Effects Of Domestic Violence On Child Mental Health

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Effects Of Domestic Violence On Child Mental Health


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine effects of domestic violence on child mental health using Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State as case study. Specifically, the study examined how the psychology of a child is impacted upon by domestic violence in the family, investigate the various forms of domestic violence women experience, and examine the academic consequences of domestic violence against women on a child. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 1000 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that the major people that experience domestic violence is women and that women are frequently abused domestically in the society. Also, various domestic violence against women are sexual abuse, physical abuse, verbal abuse, and emotional abuse. Furthermore, the tested hypotheses using Pearson Correlation Analysis show that there is a significant relationship between domestic violence and child’s negative psychological change (.922**). Also, that there is a significant relationship between domestic violence and child’s poor academic performance (.899**). The study recommend educating people about family responsibility, as way of eradicating domestic violence among families.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Domestic violence is globally described by various scholars, academicians and professionals in human development as a stern social problem, and to say the least, a human rights violation. Recent debate on domestic violence explains the significant influence it has on children’s mental health. Research over the years creates more awareness about the ordeal of children induced by family violence [McIntosh, 2009]. Nevertheless, the main problems identifies in domestic violence literatures is how to connect the vulnerable young children with the probable inter-spousal trauma that disrupt their neurological and biochemical pathways in development (Dodd, 2009, Kershaw et al 2008, Barnish, 2004, McGee 1997, Humphreys, 2006,).

Moreover, literature confirms the existing relationships between exposure to domestic violence (DV) and children’s development. For example, the British Psychological Society (BPS 2007) states that witness domestic violence at home will impact negatively on children quality of life. Besides, it is also establish that community offers limited support to tackle the problem of domestic violence. This is due to the increase in traditional and social cultural factors that mitigate such aggressive behavior. The term “domestic violence” is generally denotes as intimate conditions in which any of the partners in a household abused or abusing the other partner psychologically or physically. This situation is not limit to only one sex partner in a household but associates with both men and women living together in the same household (Holt, Buckley &Whelan, 2008). Moreover, domestic violence is a gender oriented and it creates social and public health issues that cut across nations, cultures religion and class (McIntosh, 2002, Dodd, 2009, UNIFEM 2007, Mooney 2000) and at the same time it is associates with particular cultural cum tribal communities, or restricted to a group in the society. While it is widely agree that intimate partner violence demonstrates a social problem that cut across nation, race, culture, ethnic groups and traditions, the recent challenges poses by its occurrence increases the interest and awareness that emanates from children exposure to DV. This deepened the observed awareness about its implication and influence on vulnerable young children (Hague & Mullender, 2006; Hazen, Connolly, Kelleher, Barth, & Landsverk, 2006).

Earlier research shows that children living in a domestic violence environment are prone to violent, frighten and other antisocial behavior. It is also establish that children living in hostile environment displayed low-level of social capability, and learning outcomes in school (Kitzmann, Gaylord, Holt & Kenny, 2003; Wolfe, Crooks, Lee McIntyre-Smith & Jaffe, 2003, Edleson & Nissley, 2011). Therefore, domestic violence encompasses all social, economic, religious and ethnic groups in the society (McIntosh, 2002, Dodd, 2009). Despite this evidence reports confirms that families from low socioeconomic background are the most affected compare to those from high socioeconomic background.

Furthermore, research suggests that growing in a hostile and unfriendly environment impact on children emotional, physical, and social development. Therefore children experiencing or associating with domestic violence develops service needs that correlates with their safety and impact on their mental, physical, and cognitive development. Dodd (2009), maintains that children raise in a domestic violence environment experiences poor socio-cognitive development in life .This influence their emotional, social, behavioral and intellectual development (Lazenbatt et al, 2009). The exposure of young people to DV results to high aggressiveness, anxiety, and changes in their social skills particularly, how they relate with friends, family, and authorities. Research also linked repression, and self-worth problems to children harrowing experiences. This shows that children experiencing DV develops social-cognitive problems, as well as poor problem-solving skills. Sadeler, (1994) suggests a correlation between the following experiences: ill-treatment; lack of care in childhood; committing partner violence; and sexual abuse in later life. He maintains that the perpetrator of violence deliberately mistreat the mother, while the youngster is present watching the scenario. This causes a ripple effect that will not only hurt the mother but also the child witnessing the dangerous situation, Damant, et al, (2010).

