Effect Of Inquiry Based Learning On Student Academic Achievement In Chemistry

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Effect Of Inquiry Based Learning On Student Academic Achievement In Chemistry


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine effect of inquiry based learning on student academic achievement in chemistry in selected secondary schools in Ewekoro Local Government, Ogun State. Specifically, the study examined effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students in chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ogun State and also determine the difference in effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students in chemistry in Ogun State in Ewekoro Local Government, Ogun State. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 141 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that There are effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students in senior secondary schools in Ogun State. inquiry teaching method has an effect on the performance of students in Ogun State. The study recommend That Inquiry instructional strategy should be used to teach chemistry since it enhance students’ academic achievement. Finally, that teachers and curriculum developers introduce more innovative approaches to teaching.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Inquiry as mode of instruction is credited to Bruner (1961) who originated discovery learning in the 1960s argued that ‘‘practice in discovering for oneself teaches one to acquire information in a way that makes that information more readily viable in problem solving’’ (Bruner 1961, p. 26). Bruner’s ideas were similar to Dewey (1949) who emphasised learning by doing. Discovery occurs in problem solving situations where learners draw on their prior knowledge to make connections with the new knowledge by interacting with the materials to be learnt, exploring, manipulating objects, raising questions and performing experiments to find the answers (Grauer, 2016).

Inquiry takes variety of instructional techniques. Inquiry may be to verify ideas or and solve problems with the teacher guidance (guided inquiry) or without his \ her guidance (open inquiry) by Ajeyalemi (2011) and Adeoye (2016). The guided-inquiry learning approach is recommended for learning the sciences at senior secondary school in Nigeria. This is aimed at and providing students with the knowledge and understanding of the complexities of the world in which they live and producing manpower for national development (Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN, 2011).

There are four different ways in which practical activities may be designed in the guided inquiry type. These are teacher- demonstration, class-assisted demonstration, detailed worksheet and loosely structured problem-solving (Ajeyalemi, 2011). Each form of organisation describes different levels of guidance that are involved. The teacher-demonstration is the process by which a teacher shows to a student or group of students to illustrate a concept, principle or skill to the students so as to verify facts and /or aid understanding of the concept or principle. In teacher-demonstration, usually the teacher does all the work in describing the procedure, manipulating equipment, describing observations and possibly recording and interpreting the data. The students are just mere observers and passive listeners but may ask some questions.

The class-assisted demonstration is a team approach in which students assist the teacher in the demonstration. The students play a more active role than they do in the teacher-demonstration. The students may be involved in suggesting the procedure, manipulating, collecting and interpreting data. The purpose is not only to illustrate a point or to verify some facts and principles but also to encourage inquiry. The students’ involvement in the teaching and learning process encourages the students to think and to acquire the concepts and principles involved in the demonstration. The approach is also likely to make the students to be more attentive and develop positive attitudes to science as they like to watch some of their peers performing (Ajeyalemi, 2011).

The detailed worksheet type of practical activities is symptomatic of a higher level of students’ involvement than observed for the teacher or class- assisted demonstration. The aim of the practical work is often pre-determined by the teacher whether students are working individually or in groups. In addition, the students are provided with all the necessary equipment, materials and detailed instructions on the series of steps to take in accomplishing the objectives of the practical class. The advantage of this form of organisation is that students, at least, have the opportunity of practicing some of the skills of scientists such as observing, measuring, manipulating equipment and materials, collecting data, recording and interpreting data, inferring and concluding from data. However, because this is a highly structured type of organisation, it would ordinarily not allow for much initiative on the part of the students.

