Effects Of Corruption On Local Government Administration In Nigeria
Nigeria operates a federal structure and powers are shared among the component units. This is indicative that local government is the third tier of government and is expected to be autonomous in the discharge of its duties. This was the essence of the various reforms at the grassroot governance, especially, the 1976 local government reform that among others recognised the council as a third tier of government and with powers to execute certain functions.However, after many years of experimenting with the local government system, scholars have expressed concern over the parlous state of local councils in Nigeria and the apparent disconnect between it and the lives of the people. Therefore, if anyone is to examine the reasons for Nigeria‟s underdevelopment and the state of the nation, one should visit the local councils (Nwaodike, 2013). Consequently, the councils have failed to deliver in its responsibilities.This non-performance can be traced to many factors such as corrupt practices, lack of local autonomy, and lack of qualified personnel/manpower among others. Most critical of these factors is corruption.
1.1 Background to the Study:
The general consensus among economists and policy analysts at the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other international agencies is that corruption is a universal problem, but with more debilitating effects felt in emerging and developing countries, such as those found in Africa, Asia and Middle East (Oyedoyin, 2012). In light of this Aluko (2009) opined that corruption is a global phenomenon and that, it is not the exclusive preserve of any nation, race or section of the world but transcends national boundaries and frontiers and symbolizes phenomenal universal unwholesomeness of political leadership.
In Nigeria corruption is a common word used by both adults and children because it is found in every aspect of Nigeria. This monster called corruption has now been nick named in most Nigerian languages especially in the three major languages! Ndokwu (2004) says: the Igbos call it Igbuozu, the Yorubas call it Egunje while the Hausas call it Chuachua. People no longer frown or feel ashamed to engage in corrupt practices! Chuachua/Egunje or Igbuozu is now acceptable and it is possible to hear someone openly complaining that there is no Chuachua, Egunje or Igbuozu at his or her place of work and as such a person might quickly resign if he or she finds another work where there is opportunity for Chuachua. It is as bad as that!
This menance has led to situations like slow movement of files in offices, police exortion of toll fees, port congestion, queues at passport offices and petrol stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, among others (Dike, 2005, Ihenacho, 2004, Oliyide and Odeku, 2002 and Oloja 2002 in Aluko, (2009).
Government officials further still corruptly enrich themselves by converting Government money in their custody to their own use, force citizens to pay bribe money, and citizens also induce the officials with bribes to get whatever they want from Government or company offices. Though corruption is found in every society, it is very common in Nigeria, and no one seems to be free from it either as a doer or as a victim.
The need to catalyze balanced development, maximize citizen’s participation, and arouse government responsive necessitates the creation of the local government. The local government serves as a form of political and administrative structure facilitating decentralization, national integration, efficiency in governance, and a sense of belonging at the grassroots. The local government is a unit of administration all over the world (Agagu, 2004). Although it is a universal institution, it however exists in different forms and in
different political systems. Whatever the form of existence, the local government has been essentially regarded as the path to and guarantor of administrative efficiency, effective service delivery and participatory development (Arowolo, 2005). It is a critical tier of government because of its closeness to the people (Gboyega, 1987). Local government appeals to both the people and government as a feedback institution that relays the opinions and demands of the grassroots to a higher government (Adejo, 2003).
Odey (2002) opined that corruption in Nigeria is as the air which every living person breathes in and out, According to him, nobody makes any effort to breathe in the air, it comes naturally. Corruption in Nigeria has become so naturalized that’ many of us simply become corrupt without making any effort and often even without knowing it. It is in light of this that the research is posed to examine the Effects of Corruption on Local Government Administration in Nigeria with a special reference to Alimosho Local Government Area (LGA).
1.2 Statement of Problem:
Empirical literature indicate that despite the establishment of various anti-corruption agencies like the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), and Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal(CCB) to wage war against corruption in Nigeria, its magnitude appears to be on the high side. Corruption has impaired hard work, diligence and efficiency. It has caused incalculable damages to the social and political development of Nigeria. It subverts honest selection processes and distorts prices. Furthermore, it weakens institutions, hampers investment and retards economic development. More importantly the resources that should be used for developmental purposes are being diverted from the society to private or personal use. This accumulation of the nation’s economic resources for personal benefits had variously contributed to the leakage of capital from Nigeria for illegal deposits abroad.