Also, research confirms a significant relationship between children witnessing mother assault and exhibiting signs of post-traumatic stress disorder, (PTSD) (Lehmann et al, 1995). Similarly, a body of research establishes a strong link amongst children experiencing domestic violence, i.e. menace of mental health difficulties, genetic transmitted of spousal violence in adulthood, and value of parental dealings that creates child’s conduct difficulties (Capaldi & Clark, 1998; Ehrensaft et al., 2003; Osofsky, 2003). This experience promotes high aggressiveness, rebellious, poor social adjustment and other internalizing conduct problems (e.g., Darby, Allan, Kashani, Hartke, & Reid, 1998; Edleson, 1999; Kitzmann, Gaylord, Holt, & Kenny, 2003). A body of research also highlight high important correlation between child abuse, in direct family violence exposure, community violence experience and various psychological problems, such as despair, worry, low self-confidence, substance misuse and dependency (Edleson, 1999; Lynch, 2003; Margolin & Gordis, 2004; Martinez & Richters, 1993). This contact requires psycho-social support and intervention from professionals working with children. The support will motivate and help them to engage in socio-cognitive activities such as working through their ordeal, develop good judgment of situation, understanding the situational factors, assessing their safety issues, discover and learn how to relate with the innocuous people in their environment. Also, it will increase competency and self-belief in their ability and environment (Straus & Gelles, 1990; Graham-Bermann, Lynch, Banyard, Devoe, &Halabu, 2007).

Furthermore, study reveals that children experience domestic violence and receives limited support and coöperation displays high severe maladjustment and developmental delay. Although research established that both male and female are the perpetrator of violence (Mirrlees-Black, 1999; Morse, 1995), recent documents suggests that the idea of evenness in domestic violence is debatable. Research maintains that menfolk are more probable of engaging in domestic violence than womenfolk. Similarly, Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000; Walbyand Allen, 2004; and Watson and Parsons, 2005, reports that the number of reported violent against the womenfolk definitely exceeds men. Studies also suggests that the implication of abuse both psychologically and physically is more pronounced among womenfolk than menfolk, (Walby & Allen, 2004; Watson & Parsons, 2005; Women’s Aid & and the Child and Women Abuse Studies Unit, London, 2001). Research also shows that womenfolk are definitely at higher risk of severe and fatal abuse of their spouse than the menfolk are in danger of abuse from their spouse (Campbell, Sharps, &Glass, 2001; Jaffe, Lemon, & Poisson, 2003; Walby & Myhill, 2001; World Health Organization, 2002). These findings heaved serious concerns on the issue of safety for young children witnessing violence (Edleson et al., 2003).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The recent evidence of adults experiencing domestic violence shows that the study is well documented and remains an issue of public concern. (Eldeson, et al 2006, Fantuzzo & MOHR, 1999, Jouriles, Northwood, McDonald, Vincent& Mahoney, 1996, Kitzman Gaylord, Hott & Kenny, 2003, Margolin & Gordis, 2004) Research establishes that little effort is directed on youngsters witnessing DV particularly in Sub Sahara Africa. Similarly, studies show that most of the research work on DV is concentrated on fierceness against women. Thus, the occurrence of DV continues to raise global concern about its implication on health and wellbeing of children and family

Although the subject drew people’s attention on the precarious situation it left the victims, particularly the vulnerable young children the needs to address the perilous situation before it causes more damage to the society is required. While the issue was clouded in obscurity, recent development calls for urgent attention from policy makers and researchers. Besides, research on the subject illustrates more on system responses and mostly targeting adult’s victims of abuse, thus gives limited or no devotion to children who are targets of domestic violence. As a result, this study will discuss this gap and shed light on how to minimize the psycho-social implication of such experience on the lives of salient victims in the society. Due to the complexity and difficulty associated with the subject, there is a need for high increase in research literature that observes the child development problems connected with domestic violence.


1.3 Objectives of Study

The primary objective of this study is to investigate into the effects of domestic violence on child mental health. Specifically, to:

  1. Assess how the psychology of a child is impacted upon by domestic violence in the family.
  2. Investigate the various forms of domestic violence.
  3. Examine the academic consequences of domestic violence against women on a child.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions guide the study:

  1. What are the psychological impact of domestic violence on a child mental health?
  2. What are the various forms of domestic violence women experience?
  3. How has domestic violence against women affected the academic performance of a child?

1.5 Hypotheses

The study developed for testing the following null hypotheses:

  • H01: There is no significant relationship between domestic violence and child’s negative psychological change.
  • H02: There is no significant relationship between domestic violence and child’s poor academic performance.

