleeping pattern?
  2. What are the causative factors that leads to sleeping disorder?
  3. What are the symptoms that makes you feel you have you have a sleeping disorder?
  4. How does poor quality sleep affect the mental health of an adult?
  5. What are the treatment or solution to insomnia?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to psychiatric doctors and adults both those in business and working force. To adult, this study will enlighten them on the need to get quality sleep even as they strive to make ends meet, this is because when sleeping disorder becomes chronic it can affect their mental health. To medical personnel, this study will enable them to ascertain medical conditions caused by poor quality of sleep and help them prescribe the adequate medication/medical advice for such patients. Finally this study will be helpful to medical student, it eill contribute to the body of knowledge, serve as a reference material for other researchers and provide opportunities for further inquiry in insomnia study


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the effects of insomnia on adult mental health. It will examine causes or factors that leads to insomnia.it will investigate the symptoms of insomnia. It will examine how poor quality of sleep affects the mental health of an adult. It will proffer solution on treatment of insomnia. However this study is delimited to Lagos State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

However in the midst above mentioned limitation the researcher devotedly ensured that the purpose of the study was actualized.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to investigate the effects of insomnia on adult mental health. The study specifically was aimed at examining the causes or factors that leads to insomnia, investigating the symptoms of insomnia, examining how poor quality of sleep affects the mental health of an adult, and proffer solution on treatment of insomnia. This study was anchored on the Health Belief Model.

The study adopted the survey research design and conveniently enrolled participants in the study. A total of 30 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from FMC Umuahia (hospital base).


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. Adults at least once in a week feel a disorder in sleeping pattern
  2. The causative factors that leads to sleeping disorder include:
    1. Stress,
    2. Bereavement,
    3. Unfamiliar sleep environment,
    4. Poor sleeping environment and
    5. Jet lag
  3. The symptoms that makes you feel you have you have a sleeping disorder include:
    1. Excessive daytime sleepiness,
    2. Irregular breathing,
    3. Increased movement during sleep,
    4. Irregular sleep and wake cycle,
    5. Difficulty falling asleep
  4. How poor quality sleep affect the mental health of an adult include:
    1. Can trigger mania, psychosis or paranoia,
    2. Anxiety,
    3. Depression,
    4. Suicide and
    5. Make existing symptoms worse
  5. The treatment or solution to insomnia include:
    1. Developing and practicing good sleep habits.
    2. Nonmedical therapy,
    3. Psychotherapy and
    4. Medications

5.3 Recommendations

In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are hereby proposed:

  1. The patient’s preferences and values should be considered when selecting treatment options. Hypnotics should be used for the shortest possible period, at the lowest possible dose to avoid developing dependence and tolerance.
  2. It is important for the health practitioners to provide information and counselling on the treatment available for insomnia, as well as the side-effects patients may experience. The health practitioners can also play a role in identify underlying causes of insomnia and provide valuable advice that may help with improving sleep habits.
  3. The management of insomnia includes pharmacological therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy and treating co-morbid conditions. The main goal of therapy is to improve sleep quality and duration, improve daytime function and reduce anxiety.

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