Effects Of Drill And Practice On The Academic Achievement Of Students In English Language In Junior Secondary School

Project and Seminar Material for English Language

Effects Of Drill And Practice On The Academic Achievement Of Students In English Language In Junior Secondary School


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language in some selected Junior Secondary Schools In Epe Local Government Lagos State. The study was carried out to determine whether drilling technique contributes to the effective teaching and learning of English Language in Junior secondary school, ascertain whether drilling and practice enhances students comprehension of English Language, find out whether the use of drilling and practice improves students fluency in English Language, and ascertain whether drilling and practice influences students academic achievement in English Language. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of English Language teachers and students. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23.The result of the findings reveals that drilling technique contributes to the effective teaching and learning of English Language in Junior secondary school. The study also revealed that drilling and practice influences students academic achievement in English Language. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers of English Language in Lagos State should adopt the use of the Drill and practice to teach English Language. Curriculum planners such as Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) should consider review of curriculum for English Language for secondary schools with a view to incorporating the Drill and practice. To mention but a few.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Theoretical Review
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

  • Research Methodology
  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four

Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study:

English language becomes the most important language to learn for communication. Therefore, mastering English can help people ready to face global competition. In most Africa, English language has been taught as one of the compulsory subjects for students and it may be the necessary to pass an examination in English to enter a university. As Haycraft (2008) states, there are various skills in mastering of language: listening (understanding the spoken language), reading (understanding the written language), speaking and writing. Hence to support the mastery of the four language skills the students have to learn vocabulary first before understanding other skills.
In the opinion of Mark(2010), the mastering of English is on the premise of obtain its vocabulary proficiency. In line with this, Richard and Renandya (2002), stated that vocabulary is a core component of English language proficiency and provides much basis of how the learners speak, listen, read, and write well. As a foreign language, learning English grammar, and vocabulary mastery is very important to support other English language skills, especially for students of secondary school. However, many students do not seem to find themselves comfortable with the foreign language in the classroom. They think that English is a hard subject to study because their limited vocabulary and poor knowledge or mastery of the language component. The problems make them difficult to understand the English Language, and consequently results to poor performance in the subject.

One of the reasons for the students’ low English mastery is the teachers tend to rely on conventional method which does not challenge the students to learn independently. Language learning strategies, such as the drilling technique will be able to help the limited learners in pronunciation, writing, vocabulary skill. At least by doing the drill and practice, students are able to acquire comprehensive knowledge of English Language. In addition, Suziaky(2013) posited that drill is a technique, especially known as teacher-fronted technique, which engages the learners and enable learners to rote the structure or patterns of the language. The use of drill in teaching and learning of English Language helps to train the learners to talk using the particular patterns of structures. Drills are used to teach sentence pronunciation, stress, intonation etc.

Thornbury (2007) has presented a sequence of drill for teaching English. They are repetition drill, imitation drill, substitution drill etc. According to him drilling is one of the easiest techniques to learn. It is also an economical way of practicing English language; it has wide applicability in that almost anything can be drilled. Drills are traditionally associated with accuracy practice and typically follow close on the heels.The another purpose drills may serve is to help atomization of English language chunks. In this sense, they are really a form of fluency practice since they help the students to store the language as memorized chunks, which are more speedily and more easily accessed than grammar rules. In the light of the above, this study seeks to assess and examine the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language.


1.2 Statement of the Problem:

Learning outcome of every student majorly depends on the type of teaching methods, teaching strategies, and instructional techniques or approaches employed by the teacher during instruction. Traditional teaching methods such as lecture, demonstration and field trip adopted for teaching English Language in Junior secondary school by teachers are often referred to as conventional teaching method termed to be teacher centered instead of students centered, and inversely influences the performance of students in English learning. However, the use of drilling is one of the teaching methods used in improving students language skill. According to Lamsal (2011), drilling is a method applied in teaching English language in order to teach the students to speak/write by using the structure of English language. Drilling method is the process of listening to a teacher, a tape, or audio, and then the students repeat what they heard especially the pronunciation of the words. The teacher says the word or new vocabulary and the students repeat what the teacher says.

