Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children’s Academic Performance (A Study Of Selected Schools In XXX LGA Of Lagos State)
This study was carried out to examine the effects of domestic violence on children’s academic performance in Lagos state using some selected secondary schools in Badagry Lagos state as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students and teachers of selected secondary schools in Badagry Lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is high prevalence of domestic violence against students in Lagos State. The study also reveals that physical abuse influences student’s academic performance. Further findings showed that psychological abuse influences student’s academic performance. Therefore, it is recommended that both parents and educators should watch out for signs and symptoms of abuse emanating from Domestic Violence. Early intervention by school counsellors and/or psychologists, in the form of guidance and counselling, is a necessity to help learners cope with effects of Domestic Violence. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Domestic violence is assuming national and international attention (Amnesty International 1995). It is a type of violence that is prevalent in many homes, and the World over. It is a form of violence that occurs in the form of defilement, assault, sexual harassment, and rape or battering, child abuse, for example denial of right, necessities and opportunities, threatening patterns of communication such as insults, harassment, neglectful lack of action.
Traditionally, in Nigeria, as in many other African countries, the beating of wives and children is widely sanctioned as a form of discipline (UNICEF, 2001). Therefore, in beating their children, parents believe they are instilling discipline in them, much the same way as in husbands beating their wives, who are regarded like children to be prone to indiscipline which must be curbed. This is especially so when the woman is economically dependent on the man. The society is basically patriarchal and women’s place within the scheme is decidedly subordinate. Domestic violence therefore functions as a means of enforcing conformity with the role of a woman within customary society. It therefore does not matter if the woman is economically dependent or not, her position, like that of the children is subordinate. Violence against women in the home is generally regarded as belonging to the private sphere in Nigeria and is therefore shielded from outside scrutiny. A culture of silence reinforces the stigma attached to the victim rather than condemning the perpetrator of such crimes (afrolNews, 2007).
Project alert (2001), in a survey on violence against women conducted interviews with women working in the markets and other places of work and girls and young women in secondary schools and universities, in Lagos state, Nigeria. 64.4% of 45 women interviewed in the work place said they had been beaten by a partner (boyfriend or husband), 56.6% of 48 interviewed market woman admitted experiencing such violence. Similar interviews carried out in Oyo state and other parts of Nigeria, yielded similar results. The incidence of domestic violence is high. In a study carried out by Obi and Ozumba (2007), on the factors associated with domestic violence, in South East, Nigeria, 70% of respondents reported abuse in their family with 92% of the victims being female partners and the remaining 8% being male. The common forms of abuse reported were shouting at a partner (93%), slapping or pushing (77%) and punching and kicking (40%). It is however disturbing to note that many women do not know if they had been abused or not (afrolNews, 2007). This could be due to the acceptance of some abusive behaviour as ‘normal’. Oyediran and Isugo, (2005), in a study of women’s perception of wife-beating in Nigeria, found that 64.4% and 50.4% of ever married and unmarried women, respectively, expressed consent for wife beating. Reports in the print and electronic media reveal vicious attacks on women by intimate partners in different forms such as ‘acid bath’, rape, beatings, some of which sometimes result in the death of the victim. Many victims do not report for fear of reprisal from abusers or the belief that the police and the judicial system cannot help. The police are also reported to frequently dismiss complaints of domestic violence as a ‘private matter’. According to Cusack et al (1999), most forms of violence inflicted upon women and children in Ghana by persons known to them or in some cases by strangers are considered a “private matter” and given no name or value. In everyday life, we see our relationships in a variety of circumstances. According to Cussack et al (1999), violence is a forceful way of getting something from someone. It is also living with someone and being forced to do things you do not understand and things that hurt. Violence refers to those actions that have a harmful physical (intentional infliction of pain on an individual) or mental effect (forced to do things that cause displeasure) on the individual.
Domestic violence has had a severe effect on students‟ life and academic performance. Stanley (2011) says that children who are affected by domestic violence experience both immediate and long term effects. These effects of domestic violence may vary from one student to the other. These effects include anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, disobedience, nightmares and physical health deterioration. These effects have a negative impact on the academic performance of students. Domestic violence refers to violence against a person, or a threat of violence or imminent danger by someone who that person is in or has been in a domestic relationship with (Raphaela, 2015).Berns (2010) asserts that domestic violence interferes with students‟ ability to function in school and thus, leads to a decline in their academic performance. Majority of children who witness domestic violence carry over this exposure to their school life and exhibit a range of disruptive behavioral problems like increased aggression, social anxieties and difficulties in concentrating. According to Berns (2010), more than half of the school aged children in domestic violence shelters show clinical levels of anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. Without treatment, these children exhibit risks for delinquency, truancy, school dropouts and difficulties in their own relationships. These children may become withdrawn, non-verbal and exhibit regression behavior such as clinging, whining, eating, sleeping difficulties and concentration problems.
