Causes And Effects Of Indiscipline Among Senior Secondary School Students

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Causes And Effects Of Indiscipline Among Senior Secondary School Students


This study analyzed the causes and effects of indiscipline among senior secondary students in Boripe Local Government Area of Osun State. The specific objectives were to identify the acts of indiscipline found among the students, examine the causes of indiscipline, and analyze the effects of indiscipline among the senior secondary students. Four schools were chosen purposely for this study. From each of these schools, students and teachers chosen at random making a total of thirty students and twenty teachers interviewed through the use of questionnaire and personal interview. Data collected was analyzed by the use of percentages and frequency distribution tables. After careful analysis of data obtained, conclusions and appropriate recommendations were made.

Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms
  • 1.8 Organization of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 sources of data collection
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
  • 3.5 Validation of research instrument
  • 3.6 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

  • 4.1 Introductions
  • 4.2 Data analysis

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

In the development of every nation, children are seen as future assets, since they serve as potential human resources to replace the old ones in the near generation. For this to come into realization, it is important to ensure that these young ones are not only preserved but disciplined so they can remain focused in life, sharpen their skills and enhance their talent. In contrast to these expectations from the young ones, Prout& James (2003), in their study, observed growing acts of indiscipline among school children which has become a universal challenge facing many countries. Indeed, the acts of indiscipline could be traced to theearly period when individuals became conscious of organizing themselves into groups. This act of moral decadence is evident from several studies, pointing to the fact that the level of indiscipline, especially in schools has escalated (Idu&Ojedapo, 2011; Maphosa & Shumba, 2010). Indiscipline is a destructive behaviour which does not promote peace and co-existence in society. This behaviour is a canker to many nations in the world as it is a threat to the lives of these young ones. Many efforts have been made by several world leaders to curtail this growing notoriety especially among school children but it is regrettable to say that there is no single day the media will not report of incidence of indiscipline in newspapers, on the radio and television (Clinard & Meier, 2015). As it is referred to, “Today, intolerance, impatience and violence which are fruits of indiscipline has eaten deep into all facets of life of Nigerians including Junior High School students” (Daily Graphic, 7th March, 2002, pg3). According to Maphosa & Mammen (2011), basic schools of today are noted for disrespecting authorities, going to school late, fighting among themselves, refusing to do homework and dressing indecently. Some of the pupils go to the extent of vandalizing school property and assaulting teachers for taking disciplinary actions against them or a colleague. Pre-marital sex, armed robbery, drug abuse, drunkenness and smoking of marijuana have been reported to be prevalent among basic schools in the country (Director-General, Asare, & Twene, 2003). Intolerance and indiscipline behaviour brings about disorder, destruction and anxiety among the pupils. Indiscipline behaviours therefore do not create conducive environment for learning but leads to poor academic work

Most schools in the past were voluntary agency schools. As at then, there was high degree of discipline in school. There was harmony as principals, teachers and students demonstrated awareness of their responsibilities in the school. Moreso, parents and teachers shared the same view of students’ desirable behaviours. The quality of school system as regards to discipline was very high up till the end of Nigerian civil war in January 1970. After the civil war, things began to change. All forms of indiscipline were manifested by the students. Indiscipline is negative form of discipline, Zubaidia (2009) citing Dare, Hashim, Sweinan and Ofie (2004) defined discipline in schools as respect for school laws and regulations and the maintenance of an established standard of behaviour and implies self-control, restraint, respect for oneself and others. A behaviour that contradicts the above becomes indiscipline. According to Tunor (2002), if students cultivate the habit of discipline in schools, there will be a smooth running in the school system but reverse will be the case if students are not discipline. Zubaida (2009) identifies various forms of indiscipline among the secondary school students such as truancy, lateness to school, cultism, drug abuse, insulting/assaulting, stealing, rioting, and many other antisocial vices. According to Zubaida (2009) and Eyinade (1999), a number of these acts of indiscipline were directed against constituted authorities and established rules. An example of this is refusal to wear the right school uniform and going out of bounds without permission. The respect which teachers command among students had been seriously worn-off. And some teachers have not done much to help the situation by their actions. This problem has turned to a national issue. Our leaders in the past have tried to remedy this situation but the problem proved not to be solved. One of the cardinal objectives of Education as spelt out in the National Policy on Education (2004) revised, is to inculcate right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and Nigerian society. Onyije and Ojedapo (2010) identify some factors that cause indiscipline among students such as government nonchalant attitudes to education, parental factors and teachers’ attitude. Therefore there is need to get at the root causes of indiscipline amongst the secondary school students with a view to finding a solution. In this light the researchers concern is to find out factors responsible for indiscipline among secondary school students. With a view to provide solutions in order to make our educational system what it ought to be.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been realised that students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Nigeria has become a cankerworm that has eaten too deep into the students’ moral up bring. Students have become uncontrollable and highly disrespectful to: themselves, teachers, school administrators, parents and to the society at large. Students portray different types of indiscipline behaviour among which include the following acts: boycotting of lessons, watching and practicing pornography, lies telling, violence, dishonesty, disobedient to teachers, prefects, and school administration, rapping school/class mates, alcohol consumption, confronting and stabbing teachers in schools, vandalism, lateness to school, cultism, drug abuse, insulting/assaulting, stealing, rioting; among others. the extent to which students’ indiscipline behaviours in school are correlated with are not known whether these influences emanate from the perspectives of their peer group, their parents’ socioeconomic achievements, parent’s attitude, teacher’ attitude, school culture, climate and environment; and the magnitude of disorder it triggers in school and what strategies should be put in place to curb this deviant behaviour. All of these are equally contributed to the fact that student come from different family backgrounds, economic status, cultures and values. Indiscipline in school greatly affects the quality of teaching and learning, uncovered/unfinished school curriculum (Mariene, 2012; Munyasya, 2008; Onyango, 2008; Kabiru, 2007;); resulting to poor results, dropouts, and wastage of resources invested by stakeholders of education such as parents, and the government. It is evident that most students’ indiscipline and unrests are premeditated to cause maximum destruction. For instance, during the first term of the academic year 2005 and 2006, by then most secondary schools went on strike. The strike was prolonged in other schools than others. This proved that the years 2005 and 2006 saw a lot of students’ indiscipline and unrest in public secondary establishments in Nigeria. There was an outcry from the public regarding this persistent problem. The students had boycotted classes and wanted school administration to look into their grievances. This has enabled the researcher to pose the question: have parents, school counselors and religious organisations in schools abandoned or neglected their duties in nurturing their children of becoming acceptable citizens of the community and the future? With this nonchalant attitude, teachers find it difficult to motivate their learners to learn because they equally lack peace and motivation within the school. Achievement of the goals of secondary school education largely depends on the positive disposition of students in their academic work and the instructional performance of teachers. A major task facing educational administrators is the continuous existence of the problem of dropout, deviant behaviours, examination malpractice, lateness and poor academic performance among students. Records showed that most of the students involved in cultism in higher institutions started it in their secondary school days. The need has therefore arisen for school administrators, teachers, parents and the general public to eliminate indiscipline in schools. Nigerians cannot remain complacent when large human and material resources are wasted, indiscipline is rampant, an atmosphere of insecurity, frustration and instability are created in schools leading to ineffective learning.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this research work includes the following.