In addition, drilling method brings some significant advantages especially in language learning. Lamsal (2011), argued that drilling is used to teach sentence pronunciation, stress and intonation. Asih (2007), mentioned that drilling helps the students to pronounce the words clearly in English learning. Moreso, Khetaguri and Albay (2016) argued the implementation of drilling method gives some contributions to students’ English fluency and communication. However, there are some challenges in using drilling for teaching and learning English Language. The students are easier to forget the words because they just memorize them rather than understand the meaning. According to Asih (2007), the weakness of drilling is that drilling concerns more to practice the pronunciation than analyse the meaning of the words or sentence moreover sometimes the exercise becomes unattractive or monotonous. So the students can speak only on the scope of the vocabulary that is being trained. Based on the above, this study is focused on investigating the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language.


1.3 Objectives of the Problem

Generally, this study aims at examining the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language.

The study will however, be guided by the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine whether drilling technique contributes to the effective teaching and learning of English Language in Junior secondary school.
  2. Ascertain whether drilling and practice enhances students comprehension of English Language.
  3. Find out whether the use of drilling and practice improves students fluency in English Language.
  4. Ascertain whether drilling and practice influences students academic achievement in English Language.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions.

  1. Does drilling technique contributes to the effective teaching and learning of English Language in Junior secondary school?
  2. Does drilling and practice enhances students comprehension of English Language?
  3. Does the use of drilling and practice improves students fluency in English Language?
  4. Does drilling and practice influences students academic achievement in English Language?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: There is a significant Relationship between drilling and practice and students academic achievement in English Language.

Ha: There is a significant Relationship between drilling and practice and students academic achievement in English Language.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study cannot be under-tuned as it will be invaluable to students, teachers, policy makers etc.
To the students, the findings will help to improve students’ participation and interest in the class room activities. There will be improvement in students’ achievements and interest through the use of drill and practice in teaching English Language. The findings this study will enlighten the teachers on the need to use student centered techniques such as drills in teaching English Language. The result will be of immense benefit to the English Language curriculum developers because they will find it valuable especially in the provision of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of drill and practice in the teaching of English Language.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured but delimited to the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language. The study will be delimited to some selected Junior Secondary Schools In Epe Local Government Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms:

Drill:

Is a classroom technique used to practise new language. It involves the teacher modelling a word or a sentence and the learners repeating it.

Practice:

Is the act of rehearsing a behaviour over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it.

Teaching Methods:

It refers to the general principle, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction.

Conventional Method:

Is concerned with the teacher being the controller of the learning environment. Power and responsibility are held by the teacher and they play the role of instructor (in the form of lectures) and decision maker (in regards to curriculum content and specific outcomes).


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language in some selected Junior Secondary Schools In Epe Local Government Lagos Stateas a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effect of drill and practice on the academic achievement of students in English language in some selected Junior Secondary Schools In Epe Local Government Lagos Stateas a case study. The study is was specifically set to determine whether drilling technique contributes to the effective teaching and learning of English Language in Junior secondary school, ascertain whether drilling and practice enhances students comprehension of English Language, find out whether the use of drilling and practice improves students fluency in English Language, and ascertain whether drilling and practice influences students academic achievement in English Language.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are English Language teachers and students.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Drilling technique contributes to the effective teaching and learning of English Language in Junior secondary school.
  2. Drilling and practice enhances students comprehension of English Language.
  3. The use of drilling and practice improves students fluency in English Language.
  4. Drilling and practice influences students academic achievement in English Language.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Teachers of English Language in Lagos State should adopt the use of the Drill and practice to teach English Language.
  2. Curriculum planners such as Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) should consider review of curriculum for English Language for secondary schools with a view to incorporating the Drill and practice.
  3. The teachers should make a lesson plan for each material teaching students because it is very helpful in teaching learning process and the teacher should be creative to find the way of how to teach speaking using effective technique.
  4. The teachers should give motivation and explanation to the learners about the importance of speaking in English communication or universal communication.
  5. The students should be active in teaching learning process especially for speaking ability because speaking is important in English communication.
  6. The students should be practiced to speak individually or in group to increase their vocabulary and their pronunciation.

Effects Of Drill And Practice On The Academic Achievement Of Students In English Language In Junior Secondary School


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