Wilkins (2008) notes that children often imitate behaviors that they witness. Generational transfer of violent behaviors and emotional dependency on another is common. Thus, children learn that violence is an acceptable behavior and an integral part of intimate relationships. As a result, these children may end up becoming abusive or domineering adults who seek to control relationships and may perceive violence as normal part of intimate relationships. Children raised in an abusive environment do not understand that this is a problem between adults. They learn that family violence is acceptable and it is okay to be loved and hurt at the same time. Raphaela (2015) observed that children who witnessdomestic violence are likely to engage in fighting, disobedience and feel reluctant in doing school work. All these undesirable behaviors may have a negative impact on the academic performance of students. Aihie (2009) also observed that witnessing abuse and living in an environment where someone else, usually a care giver is a victim of abuse can be psychologically devastating to a child. From the above, this study aims at examining the effects of domestic violence on children’s academic performance in Lagos state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Interaction with some teachers in schools in Lagos state reveals a growing trend towards violence and brutality towards pupils from their parents and homes. Often this violence plays out in other forms towards fellow pupils. In 2004, for instance a fourteen year old JSS student was arrested for raping another classmate. Further investigation revealed that the perpetrator of this crime had suffered domestic violence. Families are pre-occupied with the pressures of daily living to the extent that some homes are witnessing indiscipline among pupils. In one of the Nigerian Daily Papers in 2012, a fifteen year old JSS student was reported to have beaten his father mercilessly to an unconscious stage for failing to pay his school fees. The propensity for pupils to be violent is also in part influenced by the domestic ecology. From preliminary discussion with some teachers within selected schools within Lagos state, it was noted by these researchers that some pupils had the tendency of acting out violently, showing disrespect to teachers and often using abusive words. While many of the schools apparently had systems in place to respond to these behaviours, aspect of these behaviours of pupils seems to have been condoned in some cases by the same parents.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the effects of domestic violence on children’s academic performance in Lagos state. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Ascertain the prevalence of domestic violence against students in Lagos State.
- Determine whether physical abuse influences student’s academic performance.
- Determine whether psychological abuse influences student’s academic performance.
- Determine whether sexual abuse influences student’s academic performance.
1.4 Research Question
The following questions are formulated inline with the study objectives;
- What is the prevalence of domestic violence against students in Lagos State?
- Does physical abuse influence student’s academic performance?
- Does psychological abuse influence student’s academic performance?
- Does sexual abuse influence student’s academic performance?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0: Domestic violence do not have a significant effect on students academic performance.
H1: Domestic violence has a significant effect on students academic performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The problem of domestic violence is a national issue, and may not be limited to the area in which the study was carried out. The study among others will bring home to policy markers on the need to implement all kinds of laws relating to the rights of children especially those relating to violence emanating from the home. Again the study will bring to the knowledge of those adults who take the law into their own hands and inflict violent acts on children to be careful of the repercussion of their actions on the life of the adolescent. Finally, the study will create awareness among, opinion leaders and educational authority on the effects of domestic violence on the child and its implications to the Nigerian Society.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the effects of domestic violence on students academic performance. The study borders on how physical abuse, psychological abuse and sexual abuse, affected the academic performance ofstudents. The respondents for this study will be obtained from selected public secondary schools in Badagry, Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definitions of Terms
Activities carried out within the house.
This implies the period of severe difficulty or danger.
(3) Academic Performance:
The outcome of education or the extent to which a student has achieved his/her educational goals.
It is the outcome of a particular event.
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of domestic violence on children’s academic performance in Lagos state using some selected secondary schools in Badagry Lagos state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effects of domestic violence on children’s academic performance in Lagos state using some selected secondary schools in Badagry Lagos state as a case study. The study is was specifically set to ascertain the prevalence of domestic violence against students in Lagos State, determine whether physical abuse influences student’s academic performance, determine whether psychological abuse influences student’s academic performance, and determine whether sexual abuse influences student’s academic performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students and teachers of selected secondary schools in Badagry Lagos state.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- There is high prevalence of domestic violence against students in Lagos State.
- Physical abuse influences student’s academic performance.
- Psychological abuse influences student’s academic performance.
- Sexual abuse influences student’s academic performance.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The cognitive capacity of a learner`s mind (i.e. the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration) is functional when home is peaceful. Therefore, parents should try and iron out differences amicably without causing direct or indirect harm to the helpless minor/child/learner.
- Both parents and educators should watch out for signs and symptoms of abuse emanating from Domestic Violence. Early intervention by school counsellors and/or psychologists, in the form of guidance and counselling, is a necessity to help learners cope with effects of Domestic Violence.
- The teacher and the school counsellor as well as parents should provide a caring, compassionate, supportive environment for the school child and to rebuild trust that has probably been destroyed by the abuser.
- Teachers should allow learners to express their feelings in the best way possible, for example, through writing, painting, and toy usage.
- Members of the community should inform the Police about Domestic Violence cases as a means of safeguarding children in dysfunctional homes. Perpetrators of emotional abuse should be reprimanded or should be put to book early before they cause more harm.
- Teachers, school counsellors and parents should know their limitations and Obligations in handling issues of abuse. They are required legally to report suspected and eye witnessed abuse and victimization to the law enforcers.
- The Ministry of Education and Sports should provide every school with at least counsellors or para-counsellors to encourage children discuss their personal problems in confidence.
- Government should create awareness on the harmful effects of domestic violence especially on the children academic performance.
- The NGOs who advocate for the women and children’s rights should go to the grassroots where the actual problems lie and sensitize the family on the effects of domestic violence.
- Both perpetrators and victims need counselling.
- Love, trust, tolerance and faithfulness should run through family life.
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