  1. To examine the most frequent types, causes and possible solutions to curb indiscipline in secondary school in in Boripe Local Government Area of Osun State .
  2. To identify the frequent and regular types of indiscipline in Nigerian secondary schools.
  3. To survey the causes of indiscipline in Nigerian secondary schools.
  4. To examine possible solution to the problem of indiscipline in school.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses I
  • Ho: There is no relationship between parental background and indiscipline among senior secondary school students
  • Hi: There is a relationship between parental background and indiscipline among senior secondary school students
Hypotheses II
  • Ho: There is no relationship between peer pressure and indiscipline among senior secondary school students.
  • Hi: There is a relationship between peer pressure and indiscipline among senior secondary school students.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research work will provide information to teachers, parents, the government and other relevant bodies on the causes of indiscipline among secondary school students. It will also serve as a research material for other researchers who would wish to carry out further research work on this study.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is primarily concerned with causes and effects of indiscipline among senior secondary school students. This study/project work covers Boripe Local Government Area of Osun State. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

1.7 Definition of Terms


Indiscipline means lack of discipline, lack of control, lack of proper training; it means unruly behavior, disobedient, disorder.

Senior Secondary School:

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education. The upper secondary education is referred to as senior secondary school in Nigeria.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a critical analysis of causes and effects of indiscipline among senior secondary school students.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the challenges of indiscipline among senior secondary school students

5.2 Summary

This study aimed at having a critical analysis of causes and effects of indiscipline among senior secondary school students. Four objectives were raised. These objectives include: To examine the most frequent types, causes and possible solutions to curb indiscipline in secondary school in in Boripe Local Government Area of Osun State , to identify the frequent and regular types of indiscipline in Nigerian secondary schools, to survey the causes of indiscipline in Cameroon secondary schools, to examine possible solution to the problem of indiscipline in school.

5.3 Conclusion

Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.
The principals, teachers and students all believe that indiscipline in school can be eradicated. According to them, schools can instil a discipline culture on students through guidance and counselling, involvement of parents in dealing with issues of student behaviour, teachers closely supervising assignments and helping learners to complete difficult tasks, strengthening of peer counselling and meting out punishment against unruly students. There is also a need toeffectively use available means of communication in schools. Students should be encouraged to express themselves through the proper channels rather than resorting to indiscipline.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were offered to the stakeholders in the educational sector on how to avert indiscipline among female students in our secondary schools.

  1. There should be prompt and adequate use of rewards for hardworking teachers and students as well as punishment for defaulting ones. Teachers and students who are not committed, even after warning should be expelled from the school.
  2. Series of regular programmes like seminar, workshops, in-service training and others should be organized to update teachers knowledge as well as guiding both teachers’ and students’ behavior in schools
  3. If parents spend time with their children, before and after school periods, the children moral upbringing and academic performance will be harmonized and strengthened.

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