1.6 Significance

This study investigate into domestic violence against women and its impact on children’s development on domestic violence against women on children’s development will bring to the notice of the populace the various forms of domestic violence women are exposed to in the society. The study will also help both governmental and non-governmental organizations to identify these abused families and children, develop strategies to combat domestic violence, and encourage socially inclusive intervention mechanisms in poor neighborhoods. The study will also be of immense benefit to the policy makers to make laws that will prevent such abuses on women and provide a stiff punishment for victims who abuse women. The study further will serve as a reference material to scholars, researcher and students who may carry out further research in this topic or related domain.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on investigating into effects of domestic violence on child mental health. It accessed how the psychology of a child is impacted upon by domestic violence in the family, the various forms of domestic violence and the mental health consequences of domestic violence on a child.The residents of Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State will be used as the focus of the study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Concepts

Violence:

Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy.

Domestic Violence:

Domestic violence is violence or other abuse in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.

Impact:

The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.

Child Abuse:

This consists of anything, which individuals, institutions or processes do or fail to do which directly or indirectly harms children or damages their prospects of safe and healthy development into adulthood.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to carry out a critical analysis on the effects of domestic violence on child mental health using Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State as case study. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining how the psychology of a child is impacted upon by domestic violence in the family, investigate the various forms of domestic violence women experience, and examine the academic consequences of domestic violence against women on a child.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 1000 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are residents of Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State.

The findings from the analysis revealed that all the respondents are fully aware of the term domestic violence and its meaning. This was shown in table 4.2. table 4.3 shows that the major people that experience domestic violence is women. Majority of the respondents view in table 4.4 shows that women are frequently abused domestically in the society. Also, in table 4.5, the various domestic violence against women are sexual abuse, physical abuse, verbal abuse, and emotional abuse. This was confirmed from the responses of all the respondents consenting to them. Table 4.6 analysis shows that domestic violence against women has a negative influence on a child’s development.

Also, psychological effect, emotional effect, behavioural effect, mental effect and social effect were the various ways domestic violence against women in the family affect the child’s development. This was validated in the analysis in table 4.7. furthermore, table 4.8, 4.9 and 4.9 shows that domestic violence affects a child’s academic performance and has a psychological effect on them by increasing aggressiveness in the child, causing anxiety, creating fear and timidity in the child. Also lack of concentration in school, dropping out of school, playing truancy in school and lateness to school are among the various ways domestic violence against women affect the academic performance of a child.

The tested hypotheses using Pearson Correlation Analysis show that there is a significant relationship between domestic violence and child’s negative psychological change (.922**). Also, that there is a significant relationship between domestic violence and child’s poor academic performance (.899**).


5.2 Conclusion

Violence against women is a fundamental and human right issue. It carries with it both short- and long-term implication on peace and security of Nigeria because it affects women’s physical and psychological wellbeing. This is because development will make little sense if the population of women is excluded from participating, contributing and reaping its benefits. That is exactly what happens when violence – together with harmful gender norms and discriminatory legislation prevents women from being full partners in development projects.

Better job opportunities and female empowerment through education can reduce the risk of violence. However, in order for peace and security and the targets of the MDGs to be realized in the Nigerian communities, comprehensive approaches to peaceful coexistence that reduces gender inequality and violence against women must be developed and implemented. Women cannot take their rightful place in the power structure of Nigeria until the cultural attitudes and socialization practices are overcome by women themselves.

The inferiorization and demonization of women that they lack the will and self-esteem to actually seek and gain power must be overcome by a broader informal and formal education system. Educational levels of women must improve. Illiteracy, the bane of the majority of women, must be battled. Harmful traditional practices militating against women having the time and space to do politics must be stopped. Women on their own must respond to these, by speaking out and creating support base for themselves and also try as much as they can to inculcate moral values into their children.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. There is need for educating people about family responsibility, as way of eradicating domestic violence among families.
  2. There should be advocacy and legislation on the abolition of all traditional practices that limit women’s access to credit, economic resources, property rights and right to inheritance.
  3. Gender Policies that state the strategies to improve women’s economic rights, should be made effective.
  4. Poverty reduction strategies should have substantive gender components. Hence, government should mainstream gender and rural women in the implementation of development initiative such development initiatives. All the programs for the development of rural areas and empowerment of rural dwellers should articulate the needs of rural women and allocate resources to address these needs as a matter of priority. By so doing, such policies like the NEEDS/SEEDS policy should as a matter of urgency recognize the contributions and situation of rural women and the implications of violence on rural women empowerment.
  5. There should be training for policy formulators on how gender dimensions be tackled and integrated into policy and how these gender dimensions be integrated within the MDG’s and the needs/seeds and made sustainable.
  6. Efforts to domesticate CEDAW and pass the Abolition of all forms of Discrimination Law and the Administration of Criminal Justice Law should be renewed. Hence, effective domestication of these laws should be decentralized and implemented at all levels of government.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Effects Of Domestic Violence On Child Mental Health

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.