The Effects Of Good Leadership And Administration In National Development (A Case Study Of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan’s Administration)
This study examined the effects of good leadership and administration in National development (A case study of President Good luck Ebele Jonathan’s administration). In this study survey, research design was employed, while investigation and historic research was used to evaluate the problems of leadership and also the best style to be employed for effective leadership. The instrument of data collection was through the use of questionnaire. The findings of this research show that political instability, corruption, injustice, favoritism and bad policies are responsible for the poor administration and bad leadership. The study also found out that technological underdevelopment is a major factor that brings about stagnancy in the process of development. Finally, it is recommended that all clauses that give room to exploitation, corruption and domination should be amended in the constitution and that government should avoid favoritism when it comes to fixing personnel in certain key areas that requires expertise. It concluded that the solution to the problem of bad leadership could only be resolved through conscious efforts of both the government and the governed.
Table of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval Page
- Table of Contents
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Scope of the Study
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 2.1 Nature of Leadership
- 2.2 Nature of National Development
- 2.3 Leadership Style and Skills
- 2.4 Nature of Nigeria’s Socio-political Environment
- 2.5 Achievements and Challenges/controversies of President Goodluck Jonathan’s Administration
- 2.6 Leadership Theories and Approach
- 2.7 Effectiveness of Leadership
- 3.1 Sources of Data
- 3.1.1 Primary Source of Data
- 3.1.2 Secondary Source of Data
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample Size Determination
- 3.5 Research Instrument
- 3.6 Validity of the Instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.8 Method of Data Treatment and Analysis
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Presentation of Data
- 4.2 Presentation of Demographic Characteristics
- 4.3 Analysis Based on Key Research Questions
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of Findings
- 5.2 Recommendations
- 5.3 Conclusions
- 5.4 Limitation of the Study
1.1 Background of the Study
A good leadership and administration has been widely acknowledged as a potent instrument for the achievement of national development especially in Nigeria.
Leadership is an important aspect of management. The ability to lead effectively is one of the keys of being an effective manager or administrator. The essence of leadership is follower ship. In other words, it is the willingness of people to follow those whom they perceive as providing means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs, not those who would not provide means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs. That is why any country/organization that desires to achieve her objectives must have an effective and efficient leadership that knows how to apply all the basic principles needed towards achieving a great height of development. The leader must be one who is willing to work with zeal and confidence. Leadership presupposes follower ship. It presupposes a group of people who from among themselves have produced a leader, or from among whom a leader had emerged.
Every one of us finds out that we are leaders and or followers in one context or the other.
National Development is our utmost desire; this is because of the poise and serenity it will bring to our country Nigeria if achieved. It should be noted that any nation without a good leadership and administration is like one driving a care without a head lamp in the night. For Nigeria to attain the height of National development, a good leadership and administration should be kept in view.
Good luck Ebele Jonathan, a former teacher, inspector of education, lecturer and environmental protection and pollution control officer, became Nigeria’s second university educated Head of Government, was sworn in again on May 29, 2011 for a full four year term, as the President of Nigeria following his victory in the April 2011 Presidential elections.
Good luck Jonathan is the third President of Nigeria’s Fourth Republic and the Fourteenth Head of Government in about 40 years. He had been the President of Nigeria from May 6, 2010 to May 28, 2011 after the death of President Umaru Yar’Adua on May 5, 2010 and is a member of the ruling People’s Democratic Party (PDP).
He was vice-president of Nigeria from May 2007 until February 9, 2011 invoked the doctrine of necessity to empower him to serve as Acting President, with all the accompanying powers, due to President Yar’Adua’s prolonged absence from Nigeria. On January 13, 2010, a Federal High Court in Nigeria had handed him the power to run the affairs of the Presidency while President Yar’Adua died on May 5, 2010 and Good luck Jonathan was sworn in as President of Nigeria on May 6, 2010 becoming Nigeria’s Fourteenth Head of State, as mandated by the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Nigeria is one of the largest countries in West Africa. Apparently because of its natural endowment with many resources such as mineral, coal, food and the most profound “Crude oil”. It is also rich in population, gifted with talents in all ramification of life i.e. entertainment (music and arts), sports and so on.