The loosely-structured problem-solving type of practical work, often puts students in a problem-solving situation and encourages the students to solve the problem on their own, with minimum guidance from the teacher. The important of this approach is that students may participate in the formulation of the problem and are responsible for designing the experimental procedure, determining the necessary equipment and materials for solving the problem, collecting and interpreting the data, and making conclusion(s). This type of practical work is described as problem-based by Millar (2009). The approach is more student-centred, provides opportunities for students to engage in authentic investigative and higher-order thinking processes. However, it is often time consuming and costly and very demanding on teachers and students. Whatever the type of organisation adopted, the quality of practical experiences to which students are exposed to also matter, if they are to develop formal thinking abilities as well. The integration of detailed work-sheet and loosely structured problem solving types of guided-inquiry were employed in designing learning packages used for this study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Students’ persistent poor performance in chemistry has been partly ascribed to inadequate teaching and instructional methods adopted by teachers. In supporting this view, Derek (2007), reported the seriousness of the deplorable performance of secondary school students in chemistry and identified the persistent use of the traditional methods of instruction as one of the major shortcoming affecting the learning and higher achievement in chemistry . Many students find chemistry to be a hindrance in attaining their aims and objectives. Donald, (2000) said students wishing to read medicine cannot do so unless they credit chemistry. It is therefore necessary to properly groom the students right from the secondary level to enable them improve their academic achievement in chemistry. Poor performance of students in science subjects, particularly chemistry, has assumed a serious dimension as reported by West African Examination Council (1991). In the light of this, science teachers need to seek suitable ways of tackling the current massive failure in chemistry if they are to halt the drifts of science students to art and social science subjects.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. Determine if there is use of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students in chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ogun State
  2. Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of students in chemistry in Ogun State;
  3. Determine the difference in effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students in chemistry in Ogun State.

1.4 Research Question

The following questions have been prepared for this study

  1. Are there use of inquiry and traditional/conventional teaching method teaching and learning of chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ogun State?
  2. Are there effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of students in chemistry in Ogun State?
  3. Are there difference in effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students in chemistry in Ogun State?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

  • H01: There is no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean response of effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students taught chemistry in Ogun State
  • H1: There is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean response of effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students taught chemistry in Ogun State

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will help in the following ways:

The chemistry teachers will utilize the findings of this study in their chemistry classrooms; helping students’ understanding of chemistry concepts through guided inquiry teaching method. Students at the senior secondary school (SSS) level in Kaduna state and other states can be encouraged and motivated by this research.Active involvement of students helps to develop self-confidence and positive attitude to chemistry through this research.The study will provide information for educational planners and curriculum designers in the Federal Ministry of Education. They will support the use of inquiry teaching method in senior secondary schools by carrying out effective quality assurance for teachers in order to improve teaching/learning situations currently existing in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.

It is hoped that the students will find Chemistry very interesting as it will equip them for job opportunities in industries in both private and public sectors such as manufacturing and processing industries, industries related to petroleum, chemical, ceramic, polymer, food, electronics, the environmental, mining, pharmaceuticals and health- related industries, agriculture industries, government agencies, including forensic science and patents, defence, education and research, and areas related to biotechnology.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will examine effect of inquiry based learning on student academic achievement in chemistry. This study will be delimited to Ewekoro local government in Ogun state. The study is limited to some selected Secondary Schools in the area. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among secondary school students in the study area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

  • Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
  • Financial Constraint, was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
  • Time Factor: Time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.9 Defination of Terms

Inquiry:

This is the process of engaging someone in other to know more about something.

Teaching Method:

This is a style teachers use in teaching a particular subject


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of inquiry based learning on student academic achievement in chemistry using senior secondary schools in Ogun State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students in chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ogun State. Also to determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of students in chemistry in Ogun State;and lastly, to Determine the effects of inquiry teaching method on the performance of male and female students taught chemistry in Ogun State. . A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers and students of the selected secondary schools.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. There are effects of inquiry teaching method and traditional/conventional teaching method on the performance of students in chemistry in senior secondary schools in Ogun State
  2. Inquiry teaching method has an effect on the performance of students in chemistry in Ogun State
  3. Inquiry teaching method has an effect on the performance of male and female students in chemistry in Ogun State.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. That teachers and curriculum developers introduce more innovative approaches to teaching and also the topics in the syllabus be reduced to create a favorable condition for the inquiry-based teaching to be implemented by the teachers in the senior high schools.
  2. Inquiry instructional strategy should be used to teach physics since it enhance students’ academic achievement. It’s also students centred.
  3. Since inquiry instructional strategy helps students to understand what they do, workshops and training should be organized for teachers on how they can incorporate it in their teaching methods.

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