The Effects Of Delays And Disruption On The Cost Of Building Construction Projects In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Enugu State)

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The Effects Of Delays And Disruption On The Cost Of Building Construction Projects In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Enugu State)


This project is purposely for determining the effects of delay and disruption on the cost of building construction project in Nigeria, ascertaining the cost, which aim at x-raying unnecessary delay and disruption in the normal processes of procuring and prosecuting building and civil engineering construction work at both pre-contract and post contract stages of construction. The factors that usually call for these delay and disruption in construction projects of the numerous project on the construction landscape and on the parties that are involved in carrying out the projects.

This study continued with elucidating what the Quantity Surveyor and the other parties involved in the construction process can do to eliminate delays and disruption in construction in Nigeria. According to this study, inadequate planning, incompetent project manager, variation in project scope, political factors, price fluctuation etc., contributes to the delays and disruption of building construction project and thereby affecting their cost also. Most of the proper majors are recommended for the elimination of delays and disruptions on construction project i.e Adequate pre-contract study, engaging competent construction professionals etc.

Table of Contents

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of study
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Delay and Disruption
  • 2.2 Construction Delay and Causes
  • 2.2.1 Why Construction Projects are delayed and Abandoned
  • 2.2.2 Common problems causing delay in construction
  • 2.2.3 Inadequate pre-contract study and Planning
  • 2.2.4 Award of Contract
  • 2.2.5 Variations
  • 2.2.6 Fluctuations
  • 2.2.7 Natural Disaster
  • 2.2.8 Poor Executive Capacity of the Contractor
  • 2.3 Cause of High Costs of Construction
  • 2.4 Time Over-Runs and Cost
  • 2.5 Delay and Disruption in Construction in Summary

Chapter Three


  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Area of Study
  • 3.3 Population of Study
  • 3.4 Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validity of an Instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Presentation and Analysis of Data or Result

  • 4.1 Results

Chapter Five

Discussion and Conclusion of Results

  • 5.1 Discussion of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion of the Study
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Implication of the Findings
  • 5.5 Suggestion for Further Study
  • 5.6 Limitation of Study
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Most town and cities in Nigeria are dotted with projects that are being delayed, disrupted, and uncompleted. Explanations giving for the stages of each buildings projects is varied and sometimes attributed to lack of financial, human and material resources with which to execute the projects. It is common in Nigeria especially now that the country is suffering from depression in the economy. It is often bad to see huge capital investments being disrupted and abandoned.

Any attempt to delay and disrupt a construction project, will have terrible consequences on every aspect of the nation’s activities which will be severe and unwelcome.

Delays and disruptive in construction has some effects on its cost and very retrogressive in a developing economy like Nigeria and needs to be properly addressed and tackled with all the courage and effort that we can muster.

1.2 Statement of Problem

One of the biggest problems associated with most of the construction projects in Nigeria today is problem of delays and disruptions at both the pre-contract and post-contract stages of construction in building and civil engineering works.

The cost of building increases at the cause of delays and disruption in construction because of variation. many construction project in Enugu needed huge capital outlay and time to execute them and any attempt to delaying and disrupting the construction proper will result to terrible consequences that will affect the economical control and building cost.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is as follows –

  1. To investigate into most delayed and disrupted construction projects
  2. To ascertain the effects of delays and disruptions on cost of building construction.
  3. To examine the effect of fluctuation in prices on construction projects costs.
  4. To examine the costs of delayed and disrupted construction project to clients, contractors, the professionals that are engaged and the nation, in particular Enugu state.
  5. To examine the effects of variation in design on construction project costs.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the causes of delays and disruptions in construction projects?
  2. What are the effects of delays and disruptions on building construction project cost?
  3. Do fluctuations in prices bring about changes in construction project cost?
  4. What the costs are of delayed and disrupted construction projects to the clients, contractors, the professionals that are engaged in the field?
  5. In what ways can variations in design affect construction cost?

1.5 The Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the most construction industry in Nigeria because once a project is initiated and manage properly it will eliminate high cost of procurement and a lot profit are involved.

Also this will help in planning and execution of future construction project executions, especially the quantity surveyor in the feasibility and planning stages of a proposed scheme and preparation of work method and schedules by the building manager.

The study also intend to bring together, the causes of construction delays and disruptions and also tries to ascertain the costs, which will help the construction firms, Engineers, Surveyors and construction managers to initialize and control their project without lost or poor management.