To this regard, if Nigeria must join the 20 largest economies by 2020 AD, her leaders and followers must demonstrate certain capabilities. There have been concerted efforts made by the President and all his cabinet members towards the enhancement of a good leadership and administration, but our leaders must develop new visions and new strategies: must summon new forms of determination and political will: and demonstrate higher levels of patriotism, hard work, selflessness and responsiveness to the challenges facing them.
However, there is a great need for “national development” and in respect to this; the leadership must have a collective vision of the future or its goal; and the path to the achievement of these goals. It must always carry the people along. Nigeria is still posed with challenges like “Ethnicism”. This is higher in the multi-national states in which our country is an example. There is need to reconcile the demands of various ethnic groups, build bridges across religions and gender, and establish a legitimate basis for new forms of Nationalism.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Unlike most advanced countries, Nigeria has struggled to have a constructive political system that provides total freedom from condemnation and imperialism.
In spite of the energy and curiosity, directed towards liberation of the country from decadence and impoverishment; it is evident that the people of Nigeria are still undergoing or witnessing various kinds of economic and socio-political crises that arise from bad governance/leadership which upon time had jeopardized sustainable development in the region.
To this regard, he problems and causes of poor leadership is specified as follows:
- Corruption, greed, insensitivity and lack of human face from the leaders.
- Shortage of skilled personnel in certain key areas.
- Non challant attitude of government toward the development of science and technology.
- Poor funding of researches.
- Lack of modern medical and health facilities.
The above mentioned points are the causes of the problems the nation is posed with due to poor leadership and administration. Its effect on National Development is apparently negative.
The effects (negative are as follows:
- High rate of poverty, diseases and illiteracy.
- Bad road network, inter-tribal and religious conflict.
- Electoral fraud, rigging assault and political upheaval
- Insecurity if the lives and investments of both the citizens and foreign investors etc.
1.3 Objective of the Study
From all that has been said and written above, it is the purpose of the study to take a closer look on the effects of good leadership and administration in national development; particularly in Nigeria. The following form the basis of this research study.
- To examine the effects of good leadership and administration in national development.
- To investigate the effect of bad leadership in national development.
- To provide/proffer solutions for positive change.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The project topic “The effects of good leadership and administration in National Development” is a broad subject which can take an intellectual toll on the writer as well as the reader.
For our purposes, the scope has been limited to our country Nigeria, using the present administration of President Good luck Ebele Jonathan (GEJ) as a case study.
1.5 Research Question
- Is there any effect of good leadership in National Development?
- Is there any effect of bad leadership in National Development?
- What are the solutions for positive change?
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work is of great relevance to the society at large. This is applicable to the government, the readers of this research work and to the researcher.
“A problem shared they say is a problem half solved”.
The benefit of this research work to the government is that by the end of the research, the weak-points and short – comings of all the sectors of the nation would be pinpointed and displayed based on findings, thus proffering reliable solutions and measures to be taken, so as to attain the lofty height of good administration and National Development.
The benefit of this research work to the readers is that hopefully at the time they are done with the reading of the work, they will be upgraded intellectually and also will be highly informed of the up and doings of the current administration, including the weaknesses, strengths, success and achievement of both the past and present administration.
“Knowledge they say is power”. Hence, this research work will serve as an eye opener, which will give the readers insight on how to participate and also partake in the political affairs of the country geared towards the achievement of national development.
Finally, this research work will to a large extent, widen my scope of knowledge, especially in my course of study “Public Administration”. It will help me become a better administrator, with good leadership qualities if applied, knowing what leadership style to adopt and apply as a potential leader.
1.7 Definition of Terms
It is defined generally as the art of influencing people that they get to strive willingly towards the achievement of a certain set goals. It was the former President Eisenhower of the United States who once defined leadership as the “Ability to decide what is to be done and then to get others to want to do it”.
This is the direction, co-ordination and control of many persons to achieve some purpose or objective. Pfeiffer and Presthus defined it as “The organization and direction of both human and material resources to achieve desired ends. Balogun (1983) equally defines administration as “any action that is directed to the analysis of policies, identification of opinions and to a substantial degree, the implementation of programmes as well as efficient allocation of resources in addition to all these calculated decisions.