The prevalence of these activities in various aspects of our lives has a tremendous adverse effect on the quality of life of this country, our living standards and national psyche. Corruption brings a nation no good. The resources meant for water supply, roads, education, health and other basic and social services that are captured and stolen by a handful of Nigerians through corrupt acts stultify economic and social development hence creeping poverty all over the place (Ekwueru & Daminabo, 2008).
In other words, it has a crowding out effect on the growth and development of the country. It’s contributing effects on poverty and poor infrastructural development is the more worrying. Nevertheless the extents of these negative effects are yet to be measured and quantified. It is against this background that this study is inspired. The study intends to examine the extent and the magnitude of the effect of Corruption on Local Government Administration in Nigeria and draw up policy recommendations for the eradication of Corruption in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study:
The major objective of this study is to examine the effect of Corruption on Local Government administration in Nigeria. Other specific objectives include;
- To assess the effect of corruption on local government administration in Nigeria.
- To investigate the effect of bribery and corruption on community service delivery in Alimosho Local Government Area.
- To examine the effect of corruption on council’s tax revenue generation.
- To find out if poor salary scheme promotes corruption in Alimosho LGA.
- To find out the effect of corruption on economic growth and development in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions:
The undertaking of this research project will beam a searchlight on the following research questions;
- What is the effect of corruption on local government administration in Nigeria?
- What is the effect of bribery and corruption on community service delivery in Alimosho Local Government Area?
- What is the effect of fraud on council’s tax revenue generation?
- Does Poor salary scheme promotes corruption in Alimosho LGA?
1.5 Research Hypotheses:
The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance;
- Ho: There is no significant effect of corruption on local government administration in Nigeria.
- Hi: There is a significant effect of corruption on local government administration in Nigeria.
- Ho: Bribery and corruption has no effect on community service delivery in Alimosho Local Government Area.
- Hi: Bribery and corruption has an effect on community service delivery in Alimosho Local Government Area.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between fraud and council’s tax revenue generation.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between fraud and council’s tax revenue generation.
1.6 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into chapters, five chapters to be specific. The idea is to enhance good comprehension and allow a flow of harmony in reading. Also, it is a requirement by the school authority. The first chapter gives an overview and a background to the study. The problem statement, objectives, hypotheses and scope were clearly highlighted in this chapter as well as the study’s significance. The second chapter reviewed related and relevant literatures. It recognized the works and academic contribution on the subject carried out by authors, researchers and scholars. The third chapter explains the methodology adopted for this study. The pattern of data analysis employed as well as the methods of data collection was also explained in this chapter. The fourth chapter presented the data collected in facts and figures. This chapter gave a scientific approach to the study’s hypotheses which assisted the student in decision making. Finally, the fifth chapter drew a conclusion to the study, giving a vivid summary and possible recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine the effects of corruption on Local Government Administration in Nigeria.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in examining the effects of corruption on Local Government Administration in Nigeria.
This study was undertaken to examine the effects of corruption on Local Government Administration in Nigeria. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the chi-square statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.
5.3 Conclusions and Recommendations
Corruption is on the increase in Nigeria’s local government and this were the manifestation of bad leadership at the state level and has transcended to the local government. This has affected and therefore reduced the status of the councils to mere servant and appendages of the state government. Mere visit of some of these local governments shows that little or nothing is happening in terms of developmental projects, public servants are not accountable to the people, democratic values are eroded, human, manpower and capacity building suffers, delay in payment of salaries and allowances, over burden of the councils with primary school education and insecurity become the order of the day. These socio-political underdevelopments were as result of corrupt practices at this level of government.
The study therefore, recommend that, all illegal deductions often made by the state government from the local government funds should stop. This means that State Joint Local Government Account often regarded as Joint Allocation Account should be scrapped, and all statutory allocations to councils be credited to them directly. This demands that Section 162 (5, 6, 7 and 8) of the 1999 constitution of Nigeria as amended should be amended to guarantee direct access of the proceeds from the statutory allocations to the local governments. Again, the 5% share of the original 20% statutory allocation for the local governments should be preserved for the primary school teachers‟ salaries and allowances and be paid directly (as the first line charge) from the Federation Account through the Universal Basic Education Commission.
In this regard, the fiscal allocation should be restructured to reflect this change. This will guarantee speedy payment of primary school teachers‟ salaries and allowances as well as promote effective and efficient primary school education.
Anti-corrupt agencies should extend their search light to the third tier of government, while corrupt public servantsand governors who siphoned local government funds should be prosecuted during and after their term in office to serve as deterrent to others.
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