1.7 Definition of Terms

From the Oxford advanced learner’s English dictionary, delay implies the process or action of being slow being late or linger and also explain disruption as the action of making it difficult for something to proceed.


Delay in construction can be defined as an act whereby projects execution is slow or interrupted one time or the other, thereby leading to unnecessary extension in the programme of work from what was initially scheduled.


Disruption in construction projects can be defined as an act or sites partially or completely deserted at one time or the other for the reasons of certain exigencies which have resulted in prolonged delays which are not in accordance with the programme of work in use extension of time or postponement as initially scheduled.


The estimated amount of money that will be needed for something or the price that should be charged for something.

Also, it implies the effort, loss or damage that is involved in order to do or achieve something.


The process or method of building or making something, especially road, building, bridges etc.

Chapter Five

Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

The study concludes that there still exist a number of causes of delays and disruptions and their effects put construction projects at great risk that have an effect on their performance. These causes are: design changes, delays in payment to contractors, information delays, funding problems, poor project management, compensation issues and disagreement on the valuation of work done. Similarly the effects of these delays are: time overrun, cost overrun, negative social impact, idling resources and disputes.

It is therefore recommended that adequate construction budget, timely issuing of information, finalization of design and project management skills should be the main focus of the parties in project procurement process.

5.2 Recommendations:

Based on the findings of this research work, it becomes imperative, therefore to make the following recommendations:

  1. Clients should evaluate the quality performance of contractors before awarding a contract.
  2. All managerial levels should be participated with sensitive and important decision-making
  3. Continuous co-ordination and relationship between project participants are required through project life cycle in order to solve problems and ensure success of the project. Employees in construction industries should be more interested with belonging to work to productivity and success of project.
  4. Consultants should be more interested with design cost by using multi criteria analysis and choosing the most economic criteria in order to improve their performance.
  5. In addition, consultants are recommended to facilitate and quicken orders delivered to contractors to obtain better time performance and to minimize disputes and claims.
  6. Contractors should not increase the number of projects that cannot be executed successfully. In addition, contractors should consider political and environmental risk in their cost estimation in order to ensure success of a project.
  7. Also, contractors classified as incompetent should be identified for training. They should be trained through workshops on the various construction methods and contract administration. This will ensure the maintenance of a high standard of construction projects.
  8. A proper motivation and safety systems should be established for improvement of productivity and success of construction projects.
  9. Contractors are recommended to minimize waste rate through project implementation in order to improve cost performance. They should be more interested with conformance to project specification to overcome disputes.
  10. Contractors are recommended to be more interested with sequencing of work according to schedule.
  11. Contractors should come up with a clear plan and strategy before starting a project. Early project planning and scheduling of labour, equipment and cash, will help to ensure success and sustainable infrastructure.
  12. In addition, contractors should have a cost engineer in their projects to control cost successfully.
  13. There should be proper coordination and communication among various parties working on the project in order to improve management and a better control of the project.
  14. The construction industry should provide quality management guidelines and should be enforced by the consultants on projects. Stakeholders should be committed to quality management and adequate motivation should be given to workers.
  15. Much focus should be placed on the factors influencing construction management practice in order to enhance better construction performance and generate confidence within the construction industry.
  16. It is recommended to develop human resources in the construction industry through proper and continuous training programs about management of construction projects. These programs can update their knowledge and can assist them to be more familiar with construction management techniques and processes. In addition, it is preferred to develop and improve the managerial skills of engineers in order to improve success of construction projects. All of that can be implemented by offering effective and efficient training courses in scheduling, time, cost, quality, safety, productivity, information systems and management of human resources. These courses will lead to success delivery of construction projects such as availability of resources as planned through project duration, availability of personals with high experience and qualification, proper quality of equipments and raw materials used in project.
  17. Adequate construction management training should be given to employee in charge of projects; this would increase the knowledge of employees about different construction management tools and techniques available for appropriate choice. Also construction management professionals should be employed for proper and adequate application of construction management tools and techniques.
  18. Clients should set aside funding that is required for the completion of the project long before the contract is placed.
  19. Also, for sustainability of construction projects, the quality of materials used in construction projects must not be compromised.
  20. To ensure competence of the professionals in construction industry, the Nigeria society of Engineers (NSE), the Council for Relation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN), the Nigeria institute of building (NIOB), the Nigerian institute of Architects (NIA) and the government should jointly work together.

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