This is the ability of a country or countries to improve the social welfare of the people e.g. by providing social amenities like quality education, potable water, transportation, infrastructure, medical care etc.
This refers to a change process geared at improving or making better the life and environment of man.
This is the end towards which activities are aimed.
This refers to the extent to which output is in line with organizational goals.
This is defined as fitness of or power to accomplish the purpose intended, it also describes the relationship between resources consumed in the process of generating effectiveness output and output so produced.
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
The findings indicate;
- That the present administration have had its fair share of limitations rising from the standards that had been set by the laws and policies of long gone administration.
- That there is high rate of injustice in Nigeria i.e. No punishment for rule breakers. No reward for those who have done good works.
- That the Government’s effort bring up National development in Nigeria has not been very effective due to the level of corruption, political instability, crisis etc.
- That Nigerians do not have a good image and profile especially outside the country and that’s the major reason why we experience delay in the embassy once the green passport is seen.
- That technological underdevelopment is also a major factor that brings about stagnancy in the process of development.
- That the present government has good intentions for the country but is been set back by some obvious challenges as portrayed in the research work.
- That Nigeria with all her efforts has not successfully attained a very good leadership with National Development.
For the purpose pf this research work, the government in their bid to develop the country should extend their plans to the rural communities, that part of the country seen to have been forgotten. We have poor people who depend on farming, and other agricultural means to obtain their livelihood.
Researchers have also shown that most of our citizens in diaspora are not well taken care of. They die in foreign countries with or without any critical offenses committed. African diplomats often condemn their citizens even without taking any serious measure to ascertain what truly happened. Some even fail to intervene as at when due. But unfortunately, most advanced society usually protects the interest of their citizens whether at home or while abroad. This is not the case in Nigeria and thus, it tends to affect the patriotic tendency in the people toward their respective countries.
Furthermore, the problems of poor leadership comes from the various spheres in the country, which is the religious sphere, educational sphere, political and economic sphere. The government should make every effort to reach out to these sectors as the success of the country lies in them.
International organization like the United Nations Agency should ensure that at National level, their programme which is aimed at ensuring freer, fairer and more credible elections is well structured and maintained. This is because Nigeria’s under development is also caused by Misrule, political instability, mismanagement, misappropriation of public funds, official and unofficial corruption, plundering and neglect of the citizenry. The point I am trying to buttress here is that our country needs to be rescued from the hand of selfish and misguided leadership.
Finally, the solution to the problem of bad leadership could only be resolved through conscious effort on the part of the government and the governed. All clauses that give room to exploitation, corruption and domination should be amended in our constitution. In fact the government should stop compensating their political loyalties with certain key positions that requires expertise, adequate skills and economic technicalities. More so, Nigerian leaders should stop paying lip-service to the problem of corruption and poverty alleviation. For lasting solution to be sustained, the people’s constitution must not only sleek to address issue of security, human rights and economic needs at home. It must also strive to take into cognizance those factors leading to insecurity. Hence, protecting human right, fighting against Aids and terrorism. But most importantly, the people should support the government when she has undertaken the task to provide the enabling environment for economic and social development.
In conclusion, it is vital to remark that leadership is a two way thing. It is not just the leader, but also involves the ones who are being led. All fingers should not be pointed forward to the government alone but back to ourselves, the citizens. “Edwin Biayeibo – wisdom4winning in his speech said that the two major factors a country needs to grow and move forward is “Righteousness (doing things the right way) and Justice (punishing evil and rewarding good). All efforts made by the government will prove abortive if we don’t play our part; obeying the law, respecting leadership, embracing patriotism, stop the fighting amongst us due to religion and ethnicism, standing against injustice and so on.
However, the research work do not connote that all those in government are corrupt, nor does it mean that they lack the required leadership qualities, rather, it is an eye opener that corruption and bad leadership could not lead to any meaningful change. Hence drastic measures should be taken by all and sundry in tackling the political turmoil.
5.4 Limitation of the Study
The problems encountered during this research include:
Some of the institutions who had relevant materials in their possession would not allow the researcher to photocopy the available materials out of their library. So a lot of time was wasted going to the library to draft out information needed. There were also financial constraints but despite all this, the researcher did her possible best to ensure that the research is successful.
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